In some botanical references the conifer juniper is referred to as veres, and among the Turkic peoples this plant is called juniper. Tracing the etymology of the genus name in Slavic literature, you can associate this word with the ancient verbs "weave" and "knit." This is one of the longest-lived plants, but it is very badly renewed on its own - man’s help is required to save trees.
Conifer juniper (Juniperus) belongs to the family of cypress (Cupressaceae). The genus includes more 60 species, distributed mainly in the mountains of the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. The appearance of plants is very diverse - from large trees to creeping shrubs. A characteristic feature of many species is the variability depending on the growing conditions: in the lowlands they have a tree-shrub crown shape, and in the mountains - elfin.
On this page you can familiarize yourself with photos, names and descriptions of different types of junipers, as well as get tips on growing them in the garden.
What does juniper look like: description of the plant and its photo
The leaves (needles) of junipers are very diverse: opposite or whorled, needle-like, scaly, or both. The leaves of young (juvenile) plants are always needle-like. Variety forms of the same species can be needles of any type. Coloring needles of different species can vary from green to gray. In junipers of the subgenus Sabina, the needles change color for winter, acquiring a protective brown tint.
Junipers - dioecious plants, rarely monoecious.
Male "flowers" - ovoid on short branches, female - rounded, on short scaly branches, formed at the ends of long shoots. Fruits in small, round semi-dry berries (cones), ripen in the second, less often in the first year.
The genus Juniper is divided into three subgenera, uniting closely related species.
The largest of them is the subgenus Sabina (Sabina), which, in particular, includes such popular in the gardens as:
- Juniper Cossack (J. sabina)
- Chinese juniper (J. chinensis)
- Juniper rocky (J. scopulorum)
- Juniper scaly (J. squamata)
- Juniper virginsky (J. virginiana)
The second in volume is the subgenus Juniper (Juniperus), which unites, in particular, such species as:
- Common juniper (J. communis)
- Coastal juniper (J. conferta)
- Juniper solid (J. rigida)
In the smallest subgenus - Karyo tedrus (Caryocedrus) includes only one species - Juniper stone (J. drupacea).
Juniper shrub forms are very characteristic of the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. On the border of the forest and alpine zones, they often form extensive thickets. The most common European mountain species are undoubtedly M. Cossack (J. sabina) and M. ordinary (J. communis).
Large arboreal junipers are typical plants of the mountains of Central and Central Asia, where they form groves - juniper trees. This name of this type of juniper received from the Turkic name of the tree - juniper. These are mainly M. Turkestan (J. turkestanica), M. Zeravshansky (J. seravschanica), M. hemispherical (J. semiglobosa), and M. Turkmen (J. turcomanica). In nature, all these species are extremely hardy and can withstand temperature drops from + 40 to -40 ° С. Unfortunately, this endurance is not a guarantee of the well-being of junipers in the northern gardens, since it directly depends on strongly aerated “breathing” stony mountain soils.
See how the junipers of shrub and woody forms look on the photo:
Creeping species of conifers juniper plants define the landscape of highlands. The alpine elfin juniper is characterized by an unusual nature of crown development associated with a harsh climate - the trunks of the plants are pressed to the ground, bent between the stones of the scree, and eventually die off, passing the baton of life to the branches rooted in rubble. Such populations form vast carpet curtains living for hundreds of years. Similarly, coastal stanica is formed, but, unlike mountainous ones, their trunks and branches burrow not in rubble, but in sand.
Typical elfin species are:
- Juniper horizontal (J. horizontalis)
- Siberian juniper (J. sibirica)
- Daurian juniper (J. davurica)
- Juniper dull (J. conferta)
Next, you will learn how junipers of different species and varieties look like.
Types and popular varieties of juniper: photos, names and descriptions
Juniperus chinensis - Juniper Chinese.
It grows in China. Mongolia and Japan.
In nature, it is a tree up to 20 m in height or a shrub with a free-growing, wide-pin-like or creeping crown. Naturally, the size and type of crown depends exclusively on the growing conditions - the more favorable they are, the larger the plant. Not surprisingly, Chinese juniper has a huge amount of cultivars.
The branches of natural forms are thin, simultaneously with two types of needles on the same plant - scaly and needle. Scaly needles tightly pressed to the branches and has a rhombic shape, needle - collected in whorls. The ends of the young growth sprigs are straight and covered with scaly needles.
As seen in the photo, tree needles juniper "wild" forms of dark gray-green, in varietal - the most diverse, including golden:
Male and female plants may vary. Fruits (cones) brown with a powdery ring, rounded, 6-8 mm in diameter. Ripen in the second year. Natural varieties are quite cold-resistant, but in severe winters they freeze slightly. The degree of frost resistance of varieties is different, but most of them are quite stable.
Many cultivars of coniferous plants juniper are of controversial origin, considered hybrids with Cossack juniper (J. sabina) and bear the name juniper middle (J. media). Often these varieties are attributed to one or another type, but more often to the Pfitzeriana variety group, including such popular cultivars as the Gold Coast and Old Gold.
In the conditions of the Moscow region can actively grow. But in unfavorable snowy winters fractures and branches breaks are quite frequent. When growing these junipers, even well-rooted and overgrown specimens may suffer from the spring sun and drying out winds. In conditions of high air humidity, they feel more comfortable.
Popular varieties of Chinese juniper:
Juniperus chinensis Expansa Aureospicata
Wide, longline growth. Needles needle. Gray green. The branches are pointed, some of them end with cream-golden growths. Estimated dimensions at 10-year-old: width 1,5-1,8 m; height 40-60 cm. Fully frost-resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis parsonii
Wide-spreading, longline growth. Needles needle. Gray green. The branches are pointed. Estimated dimensions in 10-year-olds: width 3,0 m; height 50-70 cm. Fully frost-resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis Pfitzeriana Aurea
Wide-spreading, longline growth.
Look at the photo - the needles of the plant are juniper soft, needle-like, golden:
Vegetative shoots bright, over time, turn green, Pointed branches. Estimated dimensions at 10-year-old: width 2,0-2,2 m; height about 1 m. Fully frost-resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis Pfitzeriana Blue and Gold
Longline, flower-shaped growth. The needles are soft, needle. Gray-blue, with golden spots. The branches are pointed. Estimated dimensions in 10-year-olds: width up to 1,5 m; height 1 m. Fully frost-resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis Pfitzeriana Compacta
Longline, creeping, flattened form of growth. The needles are soft, needle, gray-blue. The branches are pointed. Estimated dimensions at 10-year-old: width 1,5-2,0 m; height about 50 cm. Fully frost resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis Pfitzeriana Gold Star
Wide-spreading, longline growth. The needles are soft, needle, golden. The branches are pointed. Estimated dimensions at 10-year-old: width 2,0-2,2 m; height about 1,0 m. When describing a plant juniper of this variety, it is worth noting its full frost resistance. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis Pfitzeriana Golden Saucer
Shirokoraskidisty, longline growth. The needles are soft, needle. Salad-golden. Vegetative shoots bright green over time. The branches are pointed. Estimated dimensions in 10-year-old age: width 2,0-2,5 m; height about 1,0 m. Fully frost-resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus chinensis Plumosa Aureovariegata
Dwarf form. The needles are green and blue. The branches with white-cream tips have a slightly vertical growth direction. Estimated dimensions in 10-year-olds: cm width 60-80; height about 50 cm. Fully frost resistant. Possible damage to the needles from the rays of the spring sun.
These photos show Chinese juniper varieties, the names of which are given above:
Juniperus communis - Common juniper
Very variable form, common in forests and mountains of Europe, North Asia to North China and in North Africa.
The tree is columnar or pin-shaped or multi-stemmed shrub from 2 to 20 m in height. Like many other junipers, the type of crown depends on the growing conditions, therefore, in mountainous areas, you can find elongated crown. A variety of natural types has led to the appearance of a huge number of cultivars - varieties with different strength and type of crown growth.
Pay attention to the photo - in this species of juniper young shoots are green, trihedral with longitudinal grooves:
The bark of adult plants is gray-brown, fibrous. Needles needle-like, tough, prickly, collected in whorls according to 3 pcs. Needle length - 10-15 mm, color - green with a white stripe in the center.
Male and female plants do not differ in appearance. Fruits (cones) dark-walled, as if covered with hoarfrost, rounded, 6-9 mm in diameter. Ripen on 2-3-th year. Common juniper is one of the most cold-resistant of its kind. Most varieties are also completely frost-resistant, but many columnar forms suffer greatly from the spring sun and require shading.
Recommended juniper varieties:
Juniperus communis berkshire
Juniper common variety. The needles are prickly, peaked, gray-blue. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.
Juniperus communis Compressa
Juniper common variety. Column-shaped form. This juniper is a common species of needles, prickly, spiky, green-blue. The branches are tight to the trunk. Annual increments within 3-5, see. On the south side, shading the plant from the rays of the spring sun is desirable. Fully frost resistant.
Juniperus communis Dr.U.
Narrow colony variety of common juniper. The needles are prickly, peaked, green. The branches are tight to the trunk. The krone is very dense. Annual increments within 15-20, see. It is desirable shading from the rays of the spring sun of the southern part of the plant. Fully frost resistant.
Juniperus communis Spotty Spreader
Juniper variety dwarf. Widely creeping, shrub form. The needles are soft, green, with irregular white staining. Preferably shading from the rays of the spring sun of the southern part of the plant. Fully frost resistant.
Juniperus communis Sterling Silver
Juniper variety dwarf. Creeping form. The needles are prickly, gray-blue. Fully frost resistant.
Juniperus communis sueca aurea
Juniper common variety. Column-shaped form. The needles are prickly, peaked, green-golden. The branches are tight to the trunk. Annual increments within 3-5, see. It is desirable shading from the rays of the spring sun of the southern part of the plant. Fully frost-resistant, covered with frost, rounded, 8-12 mm in diameter. Ripen on 2-th year.
Fully frost resistant. It has a few varietal forms.
Recommended juniper grade of crowded:
Juniperus conferta All Gold
Dwarf juniper variety of crowded. Creeping form. The needles are prickly, golden. Annual increments within 5-8, see Frost resistant.
Juniperus conferta - The juniper is crowded
It grows on the sands in Japan and on Sakhalin Island, forming dense thickets.
Creeping, strongly creeping shrub, similar to elfin form of common juniper. When describing this type of juniper it is worth noting its very long, red-brown branches. The ends of the twigs are straight. The needles are light green, needle-like, rigid, prickly, collected in flat whorls according to 3 pcs. Male and female plants do not differ in appearance. Fruits (cones) dark blue, exactly
Juniperus horizontalis - Juniper horizontal
It grows in the mountains and along the sandy shores of large lakes in North America.
Creeping shrub with long, tightly pressed to the ground branches. The branches are numerous, flat. The needles of the natural form are scaly, tightly pressed against the branches, and in cultural forms they are different: scaly, needle-like or combined. The color of the needles of natural form is gray-green, varietal - the most diverse: green, gray, golden, motley.
Fruits (cones) blue, as if covered with hoarfrost, rounded, 5-6 mm in diameter.
Recommended juniper varieties horizontal:
Juniperus horizontalis Blue Pygmy
Micro juniper horizontal variety. The needles are prickly, green-blue, sometimes silvery, densely located on the branches. Annual increments up to 1, see Fully frost-resistant.
Juniperus horizontalis Golden Carpet
Creeping shape of juniper horizontal. Scaly needles, golden, light green at the base of the branches. In winter, acquires a brown color. Annual increments within 10 cm, Fully frost resistant. The decoration of the garden will be like a juniper grown on a trunk and hanging from it, as well as a specimen creeping along the ground.
Juniperus horizontalis Mother Lode
Creeping shape of juniper horizontal. Scaly needles, golden, a little lime at the base of the branches. During the summer, it gradually acquires brownish tones, completely turning brown in the winter. Annual increments within 10, see Fully frost-resistant. The decoration of the garden will be like a juniper grown on a trunk and hanging from it, as well as a specimen creeping along the ground. It is considered one of the most golden junipers.
Juniperus horizontalis Neuman
Micro juniper horizontal variety. The needles are prickly, green-blue, at times silvery, densely located on the branches. Annual increments up to 1, see Fully frost-resistant. Virtually indistinguishable from Juniperus horizontalis Blue Pygmy.
Look at the photo - this juniper variety is considered the smallest:
Juniperus horizontalis Prince of Wales
Creeping shape of juniper horizontal. Scaly needles, green and blue. Annual increments in more than 10 cm. Crown diameter at the age of 10 years over 2-m. Fully frost-resistant. The decoration of the garden will be like a juniper grown on a trunk and hanging from it, as well as a specimen creeping along the ground.
Below are photos, names and descriptions of other varieties of junipers.
Other varieties of juniper: photo, name and description
Juniperus sabina - Cossack juniper
It grows in the mountains of Southern and Central Europe, in Siberia, in the Caucasus and in Asia Minor.
Highly variable. In nature, it is a shrub that forms extensive clumps up to 4 m in height. The trunks are sloping, the branches more or less creeping with raised branches of young growth. Old bark is reddish-brown, falling down with patches. The needles of the natural form are gray-green, tightly pressed against the branches, combined - needle and scaly on the same plant. The needles of varietal forms are the most diverse in both shape and color. Male and female plants differ not only generatively, but also by the type of needles - in the female specimens the needle type of the needles dominates, and in the male ones - scaly. Some varieties are naturally selected species of either female or male plants, such as the Femina and Mascula varieties.
Fruits (cones) bluish-black, as if covered with hoarfrost, rounded, 5-7 mm in diameter. Ripen in the first year in the fall or in the second year in the spring. Fully frost resistant.
Varieties of juniper Cossack even ten or fifteen years ago, quite often met in our gardens. The plant was unpretentious, and most importantly - almost the most affordable. But soon, many owners of small plots somewhat cooled towards its acquisition: first, it turned out that this juniper has a high growth rate and significant crown diameter, and secondly, other, not so aggressive and at the same time more interesting ones appeared on the market. , rare species and varieties of conifers.
Recommended varieties of juniper Cossack:
Juniperus sabina variegata
Natural form. One of the branches has a mutated, variegated color.
Juniperus sabina Blaue Donau (synonym - Blue Danube)
Dwarf variety of Cossack juniper. Shrub, sprawling, funnel-shaped form. The branches are pointed, have a vertical direction of growth. When describing this juniper variety, it is worth noting its beautiful green-blue needles. Annual increments 20-25, see Fully frost-resistant.
Juniperus sabina Cupressifolia
Dwarf variety of Cossack juniper. Creeping, spreading form. The branches are pointed, have a vertical direction of growth, then fall down. The needles are green and blue. Annual increments within 20 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Juniperus sabina Blue Forest
Dwarf variety of Cossack juniper. Dense, creeping, dense apical form. This is one of the best varieties of Cossack juniper with short, pointed branches and green-blue needles. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Juniperus scopulorum Juniper rocky
It grows in the western regions of North America, on dry spurs of rocks from Texas and Oregon to British Columbia. The species is close to Juniperus virginiana, which leads to constant confusion with the definition of varieties of these species.
In nature, it is a tree in height 10-13 m, often multilateral. The crown is broadly colonized, pin-shaped or irregularly rounded. The bark is dark red-brown. The needles are scaly, opposite, tightly pressed.
The color of the needles is dark, light or bluish-green. Fruits (cones) dark blue, as if covered with hoarfrost, rounded, 5-7 mm in diameter, sweetish. Ripen by the end of the second year.
Both the natural and cultural varieties of this juniper are completely frost resistant.
Recommended juniper grade of rocky:
Juniperus scopulorum moonglow
Column-shaped form of rocky juniper. The branches are tight to the trunk. Needles are hard, prickly, gray-blue. Plant size at 10-year-old: width within 40 cm, height 3,0 m. It is frost-resistant. At a young age can be damaged by the rays of the spring sun.
Juniperus sibirica - Siberian Juniper
Typical elfin species of highlands and polar regions of Eurasia. Systematically close to M. ordinary. In nature, forms extensive carpet thickets, in garden culture - squat shrub with a wide dense crown. Young shoots are green, trihedral with longitudinal grooves. The bark of adult plants is gray-brown, fibrous.
As can be seen in the photo, this juniper species has needle needles, hard, prickly, collected in the whorls on 3 pieces:
Needle length - 5-8 mm, color - green with a white stripe in the center. Male and female plants do not differ in appearance. Fruits (cones) dark-blue, precisely covered with hoarfrost, rounded, 6-9 mm in diameter. Ripen on 2-3-th year.
In culture, rare, but promising to fix the slopes and design of large rockeries. Cultivars and varieties of hybrids does not have.
Juniperus squamata - Juniper scaly
It grows in the Himalayas, Central and Western China. In nature, it is a highly branched, often creeping shrub, forming extensive, but loose clumps. Stems and branches hard, elastic, covered with gray-brown peeling bark. Sprigs of young growths are long, raised, gray green. Needles are needle, gray, short, dense, prickly, collected in whorls. Fruits (cones) red-brown, blackened with time, ellipsoid, 6-8 mm long. Ripen in the second year. It is completely frost-resistant, but often suffers from the spring sun.
It has a few, but diverse cultivars, mainly with bluish-blue needles. The shape of the crown of varietal forms is very diverse: “vase-shaped” in the Meyeri variety, globular - Blue Star, creeping - Blue Carpet. These varieties are most common in culture and are “typical” for this species of juniper. Also recommended varieties: Holger, Meyeri, Tropical Blue.
Recommended varieties of juniper flake:
Juniperus squamata Blue Carpet
Wide, creeping form of scaly juniper. The branches are thick, braided. Needles are sharp, hard, gray-blue. Annual increments within 10, see Frost-hardy. In wet winters, it is often damaged by a fungal infection, as a result of which damage to the needles of the branches may occur. Spring sun aggravates damage. Possible loss of both individual branches and the entire plant as a whole.
Juniperus squamata holger
It is possible that this is a hybrid of scaly juniper and Chinese Pfitzeriana Aurea. Wide, flattened form. The needles are sharp, turning yellow in spring, Further gray-blue. In 10 age, possible sizes: 50-70 cm high and 2,0-2,5 m wide. Frost resistant In wet winters, it is often damaged by a fungal infection, as a result of which damage to the needles of the branches may occur. Spring sun aggravates damage. Possible loss of both individual branches and the entire plant as a whole.
Juniperus squamata meyeri
Wide, creeping form of scaly juniper. The branches are thick, lashlike, raised. Needles are sharp, hard, gray-blue, collected in whorls. Annual increments within 10, see Frost-hardy. In wet winters, it is often damaged by a fungal infection, as a result of which damage to the needles of the branches may occur, the spring sun aggravates the damage. Possible loss of both individual branches and the entire plant as a whole.
Juniperus squamata tropical blue
Dwarf form of scaly juniper. Very compact, round shape. Needles are sharp, hard, saturated silver-blue color. Annual increments within 5-7, see Frost resistant. In wet winters, it is often damaged by a fungal infection, as a result of which damage to the needles of the branches may occur. Spring sun aggravates damage. Possible loss of both individual branches and the entire plant as a whole.
Juniperus virginiana - Virginia juniper
The name of this variety of junipers is given by the name of its main distribution area. Trees in their natural habitat grow on the dry stony soils of Virginia. They can also be found in wet swampy areas of North America - from Canada to Florida. The species is close to J. scopulorum (M. rocky), which leads to constant confusion with the definition of varieties of these species.
In nature, it is very variable, but most often it is a tree up to 30 m in height. The shape of the crown changes with age - first narrow-colonial, and later bowling with hanging branches and branches horizontally spaced from each other. Barrel thickness up to 1 m.
The bark exfoliates, its color varies from gray to reddish-brown. The needles are gray, combined - both needle-like and scaly on the same plant. Scale-like needles dominate, but needle-like is quite noticeable, especially in old trees, where it reaches a length of 10 mm. Scaly needles are opposite, lanceolate or ovate-rhombic, 1-2 long mm.
Monoecious flowers (male and female on one specimen). Fruits (cones) dark blue, shiny, almost frost-covered, almost round, 6 mm in diameter.
Both natural and varietal forms are completely frost resistant.
It has few cultivars with a variety of growth types. The most common - columnar Skyrocket and flattened Gray Owl.
The recommended grade of juniper virginsky:
Juniperus virginiana Gray Owl
Middle-grown variety of virgin juniper. In his youth, prostrate-raised form, which with age becomes very broad, multi-tiered. The branches are braided, raised. The needles are prickly, gray-blue. Annual increments within 15-20, see Fully frost-resistant.
Next, you will learn how to grow juniper in the country and how to propagate these trees.
How to grow juniper in the country: agricultural technology planting and care in the open field (with photo)
For planting and successful care for juniper, it is necessary to take care of loose subacidic loamy soils, sandy loamy soils are quite suitable. Dwarf varieties should not be grown on overly rich soils - they can lose their typical crown shape.
For juniper care, adult specimens are not required for top dressing. Young plants can be fed in the spring after melting snow on wet ground with complex or combined mineral fertilizer in a weakened concentration. Fresh manure and feces are categorically excluded.
These photos show the agrotechnology of planting and caring for mozhevelnikov:
Junipers are transplanted either in spring before bud break or in autumn. Deepening of the root collar is possible, but undesirable. Young plants and varietal garden forms tolerate transplanting easily, taken from nature - extremely bad. Large specimens can be transplanted only after preliminary preparation of the root ball.
In order to care for junipers in the way that proper agricultural technology implies, it is necessary to ensure the absence of stagnant and groundwater.
The frost resistance of species is different. Adult specimens are more resistant than younger ones. To build shelter from frost is possible only for undersized varietal forms.
As shown in the photo, when caring for junipers, medium-sized specimens are insulated with pine spruce branches; a “hut” is arranged for dwarfs:
In order to avoid breaking up by heavy snow and loss of shape, it is imperative to lightly branch branches of multi-bar varietal specimens.
The use of junipers in the landscape design of the garden (with photo)
It is not surprising that these beautiful and diverse plants became one of the main decorative compositions for the formation of compositions in almost all regions of the Earth. Depending on the nature and strength of growth, the type and color of the needles, each of the types and varieties of junipers in landscape design is used in its own way. They are good as dominants and soliter, for creating groups and borders, for planting in mixborders and rockeries. Junipers are irreplaceable in garden design and for maintaining a constant garden color - none of the coniferous species possesses such a rich variety of needles color: all of the green, bluish-white and golden yellow varieties. Junipers absolutely painlessly transfer the forming hairstyle throughout the year. To restrain growth and give compactness to spreading and creeping varieties, cutting of any branches is possible.
Look at the photo - in the design of the garden juniper bush species and varieties are good for the formation of trimmed hedges:
Compact multiple vertices are used for natural uncut hedges and borders. Dense narrow-pyramidal varieties are indispensable for the creation of sheared columns, arches and spirals. Tall wide-pyramidal cultivars are convenient for forming clipped longline compositions in the Japanese style.
These photos show the use of junipers in landscape design:
In many species, the shoots of last year get burned at the end of winter - early spring. From this saves shading coniferous spruce branches or gauze. In the spring for a uniform awakening of plants, abundant watering is recommended. It is especially important after the frost winters, which greatly freeze the soil.
The following describes how to grow juniper from seed.
The main conditions for growing juniper seed
One of the main conditions for growing juniper from seeds is to use only freshly harvested planting material. When stored under normal conditions, germination is lost through 1-2 of the year.
Seeds should be harvested in the fall as soon as the pine cones ripen. To improve germination, they must be removed from the fruit and washed. Seeds have very hard shells, without which they can not germinate. In addition, the seed germ is not ready for germination, as it is at rest. In nature, the process of disturbance of the integument takes place in the stomach of the birds that swallowed the seeds, and the awakening of the embryo takes place during a long stay in the soil.
In garden culture for growing juniper, seeds are scarified, i.e., cover is artificially disturbed. For junipers, the best method is chemical, in which dry seeds are placed on 30 minutes in sulfuric acid, and then they are carefully washed. After this treatment, the seeds are sown in open ground. They sprout in the spring.
Another method of germinating seeds is possible, based on a combined stratification of the nation, which creates ideal conditions for the awakening of the embryo. Immediately after collecting and cleaning the seeds, they are mixed with large, clean, slightly wet sand, sawdust or sphagnum moss, placed in plastic bags and stored for months at a temperature of + 2 to + 3 ° C for 20-30. In the future, the seeds are stored for 3-4 months in the refrigerator or basement at + 3 ... + 5 ° С. During the period of stratification, it is necessary to maintain an even moderate level of substrate moisture and accumulate temperature fluctuations.
In spring, stratified seeds are washed and sown in boxes or bowls. Crops are exposed to a warm (+ 18 ... + 23 ° C) place where they germinate. Shoots contain in the light, but not in the bright sun and moderately watered, if necessary, dive. After quenching in the fresh air planted in the ridge.
To simplify the process, the seeds after stratification can be immediately sown in the ridges of open ground. The combination of chemical scarification with further stratification guarantees a higher germination rate.
Varietal varieties during seed reproduction do not repeat the characteristic features very well, and it is very difficult to identify them in the first year. For propagation of varietal forms using vegetative propagation.
Breeding junipers in the garden cuttings (with video)
The method of breeding junipers with horizontal layers does not guarantee the preservation of the shape of the crown in column-like plants, but it is very good for elfin forms. Rooting occurs throughout the year.
Cutting provides the most complete repetition of all varietal traits. However, not all junipers are equally easily propagated by cuttings. Cuttings from young varietal plants rooted relatively well, and even better - cuttings taken from plants with elfin crown type. The cuttings of many wild species, especially taken from old specimens, root very badly.
The cuttings are carried out in the spring before the beginning or at the very beginning of the bud awakening. You can do this in the summer, when young growths harden, but in this case, the cuttings do not have time to form roots and winter only with the influx of callus.
For spring early rooting, matured shoots of last year are suitable; in mid-summer, the growths of the current year are cut off. For columnar and narrow pyramidal forms, only upward, but not the strongest, shoots are taken; from creeping — all except vertical ones, any cuttings can be taken from plants with a free, oval or spherical crown. The best cuttings are short side branches, torn from the main branch with a piece of old wood - with a "heel". Harvest them in the morning or in cloudy weather.
For breeding junipers in the garden, cuttings are rooted in boxes filled with a special substrate consisting of coarse washed sand with added perlite in the ratio of 1: 1 or 2: 1 or top sour peat (3: 1). The cuttings are immersed in the substrate at an angle 60 -70, and in no case can they be turned over with the back of a branch up.
When spring grafting in the initial period, before bud break, it is necessary to maintain the temperature + 15 ... + 18 ᵒС, and then bring it to + 20 ... + 23 ° С. It is undesirable to allow sharp fluctuations in temperature and raise it above + 25 ° С. Direct sunlight is particularly dangerous for cuttings, so they need to shade.
Excessive moisture substrate leads to the death of the cuttings. To avoid this, good drainage is needed. However, the combination of a slightly moist substrate with increased air humidity stimulates rooting. To improve the results, you can use drugs for root formation, strictly adhering to the instructions attached to them.
If you take care of junipers in a garden in a country house as the correct agricultural technology suggests, spring cuttings can take root by the middle of summer, and summer ones - by the end of autumn. But sometimes, by the autumn, the cuttings do not form roots, having only a thickening at the cutting site — callus. In this case, they need shelter for the winter. Well-rooted plants do not cover.
Watch the video “Reproduction of juniper cuttings” to better understand how this agricultural practice is performed: