Having planned the planting on the site, it’s time to think about planting and caring for trees in the garden, because only by observing the rules and performing all the prescribed agricultural activities, it is possible to achieve abundant fruiting and decorative attractiveness of the plantations.
Caring for a fruit garden is a laborious process, all work needs to be carried out systematically, putting a part of your soul, because plants respond to care extremely positively.
Preparing planting pits and planting trees in the garden
Before planting fruit trees in the garden, you need to properly prepare planting pits or trenches. They should not be too small, in addition, it must be remembered that fruit bushes and especially trees live for many years, which means they should be provided with good nutrition, especially for the first time, while the root system is not well developed.
Therefore, the pits for planting fruit trees in the garden should be in diameter and not less than 70 x 70 cm in depth, and for shrubs - 40 x 40 see. For currant golden - 60 see depth. For actinidia - 60 x 60 cm.
The soil removed from the pit is laid as follows: the upper fertile layer is in one direction (it will go to fill the pit), the lower clay layer is in the other (it can be partially used to create edges around the tree trunks), the rest of the soil should be removed from the site.
The pit is filled with fertile soil, which is prepared in advance: removed from the places where buildings and paths will be placed, or delivered on purpose.
Organic Fertilizers - it is well rotted waste of animal and vegetable origin. Usually, rotted grass and waste from the kitchen is called compost, and rotted manure is called humus. The use of such fertilizers not only improves the soil structure, plants receive valuable nutrients.
Before planting trees in the garden, mineral phosphate-potassium fertilizers are added to the bottom of the pit and mixed thoroughly with some soil. Per landing pit make:
- For apple and pear -1 kg of superphosphate and 150 g of potassium sulfate
- For currants, henomeles and honeysuckle - 300 g superphosphate and 40 g potassium sulphate
Then pour a layer of soil without fertilizers - the roots of the seedling should not come into contact with fertilizers.
In order to plant fruit trees in the garden in the way that proper agricultural technology suggests, you need to add compost or humus to the planting pit. Fresh manure can not be used! For trees 2 is brought in buckets of organic matter, for shrubs - one. Such a stock fertilizer will provide plants powered by 3-4 of the year. Nitrogen fertilizers are not used for planting.
If seedlings with an open root system (ACS), then at the bottom of the pit you need to make a mound and gently spread the roots on it. Plants grown in a container are carefully removed from the planting tank and their biological status is assessed.
In the case when the roots are too much intertwined with a ring at the bottom of the pot, they must be untangled or notched and also straightened on a hill at the bottom of the pit. If the roots of the earthen coma are not sufficiently braided, it is better, without destroying it, to rearrange the plant in the planting pit. All damaged roots are trimmed with sharp shears.
When planting trees in the garden it is impossible to bury the graft - this leads to undesirable consequences.
- At first, there may be a rotting of the trunk at the bottom, which will lead to the death of the tree.
- Secondly, the graft can go to its own roots, and instead of a low-growing tree a rather large specimen will grow. Thirdly, in any case, the onset of the fruiting of improperly planted trees is delayed for several years.
So that the planted tree does not collapse from the wind, a support is installed next to the seedlings.
When planting apples and pears on the seed stock root root should be at the level of the edge of the pit. Dwarf and semi-dwarf saplings are buried so that the grafting site is above the soil surface on 5, see.
In the same way - on 5-8 cm - currant saplings are deepened during planting, of course, if it is not a finished standard form. Honeysuckle and actinidia seedlings are planted at the same depth as they grew in the nursery.
After planting the seedlings are well watered, even in rainy weather. Watering ensures the formation of good contact of the roots with the soil, which is necessary for the survival of the plants.
If you planted ready-made seedlings, then you just have to maintain their appearance and provide them with proper care.
Next you will receive tips on caring for trees in the garden.
Caring for fruit plants in the garden: tips with photos and videos
It does not matter whether you have acquired ready-made plants or have grown them with your own hands - the main thing is that they look beautiful and healthy. So, it's time to find out how to properly care for the garden, what work should be carried out on the fruit-and-garden garden plot.
Garden care is the most important procedure to be taken very seriously. After all, without performing all the prescribed agro-events, the decorativeness of a well-formed plant can be lost, and in some cases inattention or mistakes can even lead to its death.
What is the main criterion? Of course, the health of your pets! Health is not only beauty, but also a harvest.
Plants, like any living organisms, need a full, but not excessive diet. Also, the care of plants in the garden includes protection from pests and diseases.
The main nutrients necessary for the existence of fruit crops are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
In the spring, the plants should actively grow in order to complete growth in time and begin preparing for winter. Therefore, at the beginning of the growing season it is necessary to use fertilizers with a high nitrogen content.
Very good results are given by early-spring dressing with urea. For fruit-bearing apples and pears, it is not superfluous to conduct nitrogen supplements through 10 days after flowering, that is, during the shedding of the ovaries. At this time, the plants need additional nutrition for fruit growth.
With a lack of nitrogen, plants grow poorly, the lower leaves turn yellow prematurely and fall off. Plants become weak, bloom poorly and bear fruit.
The excess of nitrogen provokes strong growth, the plant zhiruet, does not bloom, and therefore does not bear fruit. Such plants are more affected by pests and diseases; they endure winter much worse.
See a photo of what garden care activities should be carried out regularly:
At the beginning of summer, plants need all the nutrients, and from the middle of summer, when flower buds are laid, the growth of shoots subsides, and the plant starts preparing for winter, reducing the amount of nitrogen to a minimum, while increasing the proportion of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
- Phosphorus affects the budding of flower buds, the formation of the crop and its quality. With a lack of phosphorus, plant leaves also become dark, often with a purple shimmer, but unlike signs of nitrogen overload, they are small and the plant growth is weakened.
- potassium It does not enter into any compound in plant tissues, but it plays a very important distributional and regulatory function. Without potassium, other nutrients are poorly absorbed, plant resistance to diseases decreases, and few sugars accumulate in fruits.
When caring for trees in the garden, do not over-feed the plants, especially with nitrogen - its excess reduces the resistance to fungal diseases and promotes the reproduction of pests. The main sign of an excess of nitrogen - the powerful growth of plants and large dark green leaves.
In addition to the basic nutrients, plants need trace elements. They are used in very small doses, but plant life is not possible without them.
With a lack of trace elements, yellowing of the leaves occurs (usually on young growths), the death of the tips of the shoots and roots, the formation of rosette forms and other physiological disorders. This is especially evident in trees.
If the planting pit was prepared correctly, then in the first year or two, only spring dressings with nitrogen fertilizers should be carried out. Otherwise, the fertilizer complex is used from the first year of planting.
The older the plant, the greater the dose of fertilizer. Doses of fertilizers also depend on the fertility of the soil in your garden.
On average, for the proper care of the garden you can adhere to the following doses, calculated on the 1 m 2 near-trunk circle:
- Young trees - nitrogen 10-15 g, phosphorus 8-10 g, potassium 8-10 g of the active substance;
- Fruit bearing trees - nitrogen 30-40 g, phosphorus 8-10 g, potassium 8-10 g and 6 kg of organic fertilizers;
- Shrubs - nitrogen 7 g, phosphorus 7 g, potassium 9 g and up to 10 kg of organic matter under the shrub.
The diameter of the wheel should correspond to the diameter of the crown.
And how to care for the trees in the garden in terms of saturating them with moisture? When feeding plants is very important watering. Fertilizers can be supplied to the roots only in dissolved form. And in dry form they can lie for a month without any use for the plant.
For fertilizing plants, you can use any fertilizer, but complex fertilizers are most convenient, for example, Kemira. It contains all the necessary macro-and micronutrients. On sale there are several brands designed for different seasons and for different cultures.
Fertilizer can be used to feed fruit trees when leaving after planting seedlings. Kemira Universal. It is introduced into the soil in a dry form: scattered with the obligatory subsequent embedment or laid in specially built holes and grooves.
Gradually dissolving, it provides plants with nutrition for a long time. The amount of fertilizer is determined by multiplying the dose indicated on the package for 1 m X NUMX by the application area.
During the care of the orchard, you can use fertilizers and in liquid form. The early spring application of nitrogen fertilizers should be well held with urea dissolved in water: the 1 matchbox in a bucket of water. In liquid form, fertilizing with infusion of mullein or nettle is carried out.
To achieve a more rapid effect, foliar dressing is applied to the leaves, mainly with nitrogen fertilizers and trace elements. Usually they are carried out on weakened plants badly affected in winter.
Additional tips for gardening are presented in this video: