Metasequoia is one of the oldest plants on the planet. Even before the 40-s of the last century, descriptions of growing trees were simply absent, only references of the relict species could be available in reference books. The needles of Metasequoia are surprisingly soft, in the fall it acquires an orange-purple color, and with the onset of cold weather the needles leave the tree along with thin branches.
Metasequoia (Metasequoia) belongs to the Taxiodiaceae family (Taxodiaceae). This relict genus is now represented by the only species growing on the slopes of the mountain gorges in China.
In nature, rbnfqcrfy metasequoia is a light-loving plant that successfully grows in shady places. In northern conditions, the tree suffers from cold winter winds, so it is preferable for it to be a protected landing site.
Metasequoia in landscaping parks and gardens
Metasequoia is very decorative and is widely used for landscaping gardens and parks in the northern temperate regions. It is especially good in the early spring, during the period of the blooming of tender young leaves, and in the autumn, when the needles are colored in all shades of yellow, pink, red and brown.
As can be seen in the photo, a metasequoia as a botanical rarity is planted alone or in groups with short evergreens to emphasize all its advantages:
During the last 5-6 years in the gardens of the North-West and Central Russia Metasequoia and its varieties have passed the first serious tests. At the moment, we can state the following. Their frost resistance in these regions very much depends on the landing site. Successfully overwinter plants planted on the leeward side of buildings or protected from cold wind by other plants in group plantings. The copies growing on open places freeze slightly. Short frost up to - 30 ... —35 ° C Metasequoia and its varieties are easily tolerated even in open places. Adult specimens are more resistant than young ones, for which an air-dry shelter with a conifer spruce or matting is desirable. Under the snow cover young plants overwinter without shelter.
Metasequoia glyptostrobate or glyptostrobus: photo and description
Metasequoia glyptostrobate or glyptostrobus (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) - A beautiful tree, reaching a height of 35 m with a trunk thickness of up to 2 m. The first description of living metasexual, and not fossil, specimens of this plant was made only in 1941, and it became a “sensation of the century” among botanists.
Some of the plants detected are older than 600 years. Crohn uneven pyramid with stocky, densely branched branches. The branches are opposite, bare, smooth; young - green, adults - brown. It has two types of shoots: elongated and shortened growing from them. The bark is dark brown, wrinkled, peels off thin patches. Needles needle, small, flat, tender, light green on top and gray-green below.
Metasequoia glyptostroboide - not a deciduous, but a “branch-pad” tree. Every autumn its needles are painted in yellowish-pink tones and fall off along with small sprigs (short annual increments).
The pollen is collected in the male organs (microstrobiles), located on the tops of the shoots and peculiar earrings hanging from them.
Cones are small, hanging on a long petiole.
Recommended grade Metasequoia glyptostrobus - M. glyptostroboides Hamlet's Broom. These are creeping plants with soft needles. Skeletal branches together with needles shed in the winter and all the small twigs. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Growing Chinese Metasequoia from Seeds
Only freshly harvested seeds are suitable for growing Metasequoia. They can be stored in an airtight container at temperatures from 0 to + 5 С. In this case, they remain viable for more than 15 years.
Seeds fresh from the buds are capable of immediate germination, as their germ is in a shallow dormancy stage. Therefore, the subwintering is most rational when in the fall, right after harvesting, seeds are sown in the ridge to a depth of 3-5 cm and mulch to a height of 1-1,5 cm and snowing. In the spring - at the beginning of summer, after the emergence of shoots, the plants are lashed out in a row or left in boxes until autumn. In winter, young plants must be covered. Under the snow cover, the overwintering is flawless.
Good results are obtained by cold stratification of metasequoia seeds at temperatures from + 3 to + 5 ° С for 1-2 months. After passing the stratification, the seeds are exposed to light at a temperature of + 18 ... + 23 ° С for germination. Shoots protect from direct sun and moderately watered. Excessively dense shoots dive. If they develop normally, a box with crops at the onset of heat is carried out into the garden, gradually accustomed to the sun and fresh air, and planted in a row for growing.
Metasequoia seedling is unpretentious and develops quite quickly.
Vegetative reproduction of metasequoise cuttings
The most rational way of vegetative propagation is grafting. The easiest way to take root sleeping leafless cuttings. Material harvested in the thaw by the end of winter - in early spring. The most suitable are the primes of the past year. Until spring, shoots are kept dug in the basement or wrapped in polyethylene in the refrigerator, preventing them from drying out or waking up. For better storage, cuttings of the cuttings are embedded in paraffin.
Rooted cuttings in late winter or spring. For this purpose, boxes filled with loose, well-aerated substrate or specially prepared, well-drained ridges, on which a frame covered with film is installed (tunnel greenhouse), are used. Good for this and shade greenhouses with high humidity. The upper layer of the ridges is filled with a slightly rammed layer of the substrate, which consists of large washed sand mixed with perlite or high acidic peat in the ratio 2: 1, 3: 1. A similar mixture is used to fill the boxes.
Cuttings of length 5-10 cm are cut with a sharp knife and fixed in the substrate at an angle 45-50ᵒ. At first, before the buds start to bloom, they are kept at a temperature of + 10 ... + 15 ° С, and then they are lifted to + 20 ... + 25 С. Temperatures above + 25 ° C are undesirable. Particularly dangerous to hit the cuttings of direct sunlight, this leads to overheating. Therefore, the ridge is required pritenyat. Successful rooting requires high humidity (95-100%). The substrate should never be excessively wet, therefore drainage is extremely important.
Well-established plants overwinter without shelter under the snow cover. Weakly rooted cuttings can winter through air-dry shelter.
Metasequoia prefers fertile loamy soil. On loose poor sandy soil it grows slowly, but winters better because of the rapid thawing of the soil in spring. Adult specimens do not need fertilizer. Young plants can be fed in the spring after the snow has melted with complex or combined mineral fertilizer on wet ground.
Metasequoia is transplanted either in early spring or in autumn. To deepen the root neck is undesirable. Young plants tolerate transplantation easily, for the transplantation of large plants, preliminary preparation of the root coma is obligatory.
Replanted specimens require abundant watering and spring spraying until the tree is rooted. Metasequoia is moisture-loving and requires sufficient watering during the leaf blooming period and the active growth of the shoots, but stagnant and close groundwater is destructive for it.