Today, pear is the second most popular fruit crop after an apple tree. In the decorative gardening are used mainly summer and autumn varieties, as winter varieties are less amenable to molding. Most often, these trees are planted as tapeworms, but group plantings are also possible, if you take low-growing varieties for this.
The first mention of pear belong to the II millennium BC. There is evidence of cultural plantings in ancient China, Greece and Central Asia. About the introduction of this plant in the culture almost nothing is known. The real flowering of the use of pear trees in gardening occurred at the turn of the 18th-19th centuries.
On this page you can see the photos and descriptions of pears of different varieties, as well as learn about their characteristics.
Description of pears and the use of trees in the garden
Race Pear (Purus) belongs to the Rosaceae family. In nature, there are up to 60 pear species, 18 of which grow in the temperate zone.
A botanical description of a pear is the following - it is always a tree (no shrub forms are derived), often with prickles. The leaves are always simple, the flowers are white, smaller than that of an apple tree, gathered in clusters of inflorescences.
Pears are similar in structure to apple fruits, but contain stony cells in the pulp. In our gardens, we cultivate varieties combined into one species — a domestic or ordinary pear (Pyrus domestica, or P. communis).
The pear forms a durable large-sized crown with a pronounced trunk. Due to the fact that the shoots form a little, the crown remains light and does not thicken.
As can be seen in the photo, trees of all varieties of pears are divided by height into low-growing trees - up to 4 m; medium lengths - 6-8 m; strong-grown - 10-15 m:
Pear - cross-pollinated culture. In many varieties, the fruits are formed without pollination, while the seeds remain underdeveloped.
When describing pears, it should be noted such a lack of this culture as the absence of dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks for central Russia. Existing stocks either weakly resistant, or the trees on them are not durable.
Therefore, it is necessary to select varieties that are not too large in nature. Due to the fact that the trees have a fairly strong growth, forming for pears should be limiting.
For example, palmettes suggest the horizontal direction of individual sections of branches and bends at a right angle, all of which greatly influence the growth force. And of course you can not display a vertical cordon.
This is not only a wonderful fruit crop. Due to its natural features, this breed lends itself well to shaping and makes it easy to get rounded and flat crowns such as cordons or palmettes.
In the garden, the pear can be used in group plantings and as a tapeworm, in wall culture and for trellis hedges.
Pear seedlings, like apple seedlings, are more reliable to purchase in local nurseries. But you can independently get plants on seed stocks. To do this, ripe fruit is harvested from a pear tree or from local, well-wintering varieties, seeds are removed from them and sown before winter in the ground.
For spring sowing, seeds should be stratified in wet sand at a positive temperature close to zero, for example, in a refrigerator or buried deep in the snow. If the seeds are in the fridge, they need to be ventilated once a week. Stratification duration - 80-100 days. Stratified seeds are sown at the end of April.
When the 2-3 of these leaves appears, the seedlings dive, while pinching the main root. Seedlings are seated at a distance 30 cm from each other.
Inoculation the necessary grade is carried out by cuttings in the year of sowing or the following year by budding in the summer or spring. The resulting plants grow 1-2 of the year, after which they are planted in a permanent place.
The following are photos and descriptions of varieties of pears that are most popular in the middle lane.
Popular summer and autumn varieties of pears
The best varieties of pears for decorative use are:
Lada - early summer variety
Srednerosloy tree. Fruits are smaller than medium-sized, light yellow with a faint, blurred blush, sweet-sour, tasty. The variety is partially self-fertile.
When describing this variety of pears, it is worth noting such advantages as high winter hardiness and yield, precociousness and resistance to scab.
Cathedral - summer variety
Srednerosloe tree with the correct conical crown. Fruits are medium-sized, greenish-yellow with a diffuse blush, with delicate juicy flesh, sweet and sour.
Merits This summer pear varieties are high winter hardiness, scab resistance and precociousness.
Chizhovskaya - Late summer variety
Trees are medium in size. The fruits are beautiful, pear-shaped, yellow-green, good sweet-sour taste. It bears fruit well and without pollination by other varieties.
Advantages: high winter hardiness and scab resistance.
Prominent - Late summer variety with elongated beautiful fruits of rich yellow color, excellent sweet-sour taste
Advantages: high winter resistance and disease resistance.
The most popular autumn varieties of pears for the middle band are:
- In memory of Yakovlev
Marble - early autumn variety
Trees of medium vigor. The fruits are quite large, beautiful regular shape, yellow with a marble blush on the most part, delicate, juicy. Very good taste.
Advantages: disease resistant.
In memory of Yakovlev - early autumn variety
Small tree with beautiful one-dimensional fruits of light yellow color with a red blush, juicy, sweet. The variety is self-fertile.
Advantages: high winter hardiness and scab resistance. Also to the advantages of this autumn variety of pears can be attributed to the early entry into fruiting.
Moscow Bergamot - autumn variety
A tree of medium strength. The fruits are not very large, yellow-green, round, good sweet-sour taste.
Advantages: high winter resistance and disease resistance.
In dry years, reduced taste of the fruit.
Veles - Autumn variety with fruits of excellent sourish-sweet taste.
Pay attention to the photo - this pear variety is suitable for growing in the middle lane, the fruits are relatively large, greenish-yellow in color with orange tan:
Advantages: high winter resistance and disease resistance. High annual yields.
Alenushka - late autumn variety
Low-growing tree with a rare crown. Fruits of medium size, beautiful golden color with raspberry blush, tasty, tender, sour-sweet. Requires pollinator.
The main characteristics of this pear variety are high winter hardiness and annual fruit bearing.
Unfortunately, the Alyonushka variety is often affected. pear diseases and pests.