Keeping of

Pine coniferous tree - the ideal plant for shady areas. They are so little demanding of the presence of light that they can successfully develop even in the most shaded conditions, but only in the presence of soils with a high degree of fertility and moderate humidity. One of the distinguishing features of this plant from other conifers is that the fir cones of cylindrical shape are located strictly upwards on the branches.

Fir tree (Abies) belongs to the Pine family (Pinaceae). The genus includes about 40 species distributed in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, and only a few of them penetrate the mountain systems to Mexico and Guatemala.

On this page you can see the photos and descriptions of different types of fir and varieties, as well as learn how to grow fir in the garden.

What does the fir look like: photo and description of an evergreen tree

Fir trees are large evergreen trees that reach a height of 60-100 m with a trunk thickness of up to 2 m. The trunk is straight, slowly clearing the branches that persist for many years, which is why even in adult plants they are located near the ground. The crown of a fir tree looks like a cone; it is formed by branches collected in whorls and arranged in tiers.

The bark of most species is thin, smooth with small cracks, usually located at an angle to each other.

Needles are needle-like, collected in spiral rows on a large, well-developed base, which is why a round flat trace remains after its fall. Vegetative shoots needles are soft, flattened, slightly grooved at the top, keeled below, with two light stomatal stripes. The needles of fruiting shoots are tetrahedral with whitish stripes and stomata on all faces.

See what the firs look like in these photos:

All the "flowers" are located in the upper part of the crown. The males develop from apical buds and carry pollen, the females are located in the upper part of the shoots and form buds after pollination. Cones are solitary, upright, from ovate-oblong to cylindrical. After ripening, the buds break up down to the core. Seeds - small winged "nuts".

The following is a photo and botanical description of fir of various species and varieties.

Types and varieties of fir: photos and botanical description

Abies alba - White fir.

Forms pure and mixed with hardwood forests. It grows in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe.

This is a slender tree 30-50 m in height with a straight, like a candle, trunk. The branches are collected in horizontal whorls. The bark is gray smooth, scaly on old trees. Needles needle-like, shiny, wrinkled, serrated or two-headed. On the branches is located comb-shaped and assembled in rows. The 2-3 needles are cm long, dark green above with a bluish tint, from the bottom with two clear white stripes, thanks to which this species is called “white”. Cones are upright, 10-14 cm long. Young cones are greenish, mature - brownish.

In extremely harsh winters, young plants may freeze at the level of snow cover. Adult specimens may freeze over the top growth of last year.

It has a number of fairly spectacular varietal forms. When describing a tree of this species, it is worth noting that, unfortunately, for growing in gardens of the North-West and Central Russia, these plants are of little use because of their poor frost resistance. In fairness it should be noted that some mini-varieties can safely winter under a snow cover.

Abies amabilis - Fir pretty.

75-80 m, a very beautiful tree that grows in the mountain forests of North America - from British Columbia to Oregon.

The crown is evenly conical. Branches are located clearly separated horizontal tiers, collected in whorls and start from the ground itself. The bark is thin, from gray to white.

Needles 20-30 mm long and 2 mm wide, dark green, wrinkled, with two wide white stripes below, with short tips.

As seen in the photo, the fir tree of this species has needles growing in rows:

Cones are erect, ovate-size-prominent, 10-14 cm long.

In severe winters, it is possible for the young plants to freeze at the level of snow cover. In adult plants in extremely harsh winters, the highest growths last year suffer.

This species of fir has many varieties with a compact form of crown, including spherical and spread.

Until now, this type of fir is a rare guest in our gardens. At the moment, we can recommend only one variety that has been tested for several years - A. amabilis Spreading Star.

The recommended grade of fir fir - A. amabilis Spreading Star. Dwarf fir variety comely. The shape is rounded and flattened. Needles are large, soft, dark green, silvery. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies balsamea - Balsam fir. Forms giant forest tracts and occupies vast areas in North America. It is of exceptional value not only because of the wood, but also the resin.

The tree height is 15-20 m. The krone is pin-shaped, tapering upwards. Just like all fir trees, branches are collected in whorls and arranged in tiers, but this is not too noticeable due to the strong branching.

Look at the photo - the bark of this species of ash is ash-gray with numerous resin flows, often scaly:

Young branches are yellow-gray, partially overgrown. The needles are dark green with two white stripes at the bottom, small and thin. When rubbed emit a sharp balsamic smell. Cones are erect, small, oblong, 5-7 cm long, purple-purple before ripening.

When planting in open areas in extremely harsh winters, partial freezing of young specimens at the level of snow cover is possible. Adult plants are frost resistant.

It has many varietal varieties with a dense spherical shape of the crown and short needles.

Recommended balsam fir varieties:

Abies balsamea Eugene Gold.

Srednerosly narrow-colonized balsamic fir variety. The needles are dense, soft, golden, green at the base of the branches. Annual gains 15-20, see. This balsam fir variety is completely cold-resistant.

Abies balsamea jennie (synonymous with WB 3).

Mini-grade balsam fir. Spherical shape. The needles are short, soft, green. Kidney pronounced. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies balsamea Renswoude.

Mini-grade balsam fir. Spherical shape. The needles are short, soft, green. Kidney pronounced. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor - Fir monochrome.

Slender and extremely beautiful tree height 2.5-40 m, growing in the torus colorado.

The crown of this fir is clearly pyramid, since the lower tiers of the branches are very wide, and the upper ones are short. The branches are assembled in horizontal whorls, located at a considerable distance from each other, which exposes the trunk somewhat and emphasizes the perfect shape of the crown. The bark is light gray, smooth in young, but coarse in old plants. The needles are bluish-green, soft, flat, sometimes sickle-shaped, 40-60 mm long. This is the only fir with blue needles. Cones are cylindrical, 7-12 cm long, greenish or slightly reddish before maturity. The degree of drought resistance is higher than in most species. Both adult and young plants are completely cold-resistant. It has a number of spectacular varieties with white-gray and blue needles.

Recommended varieties of fir monochrome:

Сoncolor Birthday Broom.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Dense, rounded flattened form. The needles are long, silver-blue. Annual gains around 3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Blue Saphir.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Dense, pillow shape. Needles are short, twisted, blue-blue. Annual increments within 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Bryce Canyon.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Very dense, pillow shape.

Pay attention to the photo - the needles of this kind of blue-green monochrome species of fir have the shape of the month:

Annual increments within 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Cimaron.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Very dense, rounded oval shape. Needles are gray-blue. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Fagerhult.

Srednerosly grade of a fir of one-color. Weeping form. The needles are long, blue color. Annual increments within 20 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor Kresice.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Very dense, rounded oval shape. Needles are gray-blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor Kucera.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Very dense, round shape. Needles are short, twisted, gray-blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor nechiba.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. This grade of fir is very dense, round shape. Needles are short, gray-blue. Annual increments within 3, see Fully frost-resistant,

Abies concolor od maleho.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Dense, rounded flattened form. Needles are straight, gray-green-blue. Annual increments within 5 cm, Fully frost-resistant,

Abies concolor Olesna.

Dwarf grade of fir monochrome. Irregular growth of branches. The needles are short, blue-green. Annual increments within 8-10, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Osek-Topinka.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Dense, rounded flattened form.

As can be seen in the photo, needles of this species of monochrome fir are straight, gray-blue:

Annual increments within 5 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor Piedra.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Dense, rounded flattened form. Needles are straight, gray-blue. Annual increments within 4-5 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Piggelmee.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Dense, rounded flattened form. Needles are straight, gray-blue. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Shawns Cone.

Dwarf forms. Modern variety of fir singleret. The exact size of annual increments and final sizes have not yet been established. Needles are long, rich blue, frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Winter Gold.

Srednerosly grade of a fir of one-color. Narrow pyramidal shape. The branches have a vertical direction of growth, then they fall. Needles are long, curved. In summer they are light green, in winter they are golden. Gains within 30, see Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor Zabela.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Round shape. Needles are short, straight, gray-blue. Gains 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Blue Cloac.

Pyramidal grade of a fir of one color. There are also specimens that can be grown as prostrate forms. The needles are long, rich blue, the branches at the pyramidal forms have a vertical direction of growth, then fall. Annual increments within 15-20 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Compacta

Dwarf grade of fir monochrome. Pyramid shape. The needles are long, silver-blue. Annual increments within 10 cm, Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor Hidden Lakes.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Rounded flattened shape. The needles are long, crescent, gray-blue. Annual increments 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Igel.

Mini-grade of fir monochrome. Very dense, round shape. The needles are short, blue-blue. Annual increments within 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Violacea.

Full-grown variety. Pyramidal form of fir monochrome. The needles are long, curved on the back of the branches, saturated blue. The annual increase in 30-50 cm increase with age. Fully frost resistant.

Abies concolor La Veta.

Dwarf grade of fir monochrome. Dense, round shape. The needles are long, straight, blue. Annual increments within 5-8, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies concolor Saxana.

Dwarf form. Modern grade of monochrome fir. The exact size of annual increments and final sizes have not yet been established. Needles are long, saturated blue, frost hardy.

Below you can see the photos, names and descriptions of fir of other varieties.

Other species of fir: photo, name and description

Abies koreana - Korean fir.

The slender tree is about 15-20 m tall and is a forest-forming species of Korea.

The crown of this species of fir is clearly pyramid-shaped, formed by flexible, but dense, arranged tiers and branches gathered in whorls. The bark of young trees is soft and smooth, while the old ones are rough. The needles are glossy, dark green above and almost white below, short (length 10-30 mm). Arranged in rows very tightly. On the fruit-bearing shoots, the needles are turned upside down, which makes the tops appear white. Cones are erect, cylindrical, long 4-7, see Mature cones purple-purple.

Both adult and young plants are completely cold-resistant.

It has many original varieties, most of which have inverted white needles.

Recommended varieties of Korean fir:

Abies koreana Adelboden.

Korean mini fir variety. Gusovaya pyramidal form. The needles are dense, short, dark green above, silvery below. Annual increments within 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Aurea.

Large-size golden Korean fir variety. Dense, pyramidal shape. The needles are light green. Annual increments 30-40, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana blauer pfiff

Dwarf variety of Korean fir. Pyramid shape. The needles are short, blue-green above, bluish-white below. Annual increments within 15 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies koreana Blue Emperor.

Very spectacular Korean fir variety. The most common pyramidal shape, less cushion. The needles are short, blue-green above, bluish-white below. Annual increments within 8-10, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Bonsai Blue.

Dwarf variety. Pyramid shape. The needles are short, blue-green above, bluish-white below. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Abies koreana Brillant.

Mini-grade. Rounded flattened shape. The needles are short, green above, bluish below. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Compacta.

Dwarf variety. Pyramidal shape, Needles short, blue-green above, bluish-white below. Annual increments within 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana grubele (synonyms - Doni Tajuso, Kristalkugel, Arbor's Hexe).

Mini-grade. Gustovetvaya circularly flattened form. The needles are dense, short, dark green above, silvery below. Annual increments within 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Kohout's Icebreaker (synonyms - Ice Breaker, Silberlocke WB).

Korean micro fir variety. The form is round, dome-shaped, thickening branching. The needles are short, strongly curved, white and silver. Annual increments within 3 -4 cm, Fully frost-resistant. Garden decoration.

Abies koreana Kohout's Nehe

Korean mini fir variety. Very dense, spherical shape. The branches are short, the needles are small, short, dark green above, silvery below. Annual increments within 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Oberon

Dwarf variety of Korean fir. The most common pyramidal shape, less cushion. The needles are tough, short, curved, strongly pressed against the branches, blue-green above, silver-colored below. Annual increments within 5-8 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana pancake

Mini-grade. Cushioned, strongly branched, dense form. The needles are rigid, short, curved, blue-green above, silver-colored below. Annual increments within 3-5 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana pinocchio

Mini-grade, spherical shape. The branches are short, the needles are small, short, dark green above, silvery below. The needles are rigid, short, curved, blue-green above, silver-colored below. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Schneestern

A rare variety of Korean fir. Narrow pyramid, copiously branching form. The needles are tough, short, blue-green above, silvery below. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Silver Show.

Dwarf variety of Korean fir. Pyramid shape. The branches have a vertical growth direction. The needles are short, strongly curved, white and silver. Annual increments within 12-15, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Silberlocke.

Srednerosly grade Korean fir. Pyramid shape. The branches have a vertical growth direction. The needles are short, strongly curved, white and silver. Annual increments within 20-25, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies koreana Taiga.

Korean mini fir variety. Cushion, longline, rather dense form. The needles are tough, short, blue-green above, silvery below. Annual increments within 3-5 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Abies lasiocarpa - Subalpine fir.

It grows in North America: in the forests from Alaska to Oregon and in the highlands of Utah and New Mexico. This fir is one of the most beautiful and elegant. Reaching the height of 30 m, to old age it retains a dense narrow pyramidal crown.

Look at the photo - the branches of this species of fir are arranged in dense tiers, and the branches are densely branched:

Young bark smooth, silver-gray. The needles are pale greenish-gray, 25-40 mm long, brushy, upward and unevenly arranged in rows. Cones are numerous, closely spaced, standing, oblong, length 6-10 cm, at a young age - dark purple.

In extremely severe winters, it is possible that the young plants partially freeze at the level of snow cover, but mature trees are frost resistant.

It has many varietal forms with green, gray and blue needles. The shape of the crown cultivars is diverse - from the classically pyramidal to spherical.

Recommended varieties of subalpine fir:

Abies Lasiocarpa Alpine Beauty.

Micro-grade subalpine fir. Round shape. The needles are soft, green-blue. Annual gains 2-3, see. When describing this grade of fir, it is worth noting its full frost resistance.

Abies Lasiocarpa Blue Cone.

Dwarf pyramidal grade of subalpine fir. The needles are soft, saturated green-blue color, with a silver tint. Annual increments within 20-25, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies Lasiocarpa Compacta.

Dwarf variety of subalpine fir. In favorable growing conditions, annual growth of 20-25 cm is possible and the cultivar can achieve medium size. Dense, pyramidal shape. The needles are soft, rich silver-blue color. Fully frost resistant.

Abies Lasiocarpa Cvicov.

Subalpine mini fir variety. Cushion shape. The needles are short, silver-blue. Annual increments 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies lasiocarpa Kenwich Blue.

Sredneroslyy grade of a subalpine fir. The needles are soft, saturated blue color. It is considered one of the bluest among subalpine fir. Annual increments within 30 cm, Fully frost resistant.

Abies Lasiocarpa Kyles Alpine.

Micro-grade subalpine fir. Spherical shape. The needles are soft, silver-blue. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies Lasiocarpa Prickly Pete

Subalpine mini fir variety. Cushion shape. The needles are silver-blue, somewhat elongated, vertically directed. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies Lasiocarpa Toenisvorst.

Subalpine mini fir variety. Spherical shape. The needles are short, gray-green-blue. Annual increments 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies Lasiocarpa Utah.

Subalpine mini fir variety. Funnel-shaped, slightly flattened form. The needles are short, gray-green. Annual increments 3-4, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies lasiocarpa Logan Pass (synonymous with Glacier).

Micro-grade subalpine fir. Spherical shape. The needles are soft, green-blue. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant

Abies Lasiocarpa Lopalpun.

Micro-grade subalpine fir. Spherical shape. The needles are soft, green-blue. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant. It is considered a subalpine fir, which has one of the most minimal annual increments.

Abies nordmanniana - Nordman fir, or Caucasian.

One of the forest-forming rocks of the Caucasus. A noble, long-lived, slender tree with a height of 40-50 m. Under favorable conditions (rich soils and high air humidity) it reaches a height of 80 m. The bark is black gray. Needles are dense, brush-like, dark green, 20-30 mm long and 2-2,5 mm wide, not assembled in rows and hang down. The cones are erect, greenish, resinous at a young age.

In nature, Nordman fir is quite hardy and in the mountains it reaches the limit of forest spreading, approaching the alpine belt. In the parks of Western Europe and North America does not freeze. In northern Europe, in severe winters, young plants may freeze at the level of snow cover, and in mature trees, the peak growths of last year may freeze in extremely severe winters. For this reason, the cultivars of this species of fir in the gardens of central Russia have not received wide distribution.

There are isolated attempts to grow a very decorative variety Golden Spreader.

Recommended varieties of Nordman fir:

Abies nordmanniana Golden Spreader.

Dwarf. Pyramidal grade of Nordman fir. Golden shape. Soft needles. When landing in the penumbra light green, and in the sun, a bright golden color. Annual increments within 10-15, see Conditionally frost resistant.

Abies procera - Noble fir.

The main habitat of this fir is the western regions of North America. These tall narrow-conic trees, up to 70 m, grow at altitudes up to 1500 m above sea level. Most branches have a vertical growth direction. The branches of the lower tier - fall. The bark is grayish, with deep cracks and wide growths. Green and blue needles, slightly twisted. Cylindrical purple bumps to 20 cm. Brown when ripe. Fairly hardy.

In recent years, cultivars of this species have increasingly been grown in Russian gardens.

Recommended varieties of silver fir:

Abies procera La Graciosa.

Dwarf, pyramidal variety of noble fir. Often in the early years it has a cushion, creeping shape. Subsequently, the leading shoots in a vertical direction, Needles soft, gray-green. The annual increments within 15, see. It is fairly hardy, but the conclusions about the resistance to severe frosts in the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia can be fully made only after longer periods of its cultivation.

Abies procera rat tail

Dwarf, pyramidal variety of noble fir. At the age of 20 years and older can reach medium size. The branches are straight, narrow. The needles are short, gray-green. The annual increments from 15 to 30 cm are frost hardy enough, but the conclusions about the resistance to severe frosts in the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia can be fully made only after longer periods of cultivation,

Abies procera Sherwoodii (synonyms - Aurea, Mount Hood)

Large-sized golden variety of noble fir. Irregular pyramidal shape. The branches are somewhat vertical, falling at the ends. The needles are soft, slightly curved, light green-golden. At the age of 20 years, annual increments of more than 30, see. Hardy enough, but it can only be fully concluded about its resistance to severe frosts in the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia after longer growing periods.

Abies sibirica - Siberian fir.

This classic fir is one of the main forest-forming species of northern regions of Russia. Its area is huge - from the north-east of Russia to China. Slender tree with a straight trunk up to 30 m.

The crown is columnar-pyramidal, formed by horizontal, widely spaced branches arranged in whorls. The bark is smooth, gray. Needles are light green, soft, soft, up to 3 cm.

Cones are cylindrical, 5-8 cm long, bluish before maturity.

Both adult and young plants are completely cold-resistant.

It has a number of garden forms with a more dense and compact form of the crown. In recent years, they began to appear in Russian gardens.

Recommended varieties of Siberian fir:

Abies sibirica Ardo.

Micro-grade Siberian fir. Globular funnel shape. The needles are soft, green-yellowish. Annual increments within 2, see Fully frost-resistant,

Abies sibirica Austerlitz.

Mini-grade Siberian fir. Spherical-funnel shape, slightly flattened. The needles are soft, green-yellowish. Annual increments within 3-5. see Fully frost resistant.

Abies sibirica Serko

Mini-grade Siberian fir. Globular funnel shape. The needles are soft, green-yellowish. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies veitchii - Fir Wich.

Habitat subalpine forests at an altitude of up to 2500 m, on the Japanese islands of Honshu and Shikoku.

Tall tree up to 25-30 m with a narrow-conical crown. The bark is smooth, gray. The branches are short, horizontally directed. Needles are flat, soft, up to 2,5 cm long.

Top dark green, bottom with 2 white stripes. Cones cylindrical, 5-6 cm long, bluish at a young age, later turn brown, turning brown.

Recommended varieties of fir Wich:

Abies veitchii Den Langhen.

Mini wich fir variety. Narrowly conical form. The needles are soft, dark green with white stripes. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies veitchii Pendula.

Large-sized variety of fir Wich. Narrowly conical form. The branches are hanging down. The needles are soft, dark green with white stripes. Annual increments 25-30, see Fully frost-resistant.

Abies veitchii Rako.

Mini wich fir variety. Round shape. The needles are soft, yellow-green with white stripes. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Next, you will learn how to care for the fir in the garden.

How to care for the fir: planting and agricultural care in the open field

Fir trees are exclusively shade-tolerant plants. They prefer fertile loamy slightly acidic soils, but quite successfully develop on loose sandy soils. Cultivation of dwarf fir should not be practiced on excessively rich soils, since they can lose the typical crown shape.

Adult specimens do not need fertilizer, since they have a powerful branched root system. During the rearing, young fir trees can be fed in the spring after the snow has melted with complex or combined mineral fertilizer on damp ground.

Firs are planted in early spring before the buds begin to bloom, or in the fall. To deepen the root neck is undesirable. Young plants tolerate transplanting easily. Plants with actively growing shoots take root poorly. Large specimens can be transplanted only after preliminary preparation of the root ball. After planting, the trees need abundant watering while taking care of the fir, and spraying up to rooting during spring transplanting.

Fir trees need to create growing conditions with a sufficient level of moisture, but they do not tolerate stagnant groundwater. Adult, well-developed plants are drought-resistant.

When planting and caring for fir in open field, keep in mind that all types are cold-resistant, but their cold resistance is different. Most species are not able to withstand long frosty winters. Mature trees are more resistant than younger ones. Young summer growths often suffer from late frosts.

Observing the correct agrotechnical cultivation of fir, when caring for trees, shelter from frost is required only for young specimens in snowless winters. The best shelter is a light air-dry insulation coniferous spruce branches. Multiple varietal fir must necessarily slightly branch - it will save them from breaking down with heavy snow and loss of shape.

In the spring for a uniform awakening of plants it is recommended to water them abundantly. This is especially important after severely freezing the soil of frosty winters. In many species at the end of winter - at the beginning of spring, the apical shoots of the last year suffer. You can avoid this by covering vertex shoots with gauze.

The following describes how to grow fir from seeds.

How can I grow fir from seed?

Only freshly harvested seeds are suitable. If you store them in an airtight container at a temperature 0 ... + 5ᵒ C, then germination persists for more than 15 years, under normal conditions, it is lost after a year. Seeds fresh from the cones are capable of immediate germination. Seeds with hardened covers have a sleeping bud.

There are several ways to germinate seeds.

The easiest one is podzimny sowing in the ridge to a depth of 1,5-2 cm with mulching with peat to the height of 1. See. In spring, after germination, plants are seated by pinching the root, or left in place until autumn or next spring.

Snowing Seeds are sown in boxes in autumn or winter and carried out under the snow until spring. After the emergence of seedlings, plants are lashed out in a row or left in boxes until autumn.

Cold stratification. At the end of winter, seeds are mixed with large, clean, slightly moist sand, sawdust or sphagnum moss, placed in plastic bags and stored in a refrigerator or basement at + 3 ... + 5 ° С for 1-2 months or sown in boxes or bowls, filled with rotted leaf earth, peat and coarse sand in the ratio of 3: 1: 1. After sowing, seeds are stored under the same conditions for 1-3 months.

After stratification, seeds stored in bags are washed and sown in boxes or bowls. Crops are exposed to light at a temperature of + 18 ... + 23 ° C for germination. Seedlings require protection from direct sunlight and moderate watering. Excessively thick shoots dive. When heat occurs, the seedlings are taken out to the garden, where they are planted in a ridge after quenching.

Varietal varieties during seed reproduction do not repeat the characteristic features very well, and it is very difficult to identify them in the first year. For propagation of varietal forms using vegetative propagation.

The last section of the article is devoted to how to propagate fir cuttings.

How to propagate fir: methods of propagation by layering and cuttings

In the vegetative propagation of fir, horizontal cuttings do not guarantee the preservation of the typical form of the crown, in most cases, curved side or creeping plants grow from rooted branches. Fir rooted with this method for 1-2 years.

Relatively well rooted cuttings only from young varietal plants. Even better form the roots of the cuttings, taken from plants with a compact densely branching crown. Cuttings from “wild” species, especially from old specimens, root very badly.

For reproduction of fir cuttings, the substrate must be loose, clean and breathable. The basis is always coarse washed sand, to which is added perlite, high sour peat or finely chopped coniferous bark. Place the cuttings in the substrate, not turning the branches backside up.

Cutting spend in the spring before the beginning or at the very beginning of the awakening of the kidneys or in the summer after the end of the first wave of growth, when young growths harden. However, in the latter case, the cuttings do not have time to form the roots and overwinter only with the influx of callus, risking freezing.

Rooting cuttings at a temperature of + 20 ... + 23ᵒ C. In spring grafting, before the bud starts blooming, it is necessary to maintain a lower temperature - + 15 ... + 18 ° С and then increase it to + 20 ... + 23 ° С. Raising the temperature above + 25 ° C is not recommended. To avoid overheating, boxes with cuttings should be slightly shaded from direct sunlight.

The combination of moderate substrate moisture and high humidity is the key to success.

In the spring, for rooting, they take shoots of last year's growth, in summer - hardened shoots of the current year. In columnar and narrow pyramidal forms, only vertical, but not the most powerful shoots are cut, with creeping varieties, all but vertical; From plants with a free, oval or spherical crown, you can remove any cuttings.

It is not uncommon for cuttings to not form roots for 2 years, while having a thickening at the cutting site — wound callus tissue. In this case, they can overwinter at an air-dry shelter. Well-established plants overwinter without shelter. Cuttings rooted not in the ground, but in boxes are dug into the ground along with the boxes and covered or stored in bright cold greenhouses or rooms until spring.

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