Inoculation of fruit trees and shrubs in the backyard is a painstaking process, but not as daunting as it may seem to some newbies at first glance. Of course, one cannot do without special thematic knowledge in this matter; therefore, before proceeding to the implementation of this work, it is important to have a reliable theoretical basis and at least once to see firsthand how experienced gardeners cope with this task.
Grafting fruit trees and shrubs is important for obtaining standard forms from berry plants or for correcting crown, if something went wrong. With the help of vaccination, you can get your own saplings of fruit trees or “settle” several varieties on a single plant, which can be not only practical, but also beautiful.
You can find out what methods you can plant fruit trees and how to do it properly by familiarizing yourself with this material.
How to properly plant fruit trees
What is the grafting of fruit trees, and what methods are considered the best?
It is quite possible to compare this process with a surgical operation in which parts from different plants are combined into one whole. The lower part (what is grafted on) is called a stock, and the upper part is called a graft. If the stock allows you to get a crown raised above the ground, then such a stock is called a shaper.
With the help of the vaccination, one can get standard forms of different fruit and berry crops. The grafting can be applied if the tree grows one-sided, and in the case when there are no branches in the right place. With this technique, you can create unusual trees or shrubs, consisting of different varieties with different flowers or fruits. Before you begin work, you need to determine exactly what you want to get in the end, and strive for a given goal.
Before planting fruit trees, you need to take care of the presence of a very sharp grafting knife, since the blunt blade severely damages the tissues of the plant, and the cuts do not fuse with each other.
There are many ways to graft fruit trees. This article discusses only those options that are used most often and allow you to get a good, reliable result. Using the grafting methods described below, you can get fruit trees with different forms of crowns.
Vaccinations are carried out at different times of the year, but the most traditional spring vaccinations are by cutting (they are carried out in April and the first half of May) and summer buds, which take place in mid-July - early August.
The first thing that novice gardeners need to know about grafting fruit trees is to get at least a schematic information about the internal structure of the plant. Such knowledge is necessary for the work to be done correctly. So, all tree species between the bark and wood have a thin layer of active cambium cells. Probably every reader at least once tore off strips of bark from a broken branch and, perhaps, noticed that the wood under the bark is moist.
This moisture is formed due to damage to the cambium. Cambium plays a very important role in the life of a tree: thanks to its work, the trunk and branches grow in thickness, wounds overgrow and accretions grow. Therefore, combining parts of two different plants, you need to make sure that their cambial layers coincide as much as possible. If the stock and scion differ slightly in thickness, then these layers should be combined at least on one side.
The most common types of grafting of fruit trees - this vpriklad and bark.
- Vaccination by cutting This method is used when the stock is much thicker than the scion. The stock is cut at a right angle. On the one hand, they make an oblique cut with a length of at least 3 cm. On the graft, make an oblique cut of the same length. Then, by splitting as described above, the two components are combined. It is important that when combining the cut on the handle remained a few millimeters above the cut on the stock. Vaccination tightly tied.
- Vaccination for the bark. This method is used in the same cases as inoculated vaccination. It is undeniably easier to graft behind the bark, but this method can only be used when the bark lags well behind wood. The stock is cut at a right angle and, on one side, make an incision in the bark 3-3,5 long, see. Carefully remove the bark with a knife blade. The stalk is prepared in a known manner, but without splits. Then the cutting is inserted into the incision of the bark and tightly tied.
Watch a video showing how to graft fruit trees into and out of the bark:
Types of grafting fruit trees and shrubs: budding and copulation
Budding is a vaccination by the eye, that is, by the kidney.
It can be done if the stock has a thickness of at least 7 mm and no more than 10 mm at the vaccination site. Buds for vaccination using only well-formed; they are taken from the shoots of the current year.
Before grafting fruit trees with this method, shoots need to be prepared for 1-2 24 hours before budding and carefully ensure that they do not dry out. Leaves on them are removed in such a way that pieces of petioles with a length of about 1 are left. See. On the rootstocks in the inoculation place, remove all the branches and always wipe it with a clean, damp cloth.
Budding can be done in two ways.
- Budding in the T-shaped incision. To do this, make a cut of the bark in the shape of the letter “T” on the stock with a sharp grafting knife and gently separate the bark, then take the graft of the scion into the left hand, its top should be aimed at itself. Choose a good kidney on it; move it down 1,2-1,4 cm and make a cross-section of the bark. The same amount of retreat above the kidney and cut off a strip of bark with the kidney. The important secret of grafting fruit trees by budding into a T-shaped incision is to obtain a properly cut shield. It should be smooth, elastic, with a small island of wood under the kidney. Without touching the cut with your hands, grab the shield by the left petiole and gently insert it into the cut on the stock. Carefully trim the excess portion of the shield. Tie the vaccination site as tightly as possible, but in such a way that the kidney itself and the petiole remain free. For strapping, use any plastic tape 1 wide cm. It can be cut from ordinary bags, and you can buy ready-made, made specifically for this purpose.
- Budding in priklad. This method differs from the first one in that on the stock also they make a clumpy cut of the bark, and the scion shield is cut with a thicker layer of wood. The dimensions of the plates should be as much as possible in size.
After 2, budding is checked for weeks: if the scape easily fell off, the vaccine caught on. After a few days, the harness must be removed. Even if the vaccination failed, the strapping must be removed!
The main thing with this is not to delay. In August, there is a noticeable thickening of the branches, and if the harness is not removed, hauling is formed, and the plant in this place breaks off. The acclimatized kidney begins to grow next year. The stock above the bud is removed as follows: first, a small stump is left, and later it is completely cut out. If nothing happened, do not despair. In the spring, you can repeat the vaccination only by cutting.
Copulation is one of the ways of grafting.
Apply it in the case when the stock and graft the same thickness. According to the rules of grafting fruit trees by copulating, cuttings are harvested at the beginning of winter, when the temperature drops to -10 ° C. Keep them wrapped in a damp cloth, and on top of it - in the film. You can save the cuttings in the basement or in the refrigerator, but the safest thing is in the snow collar.
Copulation is of two kinds, but usually improved copulation is used. To do this, on a graft and on a stock make a long oblique cut. Its length should exceed the width in 3,5-4 times. Then, from the sharp end of the slice, they deviate by approximately 1 / 3 and make splits with a sharp knife.
Sections are combined so that the tongues splits included in the opposite splits. Components should match up well. After that, place the vaccine tightly tied. The straps are removed when the buds on the scion start to grow.
Here you can watch a video of grafting fruit trees using budding and copulation methods: