The hemlock tree is the most important element of the ecosystem of the east North American coast, where entire industries function on the basis of the use of this plant. For example, wood of Canadian hemlock is an excellent raw material not only for the pulp and paper industry, but also for cosmetology, as well as the medical field. In addition, the use of cultures with a small-needle crown in landscape design is widely practiced.
Plant Hemlock (Tsuga) It belongs to the Pine family (Pinaceae). The genus is represented, according to various data, by 14-18 species growing in temperate latitudes of North America and East Asia. The first known specimens of science of these plants were found in North America in the XVIII century and attributed to the genus Pikhta. Subsequently, similar plants were found in Japan, where they received the local name "hemlock", which then spread to all members of the genus.
In this article you will find a botanical description of the Canadian hemlock and tree care in the garden.
Botanical description of the hemlock tree
Most often, tsugi are high evergreen trees, but, depending on growing conditions, can be short. Thus, within the same species, adult plants are from 6 to 60 m tall, while maintaining the correct form of the crown. All tsugi have straight slender trunks up to 1 m thick with a trunk height of 30 m and a more or less pyramidal crown shape. In describing the hemlock, it is worth noting that the branches of the tree are unevenly and horizontally separated from the trunk, the ends of the branches and the young growths are rather thin and slightly hanging down, which gives the plants a unique look.
As can be seen in the photo, the needles of the hemlock are small, needle-like, flattened, shiny, dark green above and bluish below:
Male "inflorescences" are located in the axils of the needles of last year's shoots. Cones look like spruce, but very small. Ripen in the first year.
All types of hemlock are extremely decorative. Many high-mountainous species of East Asia are poorly studied and rare, not only in culture, but also in nature.
These are amazingly elegant plants, and this feature is highly appreciated by designers. In landscape design, tsugi are most often planted in groups of groves, but they look even more spectacular in compositions with plants that have dense leathery leaves — evergreen rhododendrons, magonies and similar species. Dwarf varieties are very popular for planting in rockeries, "weeping" forms look spectacular if they are landed on the borders of retaining walls and the branches will hang from them.
Further you will be able to get acquainted with the photo and description of varieties of hemlock Canadian:
Canadian Tsugi varieties (tsuga canadensis) and use in landscape design
Canadian hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) - the only widespread species in culture. In nature, it grows in the humid mountain forests of North America from the Hudson Strait to California. Most often settles in the company of pines, spruces and fir.
The most important thing in describing the Canadian hemlock is the majesty of the tree and the elegance that is wonderfully combined with this quality. These evergreens reach heights up to 65. Crohn's pyramid with uneven and horizontally spaced boughs and hanging ends of branches and young growths.
Pay attention to the photo - the Canadian hemlock has young branches densely covered with yellow or gray-brown hairs:
Needles needle, small, flattened, shiny, dark green above and bluish below. Cones on a short scape, drooping, ovoid, blunt, 15-20 long mm. Seeds ripen in the first year, but the cones do not fall off. There are many varietal varieties of Canadian hemlock (tsuga canadensis), with most cultivars having dwarf growth or heavily hanging branches. Especially spectacular varieties with white young growth, giving the plants openwork and lightness. For a long time, Jeddeloh was considered the only widespread variety in the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia, but in the last 7-8 years, Canadian hemlock varieties have become very popular and in demand in middle-range gardens.
Recommended varieties of Canadian tsugi for landscape design:
Tsuga canadensis Aurea. Dwarf variety Canadian tsugi. Vase form. The branches are pointed, falling. Green-golden needles, Annual increments within 15 cm. Fully frost-resistant. Recommended landing in the penumbra.
Tsuga canadensis Cole's Prostrate. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Creeping form. The branches are pointed, fall as soon as they depart from the trunk. The needles are green, soft. Annual increments within 5-7 cm, Fully frost-resistant. Recommended planting in the sun, as this variety is fully tolerant to the sun.
Tsuga canadensis Essex. A micro-variety of Canadian tsugi. Round-oval shape. Needles - small, green-blue. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant. The hemlock tsuga canadensis Essex is very slowly increasing. Recommended for planting in partial shade.
Tsuga canadensis Gentch White. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Rounded flattened shape. The branches are pointed. The needles are green, belobonchikovaya. 5-7 annual increments, see Fully frost-resistant,
Tsuga canadensis Horstmann 3. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Rounded, flattened, fan-shaped form. The branches are pointed. Dark green needles, Annual gains 3-5 cm, Fully frost-resistant, recommended landing in partial shade.
Tsuga canadensis Hussi. Dwarf variety Canadian tsugi. Vase form. The branches are pointed, falling. The needles are green. Annual increments within 15, see Fully frost-resistant, recommended planting in partial shade.
Tsuga canadensis Jeddeloh. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Rounded, flattened, fan-shaped form. The branches are pointed, falling, Needles are green, soft. Annual increments within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant.
Tsuga canadensis Moll. Dwarf variety Canadian tsugi. Round cascade form. The branches are pointed, falling. The needles are green. Annual increments 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant. Recommended planting in the sun, as this variety is completely tolerant to the sun,
Tsuga canadensis Nana. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Rounded, flattened, fan-shaped form. The branches are pointed. The needles are dark green. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant. Recommended landing in the penumbra.
Tsuga canadensis Popeleski. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Rounded, flattened, fan-shaped form. The branches are pointed, Needles are dark green. Annual increments 3-5 cm, Fully frost-resistant. Recommended landing in the penumbra.
Tsuga canadensis Stockmann Dwarf. Canadian hemlock mini-variety, Rounded-flattened, fan-shaped. The branches are pointed. The needles are dark green. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant. Recommended landing in the penumbra.
Tsuga canadensis Verkade Recurved. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Flattened, tiered form. The branches have a horizontal direction of growth. Very brittle. The needles are green, tough. Annual gains 6-8, see Fully frost-resistant, recommended planting in partial shade.
Tsuga canadensis von helm. Canadian hemlock mini-variety. Rounded, flattened, fan-shaped form. The branches are pointed, falling, Needles are green, soft, Annual increments within 5, see Fully frost-resistant.
These photos show the varieties of Canadian xsugs, which are described above:
Growing coniferous plants hemlock
Dhugi - shade-tolerant plants. Even in group plantings and some thickening, they retain their decorative effect.
For successful growing conifers hemlock plants should be loose and fertile. In northern conditions, it is desirable to grow them on well aerated sandy soils, on which they spend the best winter.
Having a powerful, branched root system, adult specimens do not need additional feeding. Young plants can be fed in the spring after the snow has melted on damp ground with diluted complex or combined mineral fertilizer. Transplantation is best done in the spring - at the beginning of the summer before the bud breaks, because plants with actively growing shoots root poorly. Autumn planting is undesirable. Deepening of the root collar should be avoided. Young plants tolerate transplanting easily. Large specimens can be transplanted only after preliminary preparation of the root ball.
Dhugi are moisture-loving, but do not tolerate stagnant groundwater. Mature, well-developed trees are relatively drought-resistant.
Trees easily tolerate a haircut. Forming more compact copies of Canadian hemlock when you can, you can trim the branches and young growths throughout the season.
The frost resistance of both natural and varietal forms of Canadian hemlock is relative - it freezes out in frosty winters in open places. The success of wintering depends on the selected variety. The most hardy natural varieties. At high snow cover, dwarf forms well winter. Tall varieties with falling branches overwinter badly. Adult specimens are more resistant to frost than younger ones. Wintering takes place most favorably in places shaded from the sun and hidden from the wind.
The following is a description of the care of tsugami when grown from seeds and cuttings.
Seed and vegetative propagation of hemlock
The hemlock is propagated by seed and vegetative means.
Seed reproduction. Tsug seeds are not able to germinate immediately, as they have a “dormant” germ. Cold stratification is necessary for his awakening. At the end of winter, the seeds are mixed with coarse clean, slightly wet sand, sawdust and placed in plastic bags that are stored in a refrigerator or basement at 3 + 5 ° С for 3-4 months. Seeds are also sown in boxes or bowls filled with loose earth. During the 1-2 weeks, the crops are kept warm and then removed for the desired period of time in the cold, maintaining a constant, moderate humidity of the substrate and avoiding temperature fluctuations.
After the end of the stratification period, those seeds that were stored in bags are washed and sown in boxes or plates and exposed to light at + 18 ... + 23 С. They sprout during 1-2 months. Shoots need diffused light and moderate watering, if they are excessively dense, then pick. Normally developing crops in the event of the onset of heat are carried into the garden, gradually accustomed to the sun and fresh air, and planted in the ridge.
Vegetative reproduction. As with other conifers, horizontal cuts do not guarantee the preservation of the typical crown shape. With this method, rooting of heath occurs over 1-2 years. To transfer the branch to its own roots, separating it from the mother plant, preferably gradually.
Cuttings. All tsugi quite easily propagated by cuttings.
The cuttings are carried out in early spring and summer, removing short side branches with a “heel” from the mother plant for this purpose.
Chopped cuttings are fixed at an angle of 60-70 degrees in a loose, well-aerated substrate consisting of clean coarse sand with the addition of perlite, vermiculite, sour peat or finely chopped sifted coniferous bark. At the same time it is impossible to turn the branches with the back side up.
To succeed, you need high humidity, moderate humidity of the substrate (it should never be excessively wet), an even "room" temperature and sufficient, but diffused light. When spring grafting, you must first maintain the temperature + 15 ... + 18 ᵒС until the buds start to bloom, and then raise it to + 20 ... + 23 С. Excellent results when rooting TSUG gives a weak heating of the soil.
Well-established plants overwinter without shelter. For poorly rooted or live unrooted cuttings arrange air-dry shelter.