The thuja tree is one of the most widely used crops for enclosing a site by creating natural hedges. These plants grow very quickly and after three or four years after planting they are able to create a dense living fence, safely covering the territory of the backyard garden from prying eyes. In addition to this, thuja are completely unpretentious, so the cultivation of these trees will not take much strength from the gardener.
Thuja Conifer Tree (Thuja) belongs to the family of cypress (Cupressaceae). The genus unites 5-6 species found in North America and East Asia. One type - arbor vitae (Th. Orientalis), or biota (Biota), is divided into a separate genus - Platycatus - Platycladus.
With photos, names and botanical descriptions of thujas, as well as recommendations for growing these trees, you can find on this page.
Botanical description of the thuja tree
All Tui are evergreen trees with a pin-shaped (round-pyramidal) crown shape. The branches are flexible, separated from the trunk or raised. The branches are more or less flattened. The bark is light brown, peeling flaps. The fibrous bark of the giant thuja was used by the Indians for weaving and weaving ropes. When writing all types of tui, it is worth noting the value of their wood that is resistant to rotting. Therefore, this raw material is widely used in the woodworking industry.
The needles of adult plants of natural forms are only scaly, pressed to the branches. The location of the needles opposite. Sprouts always have needle needles, young plants and varieties can have any type of needles, including mixed ones.
Male "flowers" are very small, solitary, apical, oval-rounded. Female - solitary, ovate or oblong.
Look at the photo - the cones near the thuja tree are small, ovate or oblong, with leathery, more or less revealing scales:
Seeds ripen in the first year, but the cones are kept on the branches for at least two years.
All types of thuja are cold-resistant, but not all are fairly cold-resistant. We want to draw your attention to the most winter-hardy species.
Below are photos and descriptions of popular types of tui.
Popular species and varieties of Tui: photos, titles and description
Thuja koraiensis - Thuja Korean.
The name of this type of tui is given because of the natural range of distribution - trees grow in the forests of Korea. Wide shrub or low tree. The branches are rare and almost horizontal. The branches are wide, flat. Scaly needles, triangular-ovoid, tightly pressed to the branches, dark green above and almost white below.
As can be seen in the photo, this species of tui cones are small, ovate-elliptical, 8-10 mm long, brown:
Seeds are winged, 4 mm long. Mature in the first year. Very spectacular plant, significantly different from other types of thujas.
When describing a thuja tree of this species, it is worth noting its relative frost resistance, but note that in areas with a harsh climate, this species turns into a dwarf squat shrub.
This species of thuja does not have varietal forms, and experience in growing species plants is minimal.
Thuja occidentalis - Thuja western.
It grows in forests on the north coast of North America.
Evergreen tree with a pin-shaped crown height up to 20 m.
The branches are short, horizontally spaced from the trunk.
The branches are flattened. The bark is brown, peeling thin patches. Scaly needles, up to 4 mm long, pressed to the branches. The location of the needles opposite. Male "flowers" are very small, solitary, apical.
Female - single, ovoid. Cones are small, ovoid, light brown; leathery scales, more or less falling out. Seeds are winged, 4 mm long. Mature in the first year.
Recommended photos and names of varieties of the western species of tui:
The thuja western is the main coniferous plant with scaly needles, widely introduced into the gardens of the northern temperate and cold zones. A huge and incredibly diverse assortment of cultivars allows you to use it in any garden compositions. Thuja western - the best coniferous material for the creation of hedges and curly hairstyle in the northern gardens.
Thuja occidentalis Brobeck's Tower.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Very dense, columnar shape. The needles are scaly, green, Annual increments within 5-8, see Fully frost-resistant. It is advisable to tie the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis Caespitosa.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Flattened, pillow shape. A few years after planting, it can push a short lead in the vertical direction.
Pay attention to the photo - the needles of this variety of western species of thuja are scaly, green, hard:
Annual increments within 5 cm. Fully frost resistant. It is advisable to tie the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis danica
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Spherical shape, Needles scaly, green. Annual increments within 5 cm. Fully frost resistant. It is advisable to bind the branches in the winter time in order to avoid breaking them and flattening with snow,
Thuja occidentalis Elwangeriana Aurea.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Spherical shape. Scaly needles, light green-golden. Annual growth of this variety of tui within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant, It is desirable to bind the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis filiformis.
Dwarf variety of western thuja. Pyramid shape. The needles are scaly, threadlike and spiral, lime. Annual increments 10-15, see Fully frost-resistant.
Thuja occidentalis Golden Tuffet.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Spherical shape, Needles scaly, green. The name of this variety of thuja is given due to the fact that in late autumn the needles acquire a juicy golden-bronze color. Annual increments within 5 cm. Fully frost resistant. It is desirable to bind the branches in the winter, in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis Hoveyi.
Dwarf variety of western thuja. Dense, round shape.
As can be seen in the photo, the needles of this variety are thuya scaly, green:
Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant. It is advisable to tie the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis Malonyana Holub - a unique, very popular variety of western thuja.
It has three different forms of growth and can go on sale in the form of a spiral, the most common, as well as two more rare forms - pyramidal and fatigiatnoy. The branches of all forms are irregular, chaotically located on the trunk. The needles are scaly, dark green, rigid. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.
Thuja occidentalis Miky.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Pyramid shape. The needles are scaly, green. Annual increments within 5, see Fully frost-resistant. It is advisable to tie the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis Sunkist.
Dwarf variety of western thuja. Broadly pyramid form. The needles are light green, turning yellow in late spring. Annual increments 10-15, see Fully frost-resistant.
Thuja occidentalis Show Tip.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Round shape. The needles are green, belobonchikovaya. Annual increments of 4-6, see. It is desirable to bind the branches in the winter time in order to avoid breaking them and flattening with snow.
Thuja occidentalis Smaragd.
Dwarf variety of western thuja. Broadly pyramid form. The needles are scaly, green. Annual increments within 15, see. When describing this variety of thuja, it is worth noting its high frost resistance. In the first years after planting, it is desirable to bind the branches in winter in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis Spiralis Mini.
Column-shaped variety of western thuja. Most often grows in several equivalent trunks. The needles are scaly, green, soft. Annual increments within 5, see. It is advisable to bind the branches in the winter time in order to avoid breaking them and flattening with snow.
Mini-grade of a thuja western. Round shape. Scaly needles, small, fragile, Annual increments within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant, It is desirable to bind the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Thuja occidentalis zmatlik - dense columnar variety of western thuja.
The needles are scaly, green. Annual increments within 8 cm. Fully frost resistant. It is advisable to tie the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
These photos show the thuja trees, which are described above:
Thuja plicata - Thuja folded, or giant.
It grows in the west of North America. A large evergreen tree, reaching in nature a height of 30-60 m with a trunk thickness of up to 4 m. Crohn's wide-point-like. The branches are wide and unevenly spaced from the trunk. Twigs compressed or flat, two-line, tightly alternately sessile. The needles are scaly, cross-opposite. Cones on short branches, oblong-ovate-rounded, about 12 mm long. Seeds bilaterally winged. Mature in the first year. It is cold-resistant, but regularly freezes in severe winters. In the northern gardens never reaches the size of a large tree.
Thuja folded - the largest representative of the genus. It has numerous varietal forms. Unfortunately, due to poor frost resistance in the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia, this type of tui is not very promising. Single garden cultivars are grown.
So, in the garden of one of the authors, already for the 9 years, the thuja folded (Thuja plicata) Kornik variety has been growing quite safely. In the first years after landing, she regularly had frost growths of the current year. But after 3 years passed, after complete rooting, frost freezing stopped. In winter, in order to preserve the inherent form of this variety, the binding of branches is recommended. Also in the gardens of other gardeners near Moscow, there are good results on the cultivation of Whipcord.
The recommended grade of a thuja a folded - Thuja plicata Kornik.
In the early years, the dwarf thuja folded variety has a rounded shape, with age it becomes a wide pyramidal tree. The needles are green. In late spring, the ends of the outgoing shoots turn golden. Annual gains 12-15, see. Conditionally frost-resistant, can be particularly affected in the first years after planting. It is advisable to tie the branches in the winter time in order to avoid their breaking and flattening by snow.
Here you can see photos of Tui, the description of which is presented on this page:
Growing conditions for tui in the backyard garden
Now that you have read the photos, names and descriptions of species and varieties of thujs, it’s time to learn about the agricultural practices of their cultivation in the backyard garden.
Tui - one of the most unpretentious conifers. They are able to grow in almost any conditions, but for better development they need to comply with basic agrotechnical requirements.
When growing and caring for thujas, do not forget that they are light-requiring, but rather shade-tolerant, so most of the varieties remain decorative when they are in the shade. The dense-acusty varieties in the shade become more friable, golden-colored forms lose their brightness.
All trees of this genus prefer fertile loamy soil, but quite successfully grow on poor sandy loams. Cultivation of thuja dwarf dense couscous varieties is desirable to produce on relatively poor soils, since with “overfeeding” they grow too fast and lose their shape.
When growing thuy in the garden, take care of plant nutrition. On poor soils top dressing is obligatory. Mature plants have a strong, branched root system and practically do not need enhanced nutrition. Feed should be fed in the spring after melting snow on wet ground with complex or combined mineral granulated fertilizer. Fresh manure and feces are not allowed.
Thuja transfer is easy. It is better to carry it out in spring or early summer, but in the presence of a formed root ball, summer and autumn transplantation is quite possible. Slight penetration of the root collar is quite acceptable, and even for dense bush forms. It is desirable to repot large specimens only after creating a dense root coma. To do this, the roots for 3-6 months before the intended transplant are deeply incised, digging in the plant around the crown circumference.
An important condition for growing tui is careful watering. These trees are moisture-loving to the extent that they are able to grow in areas with close groundwater. Adult, well-developed plants are relatively drought-resistant. After a hot dry summer, the thuja fruits abundantly, which is why next year the crown becomes friable and spoils the look of the plants.
The frost resistance of species is different. Adults thuis are more resistant to frost than younger ones. The most frost-resistant Thuja occidentalis is western thuja. Multiple varieties before winter should be lightly tied with wire or twine to prevent the crown from "breaking" from heavy wet snow. During the care when growing thujas in the garden, dense crowns of columnar and pyramidal varieties should preferably be fixed with a tie throughout the year. In the spring for a uniform awakening of the plants, it is recommended to water them abundantly and spray them.
In the northern conditions, thuja are the undisputed leaders in creating compositions of small gardens, mixborders and rockeries. A huge number of different varieties allows you to use them truly universal: for solitary and group planting and wings, for the formation of hedges and curly hairstyle. At the same time, in the more southern regions and even more so in the subtropics, thujs are rarely used, since they are replaced by more attractive cypresses and cypress trees.
Methods of reproduction of thuya seeds, layering and cuttings (with video)
Thuys are very easy to propagate both vegetatively and seeds. Seed propagation gives a strong, high-quality material, but does not guarantee compliance with the variety. Only a few varieties to a rather large extent repeat the maternal characteristics, the majority of varieties form hybrids and forms close to natural ones. Vegetative reproduction of the thuy - the main breeding varietal thujas. The ease of rooting of different varieties varies considerably.
Seed reproduction. For reproduction of thuya seeds, it is advisable to use fresh inoculum harvested in the autumn, since germination is lost after a year in warm storage. To extend it to 15 or more years, the seeds should be kept in an airtight container at a constant temperature (0 ... + 5ᵒC) and humidity.
Seeds of tui have a "sleeping" germ. Cold stratification during 2-3 months is necessary for its awakening.
For thuy growing, seeds are sown at the beginning of winter in boxes or flat dishes in a clean, light mixture consisting of rotted leafy ground, peat and coarse sifted sand in the ratio 3: 1: 1 .. After sowing, seeds are stored in a refrigerator or basement at + 3 ... + 5ᵒC for 2-3 months, while maintaining moderate substrate moisture.
Then they are exposed to light in a warm (+ 18 ... + 23 ° C) place where they germinate. Shoots need protection from direct sunlight and moderate watering. If the seedlings are excessively thick, then a pick is necessary. Seedlings unpretentious and develop quite quickly. Before planting young seedlings in the ridge, they are gradually accustomed to the sun and fresh air. If seedlings cannot be transplanted into the ground, they can safely survive the winter in boxes. Transplants are easily tolerated, including repeated ones.
Varietal signs of thuja are determined already in the early stage of seedling development. The variegated and golden-leaved forms appear at the stage of the emergence of the first leaves. Some seedlings always have juvenile needle needles, which with age can persist or disappear, reborn into scaly. The shape of the crown is evident only in the 3-4 year of life.
For thuja, you can use one of three methods of vegetative propagation.
Division. Effective for multi-stem compact varieties, mainly with spherical, ovate and broad-pyramidal crown shape. It is advisable to propagate this method young copies.
To provoke root formation, plants are spud or planted with a burial in 5-15, see. The operation can be performed throughout the summer. If you do it in the spring, the roots are formed by the fall, if in the summer - by the beginning of the summer of next year.
Plants that have formed additional roots on shoots covered with earth are dug up and divided into independent specimens. Old, basic plant roots can be removed or saved as desired.
Horizontal Lines. This method does not guarantee the preservation of the typical form of the crown. In some cases, several crooked plants are obtained from rooted branches, and only with good care after a few years do they acquire their typical crown shape. When reproduction of thuy by layering, the branch of the parent plant is bent to the ground and slightly instilled, rooting of the thuy occurs during the year.
Cuttings. All species reproduce quite easily by cuttings. The roots of cuttings from young varietal plants form well, especially if they are cultivars with a densely compact and spherical form of the crown. Extremely easy rooting cuttings taken from plants with juvenile (needle) needles.
Mixture for grafting should be loose, well breathable. Perlite, vermiculite, sour peat or finely chopped sifted pine bark are added to the large washed sand.
The optimal breeding period for thuja cuttings is spring before or at the beginning of the awakening of the kidneys. Summer cutting is also possible after the end of the first wave of growth and hardening of young growths, but in this case the cuttings do not have time to form the roots and can freeze in winter.
For cutting cuttings take short side branches, preferably with a "heel". They are fixed in the substrate without turning the back side up. When growing thuy from cuttings, the temperature is maintained at the level of 20-23ᵒ С (in spring cutting, until the buds start to bud, it should be somewhat lower - 15-18 ° С) and ensure that the substrate is not over-moistened. It is possible to use rooting stimulants in strict compliance with the attached instructions.
Well-established plants overwinter without shelter. Weakly rooted cuttings can winter only in bright cool rooms.
Watch the video “Reproduction of Tui” to better understand how to grow these trees: