Like all other plants, conifers are subject to disease and attack by pests. In addition to viruses and infections, needle-like trees and bushes on the site suffer from frostbite and sunburn of the bark, the frequent urine of stray animals has a detrimental effect on crops, and if you do not remove the winter shelter in time, the needles can wipe away from the conifer.
Various types of aphids, lozhnoshchitov, worms, caterpillars, ticks, diseases caused by primitive fungi - all this can be found on conifers. They also have their own specific diseases, most of which, unfortunately, can be transmitted not only between conifers, but also between deciduous plants. Prevention is the free placement of plants in the composition and the prevention of the spread of diseases in the neighboring species.
The spread of old and the emergence of new pests and diseases of conifers is largely due to the lack of control of imported material. Buying plants, never stop your choice on dubious specimens. New plants for at least one year land on an isolated "quarantine" area, and not in the overall composition.
What and how to treat coniferous trees, you will learn on this page.
How and what to treat coniferous trees in the garden
The treatment of diseases of conifers is a complex process. Incorrectly chosen drug or its high concentration can ruin the "patient".
The signs of many diseases and the type of damage caused by pests are often similar, so recognizing them is not easy, but, fortunately, control measures are close. Pay attention to the recommendations on this page - they will help you and your green pets. Use in the garden only those pesticides that are allowed for use in personal subsidiary farming, and strictly follow the instructions attached to the preparation.
Table "Diseases of coniferous trees and their treatment":
Signs of defeat
Prevention, control measures
Small yellow-green insects covered with gray-white waxy pubescence. Suck shoots between the needles. Before fencing go to the needles
Colonies of large brilliant aphids on branches and bark
Sticky small fluffy snow-white formations from the underside of the needles
On the crust of formation with a white sticky fuzz under which dark brown small insects hide
Small caterpillars on the kidneys and (or) adjacent shoots
Caterpillars from green to brown. Eaten with pine needles and young growths, wrapped around their cobwebs
Leaflets, scoops, shoots, peppered moths, etc.
The small oval cakes are initially white and then dark brown. Miniature larvae hiding under the shields
System insecticides. It is possible to use actellic, karbofos or other similar drugs.
Groups of different sizes of sticky white shaggy secretions, under which small larvae hide, on needles and delicate twigs
The branches are covered with groups of the finest webs. Inside the web moving tiny mites. Needles turns brown. For the season formed up to 3-6 generations of pests
On needles and branches, fusiform swellings with yellowish mucous or gelatinous secretions of fungi
Remove affected branches. Destruction of severely affected plants. Disinfection wounds. Fungicide treatment
The needles in the spring during 1-2 days after the snow melts, becomes reddish brown with black transverse lines and fall off. The disease is especially dangerous for young plants. Adults are more resistant
Fungicide treatment. Perhaps the use of colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux mixture, or other similar drugs. Removal of dead needles and dead plants
The needles in the spring after the snow melts turns out to be a dirty green color, because it is covered with a thin gray mycelium. During the summer, the needles turn light gray with black dots and fall off. The disease is especially dangerous for young plants. Adults are more resistant. Infection occurs in autumn
Treatment with fungicides in spring and July-September. Perhaps the use of colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux mixture, or other similar drugs. Removal of dead needles and dead plants.
Cancer ulcers on the trunks and branches. On the dead bark, white outlines of 2-4 mm in diameter are formed.
Removal of dead branches or diseased plants
Vertical cracking of the bark. Most often on young thujas, tuyevik and cypress trees
Warming trunks for the winter. Covering wounds with garden bark, tightening and winding the bark before healing
Spring browning of branches and needles above the snow cover
Planting in the shade or under the cover of other plants. Weatherization of plants from late autumn with light breathable covering material. Spring shading after shelter removal. Spraying injured but living branches that have a chance to grow. Removing dead branches
Browning and shedding needles on one side of the plant
Shading plants in early spring on the sunny side. Planting in the shade or under the cover of other plants
Sudden local browning of needles and branches, Glitter on the needles. Further death of the branches or death of the plant is possible.
Consequences of urine in cats and dogs
Immediate washing of plants with clean water. Pruning diseased branches
Browning of pine needles and small branches in the center of the crown in the spring after the cover has been removed
Deciduous needles due to a strong tie or too late to remove the cover
Easy screed branches in front of the shelter. Gradual and timely removal of shelter, shading after shelter removal. Cleaning in the early summer, after the awakening of the kidneys
Yellowing and drying of needles and small branches in the center of the crown at the end of summer - in autumn
Natural seasonal dying off of pine needles
Does not exist. Autumn cleaning is undesirable because dry needles warm the plants in winter. It is recommended to pick up pine needles and cut dead branches on a dry day in early summer
The most common diseases of conifers are shown in these photos:
Protection of coniferous plants from pests typographers
How to protect coniferous plants from the bark beetle-typographer, it is worth stopping in detail, as over the past few years, due to climatic changes in Eastern Europe, its numbers have increased dramatically. In Russia, the situation became especially alarming after the relatively warm winters of 2010 and 2012. Everywhere began to occur significant areas of dried plantings of Norway spruce. The forests of the Moscow region and adjacent areas were particularly affected. Let's try to deal with this problem.
In nature, there are a sufficient number of stem pests:
Beetle bark beetle (Ips typographus), black-brown, about 5 mm in size. It occurs everywhere in Europe, and Russia, as practice shows, is no exception.
The life cycle of the development of the beetle is quite complicated. First of all, the bark beetle-typographer settles on spruce trees, weakened due to various factors. In the spring, when the air temperature exceeds 10-12 degrees of heat, and for central Russia this is the end of April - the beginning of May, the males arrive, which begin to drill the first inlet channels. Males are polygamous, that is, they can alternately mate with several females. After settling, already in the bast layer of the bark, they gnaw an additional platform, the so-called “marriage chamber”. Then they secrete odorous pheromones, which, mixed with recycled particles of bark, called "drilling flour", are thrown out of the passages and attract females.
The appearance of "drilling flour" on the trunk or individual branches, it indicates that the conifer tree has already been colonized by this pest. Females in large numbers flock to the smell, mate with males and then begin to gnaw up the uterine vertical passages, where eggs are subsequently laid. After hatching eggs, the larvae also gnaw through additional larval moves, where they pupate, and then the newly formed young beetle gnaws the exit hole and flies out. Also, approximately two weeks after the first laying, the eggs of the “nursing generation” are laid by the females of this pest of coniferous plants. On average, it takes about 65-70 days to settle the male parents to the departure of the young beetles.
These terms are somewhat arbitrary and directly depend on the climatic factors of a given locality and weather conditions of a particular year. On average, in the Moscow region, the printer gives two generations.
See how this coniferous pest looks like in the photo:
The main signs and stages of destruction of conifers by a pest-typographer:
- The appearance of "drilling flour" on the trunk and on the lower branches, as well as on the grass in the vicinity of the trunk circle.
- Abundant tarry. At the initial settling of individual males - this is a positive sign. The tree allocates resin - “sap”, beats individual beetles, fights for its health and life. With mass summer of females, grouting no longer helps.
- Upon careful examination of the trunk and branches of the tree are visible small holes - the tree is populated.
- Yellowing-browning of individual branches. Upon careful examination of the trunk and branches of the tree, larger holes are visible, insignificant resin leaks - the tree is not only populated, but also begins to die. Also, the first generation crash has already occurred.
- There is a fall of the cortex. On the trunk there are uterine and larval passages, larvae and beetles themselves. The tree died.
The mechanism of damage to the plant is always the same. First of all, the vessels feeding the crown and located in the bast layer of wood are blocked. Violation of the movement of nutrients inside the trunk leads to the drying of the branches and the death of the entire tree.
It occurs within one to three years. There is also such a thing as “green deadwood”, when the crown of the tree is still green, but in essence the tree has already died, as there was a complete destruction of the bast layer of wood. Bark beetles-typographers can winter both under the bark and in the near-stem circle, within a radius of 1-1,5 m from a tree at a depth of 5-8, see
One of the most effective methods of fighting it is to prevent the colonization of coniferous trees in the garden by the beetle-typographer. As a rule, the treatment is carried out in late April - early May, before the first flight of the beetle.
There are several insecticides recommended to protect conifers from this pest: Orivo, Cypermethrin, Bi-58, Clipper.
The most effective of them is the clipper. The solution is abundantly sprayed along the barrel, its action ends approximately in a month. If the drug is applied during the period of active precipitation, then its duration is reduced, and the percentage of surviving beetles increases accordingly. A typographer, trying to populate an already processed tree, usually dies after contact with the bark. But if the bark beetle population is very large, then parts of the beetles still manage to populate the tree. And then even re-processing will not be effective. At the initial stage of settlement, spruce can be saved by injecting other certified insecticides or special biological preparations under the bark. After such injections, infection and death of not only adult beetles, but also their offspring occurs.
The combination of prophylactic stem treatment and intra-stem injection is considered the most effective method to combat this pest of conifers. If the affected tree is starting to turn yellow and dry up the branches, most likely your efforts were in vain and it will not be possible to save him.
The tree will have to be destroyed, but in this way it will be possible to prevent the infection of nearby plants. The second prophylactic treatment with insecticides on the trunk should be carried out in late July - early August, during the period of possible departure of the developed first generation.
A few words should be said about pheromone traps to combat this conifer pest. If on large areas in forests, their use is quite effective, then in gardens they can only bring harm.
Beetles, arriving at the smell, quickly overfill the trap. If it is not cleaned in time, many females of the bark beetle fly out from there and start looking for trees already populated by males. In gardens, the use of antiferomon tablet pest repellent that attaches to tree trunks brings good results.
They are quite resistant to precipitation and have a prolonged period of action. Their disadvantages include a rather high price.
The bark beetle can also be damaged: Ale (Picea), Pine Siberian cedar (Pinus sibirica), Korean Cedar Pine (Pinus koraiensis, less common pine ((Pinus sylvestris)), Fir Siberian (Abies sibirica), Korean fir (Abies koraiensis).
Measures to combat this conifer pest are shown in the photo:
Processing conifers for pests and diseases with pesticides
Before treating coniferous plants, you need to remember the basic rules for treating plants with pesticides.
- Use insecticides to kill insects and their larvae, acaricides to kill ticks, and fungicides to eliminate fungal diseases. In each of these groups there are many drugs, and over time, new, more advanced. That is why the means recommended in the special literature for the protection of coniferous plants cannot always be found on the market, but one can find their modern analogues belonging to the same groups: insecticides, acaricides and fungicides.
- Clearly follow the instructions for use of the drug and never arbitrarily increase the multiplicity of treatments and the concentration of the drug. Never improvise with mixing drugs.
- Do not process plants in hot sunny weather - the solution should dry on the leaves before the appearance of hot rays. Do not treat plants before the rain - it is meaningless. The best time to process conifers plants against pests and illnesses — early morning or evening of a dry warm day.
- Treatment is carried out repeatedly as the appearance of young and more sensitive generations of pests. Remember: adult pests have already laid eggs, and fungi form spores.
- Take care of self-defense and pet security. Take care of your skin and eyes. Never treat in windy conditions.
See how coniferous trees are treated for diseases and pests in these photos: