Becker RU
Becker RU

Apple tree: description, use and best varieties

Everyone is familiar with the description of an apple tree: perhaps it is impossible to find at least one person who would not have an idea about this fruit crop and would not enjoy its fruits. There are also decorative varieties of apple trees, which not only excellently bear fruit, but are also used to decorate the garden. These trees include the columnar forms that have become popular in recent years, and ordinary trees with an interesting crown.

Apple is not only the main fruit crop, but also a leader in the decorative use of fruit trees. Apple is the most ancient fruit crop. Scientists believe that the apple tree was introduced to the culture in ancient Greece as far back as the 4th century BC.

In the gardens of central Russia, an apple tree appeared in the 16th century. And already in the first half of the XVII century 60 cultivated varieties were described, some of which are known today, for example, Calvil white.

With photos and descriptions of the best varieties of apple trees you can find on this page.

Botanical description of an apple tree

In nature, according to various sources, there are up to 50 species of apple trees. This genus belongs to the Rosaceae family and is represented by trees and shrubs growing in temperate and subtropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

The large-fruited apple tree, which we cultivate for the sake of a valuable crop, is commonly called apple tree home (Malus domestica).

This species is not found in nature, all its varieties are obtained by hybridization apple trees low (M. pumila), forest apple (M. sylvestris), apple berry и apple subslippin (M. prunifolia).

As for the botanical description of an apple tree, it is a tree in height from 2 to 8. The size of the tree depends on the variety and on the rootstock. The crown of this fruit crop consists of a small number of thick skeletal branches, more numerous branches of different orders of branching, as well as overgrown branches, on which fruiting takes place.

There are different types of overgrown branches. Annual twigs are divided by length: the longest (15 cm and more) - fruit twigs; medium sized (about 10 cm long) - lance; and very short (up to 3 cm) - collar. Biennial and older annals are called fetuses; they have very small annual growth and can branch.

Also, when describing decorative apple trees, it is worth noting that they are fruiting on a certain type of overgrowing twigs. For breeding decorative crowns are suitable varieties in which fruiting occurs on kolchatka.

Flower bud in the home apple tree always occupies the apical position.

Among the fruit crops, the flowers of the apple tree are one of the largest - more than 3 cm in diameter. In addition, the flowers have a pleasant aroma.

Apple fruits have a rounded or slightly elongated shape, can be of different size and color.

Tastes of fruits in different varieties also vary considerably. Varieties that ripen in the summer and early autumn period are used fresh - as a rule, they are not stored.

Varieties of autumn and winter consumption ripen almost at the same time - from mid-September to mid-October. They can be stored under suitable conditions from 1-2 months to spring, respectively.

Use of apple trees in the garden

Apple tree is easier to friend crops yielding. The plasticity of the culture allows you to remove any form of crown. It can be used in all types of landings. The greatest decoration is achieved during the flowering period.

Flowers at the apple are very numerous. The color of the petals may be snow-white and pinkish, and if the flowers in the bud are pink, and when blooming - white, the tree looks even more elegant.

The fruits of the apple are also wonderful. They can be varied in color and shape. And since the time of their maturation is different, garden decoration lasts from mid-summer to mid-October. Of course, if the varieties are selected in the right way.

Obtaining apple seedlings for an ornamental garden is difficult - special low-growing stocks are needed. Apple trees on seed stock for removing decorative forms are practically not suitable.

With seed reproduction, signs of the mother plant are not preserved. In addition, the trees are likely to grow vigorous, and the first fruiting will have to wait about 10 years.

Therefore, to use apple trees in the garden, you must purchase ready seedlings in a nursery or in a specialized center. It is important that these plants are grown in the same climatic (natural) zone where your garden is located.

The following are photos and descriptions of summer, autumn and winter apple trees used for decorative decoration of the garden.

The best varieties of apple trees for the garden

The following varieties of apple trees are most suitable for decorative use, the photo and description of which is offered below.

The best summer varieties of apple trees are considered Red early, Orlov and Eubilian.

Red early - early summer variety

Small tree with a rounded crown. Leaves are light green or yellowish. The flowers are medium size, white. Fruits are medium-sized, of the same size, bright red, juicy, tender, with creamy flesh.

This summer variety of apple trees is good for forming round shapes.

Advantages: slightly affected by scab. High precocity. Fruiting annually.

In some winters, trees can freeze. The variety is characterized by showered fruits when ripe.

Orlov - summer variety

Medium, fast growing tree. Leaves are light green, dull. The flowers are large, slightly pinkish.

Fruits are medium sized, slightly greenish with a blurry blush and bright red stripes. The flesh is creamy, very juicy, sweet-sour, aromatic.

When describing this summer apple variety, it is worth noting such advantages as high resistance to scab, precociousness and high yield.

Hero of the Day - immune scab late summer

Medium-growth, fast-growing tree. The leaves are large, wrinkled.

As seen in the photo, this summer apple variety has medium-sized fruits, greenish-yellow with touches and raspberry specks:

The flesh is tender, sweet and sour.

Advantages: regular fruiting, high yield.

Autumn varieties.

Uslada - early autumn variety

Small tree with a rounded crown. Fruits are medium in size, most of them covered with a bright crimson blush. The flesh is white, juicy, sour sweet, slightly aromatic.

When describing this autumn variety of apple trees, it is worth noting such advantages as winter hardiness, soon fruitfulness, poorly affected by scab. But keep in mind that the eort has a tendency to thicken the crown.

Marat Busurin - autumn variety

A tree with a spreading crown, natural semi-dwarf. The leaves are yellowish-green. The flowers are large, pinkish. Fruits are larger than average size, greenish-yellow with purple-red stripes, juicy, with white flesh, excellent taste. This is one of the best varieties for flat crowns.

Advantages: very high winter hardiness, precociousness, regular fruiting, high resistance to scab.

Freshness - immune to scab from late autumn maturity. The tree is a fast growing, medium size, with a rounded crown. The leaves are large, dark green. Buds white and pink.

Look at the photo - the flowers of this autumn variety of apple trees are pink, medium size:

Fruits are larger than medium-sized, greenish-yellow, mostly covered with blurred strokes of red. The flesh is greenish, dense, good taste.

Advantages: relative rapidity, high yield.

Sun - late scaly variety immune to scab

Small trees with a rounded crown. The leaves are shiny, medium size. Flowers are medium-sized, light pink. The fruits of this autumn variety of apple trees are medium-sized, crimson in color, with thick creamy flesh.

Advantages: high winter hardiness and yield.

Multivitamin - late autumn cultivar variety

Medium-growth tree with wide crown. The leaves are large. All fruits are larger than average size, golden yellow with red strokes on most of the fruit. The flesh is creamy, very juicy, aromatic.

Advantages: high winter hardiness, relative resistance to scab.

The variety is characterized by showered fruits after ripening.

The best winter varieties of apple trees include Antonovka, Bogatyr, Bolotovskoe, Venyaminovskoe, Imrus and Moscow Jubilee.

Antonov obıknovennaya - a well-known variety of folk breeding winter ripening

This is a strong-growing tree with bright green leaves. The flowers are large, with a pinkish tinge. All fruits are larger than medium-sized, greenish-yellow without a blush, sweet-acid, fragrant.

Advantages: high winter hardiness and environmental plasticity. This winter apple variety is highly resistant to scab. The shelf life of the fruit - until January.

It gives high yields in a year, and in more humid areas the high yield of the tree alternates with the weak. Needs varieties of pollinators.

Bogatyr - grade of winter term of maturing

Vigorous tree with a spreading crown. The leaves are dark, dense. Small flowers, white and pink. Fruits are large, flat-rounded, light green with a blurred blush, sweet and sour, with dense flesh.

Advantages: high winter hardiness and low susceptibility scab. Annual fruiting.

Bolotovskoe - immune to scab grade winter maturity

Not too tall trees with large wrinkled leaves. The buds are pink, white flowers.

Pay attention to the photo - all the fruits of this winter variety of apple trees are larger than the average size, greenish-yellow with a red blush:

Fruits are juicy, sweet and sour. Trees are well suited for forming rounded crowns.

Advantages: the branches of the tree are relatively rare, so the crown does not thicken.

When describing this variety of winter apple trees, it is important to note that these trees are characterized by the precipitation of fruits after ripening.

Venyaminovskoe - immune to scab grade winter maturity

Large trees with a rounded crown. The leaves are dark green, shiny. The buds are light pink. The flowers are pinkish, medium size. Fruits are medium in size, almost completely covered with raspberry blush, juicy, with white flesh.

Advantages: high winter hardiness.

Imrus - immune to scab grade winter maturity

Srednerosly trees with a rounded crown. The buds are pink-white. The flowers are small, pinkish. Fruits are medium in size, greenish with a blurry blush, juicy, with creamy flesh, sweet and sour.

Advantages: precocity and high yield. High winter hardiness.

Anniversary of Moscow - immune to scab grade winter maturity

Trees are medium in size. The leaves are beautiful, shiny, wrinkled. The buds and flowers are pinkish. Fruits are medium size, smooth, shiny, mostly covered with bright crimson blush, juicy, tasty, with white dense flesh.

Advantages: high yield. Fine decorative qualities of fruits, good taste.

In some winters, trees can freeze.

These photos show the varieties of winter apple trees, which are described above:

Column-shaped apple trees: photos and descriptions of popular varieties

Column-shaped apple trees deserve a separate description.

The columnar type is a spontaneous mutation that was discovered in one of the gardens on the fiftieth anniversary of the Meckintosh tree. It happened in Canada, in the 1964 year. Breeders of the local experimental station became interested in this form, where it was propagated.

The new form was named vazhak. Later Vazhak was crossed with other varieties, as a result of which he managed to get good varieties. Officially, columnar varieties were singled out in an independent category only at the beginning of the 80s of the last century.

As seen in the photo, columnar apple trees do not have side branches. Fruit formations are located directly on the trunk:

In the case of strong branches, they are removed during spring pruning. The peculiarity of the columnar trees is the early entry into fruiting, which begins in the second year after planting.

Using. The absence of a wide crown allows you to plant trees close to each other - at a distance of up to 30, see. With such a thick planting, you get an original hedge. Such a living wall will look especially impressive when large fruits ripen.

Very unusually, these trees are combined with low spreading ornamental shrubs. Columns can be used in group plantings or serve as perebivka in the curb of perennials.

With good care, columnar apple trees give 5 times more yield than regular apple trees per square meter of the garden. Frequent failures are mainly associated with the acquisition of planting material of unknown origin, and in some cases with poor quality tree care.

When receiving seedlings of columnar trees, the same problems arise as for ordinary apple trees. Therefore, seedlings must be purchased in the nursery.

To date, there are varieties of columnar Apple-quite winter-hardy and regularly fruiting in the middle belt. The most popular of them are the following.

Summer varieties.

Dialogue - early summer variety

Trees sredneroslye. Fruits are medium in size, yellow with a slight blush, sweet and sour, with juicy white flesh.

This is one of the best varieties of columnar apple trees with high winter hardiness, relatively high resistance to pests and diseases.

Sen. - summer, immune to scab grade

Natural dwarf. Fruits are medium in size, almost completely covered with dark red blush, sweet. The flesh is creamy, juicy, aromatic.

Advantages: winter-hardy variety, resistance to diseases and pests, precociousness.

Vasyugan - Late summer variety

Trees sredneroslye. The taste is sweet, sweet and sour, the flesh is dense, aromatic.

Look at the photo - this one of the best varieties of columnar apple trees has medium and large fruits, mostly covered with a blurry striped blush:

Advantages: very high winter hardiness and rapidity. Relatively resistant to diseases and pests variety.

Nectar - Late summer variety

Natural polukarlik. Fruits are larger than medium size, white and yellow, sweet with honey flavor.

Advantages: very high winter hardiness, relative resistance to pests and diseases.

President - Late summer variety

Trees sredneroslye. Fruits are larger than medium size, pale yellow, shiny, juicy, sweet-sour, good dessert taste.

Advantages: high winter hardiness, relatively resistant to pests and diseases.

Autumn varieties.

Ostankino - autumn variety

Natural polukarlik with a columnar type of crown.

Pay attention to the photo - this decorative variety of columnar apple trees has large fruits, yellow-green with a purple-red blush, juicy, sweet and sour:

Well formed ovary, even in the absence of bees and in bad weather.

Advantages: relative disease resistance. High yield and rapidity.

Due to insufficient winter hardiness, the apical kidney almost annually dies, and therefore it is necessary to carry out formative trim.

Maluha - autumn variety

Trees are low growth. Fruits are medium-sized, intensely yellow, shiny, fragrant.

Advantages: high winter hardiness, resistant to pests and diseases.

Winter variety.

Currency - immune to scab grade winter maturity

Natural polukarlik. Very quick. The fruits are very decorative - large, golden yellow with a blurry crimson blush. Juicy, sweet.

Advantages: high yield.

Here you can see photos of columnar apple trees, the description of which is presented on this page:

English EN russian RU