Creating conditions for growing larch on the plot, be sure to ensure that ornamental flowering or rare collection plants are not planted nearby. The fact is that although larch is a coniferous tree, for the winter it completely throws off its needles, as a result of which the entire soil is densely covered with yellowed needles in the diameter of the crown.
Larch Larix belongs to the Pine family (Pinaceae). The genus is represented by 10-15 by closely related species growing in the temperate and cold zones of the Northern Hemisphere. In Siberia and the Far East, larch are forest-forming species.
This page describes how the larch trees of different species look and how to care for these plants.
Description of larch and use in landscape design (with photo)
All species of larches are similar in appearance to large deciduous trees with horizontal, widely and unevenly spaced, and sometimes hanging branches. The first thing to note when describing larch trees is the power of the trees and their extensive root system. They grow to 50 m in height. Individual copies live to the age of five or more. The bark is roughly wrinkled, thick. Needles are needle-like, flat, thin, soft, light green or bluish. Male "flowers" single, rounded or ovate, formed at the ends of short leafless shoots.
As can be seen in the photo, the cones of a larch tree are small oblong-ovate, young green or purple, mature gray-brown:
Seeds ripen and spill out in the very first year, but the buds keep on the branches for several years. The percentage of fully developed seeds is small, and their germination disappears in the 2-3 year.
Larch wood is one of the most industrially valuable. The active use of wood has led to a significant reduction in the European distribution area. If in the XII century, extensive larch forests were located even in central Russia, then at present this tree begins to dominate in forests, only starting from Siberia.
All species of larches are equally valuable for decorating a garden. As a rule, they are planted as tapeworms (attracting the attention of single specimens), or they create from them groves-backstage.
See how beautiful are the compositions with larches in landscape design on these photos:
Against the background of deciduous larches look spectacular evergreen pines, spruce and fir. The joint planting of coniferous trees of larch trees with the addition of deciduous species to them is the main theme of the classic park compositions of northern gardens. Larches easily tolerate pruning, but are unsuitable for curly hairstyle. To form a compact crown, pruning large branches and branches in early spring or autumn is possible, as well as shortening young growths, which causes active tillering and compaction of the crown. Young larches are flexible, elastic plants, and this allows them to bend their trunks and branches, sap their branches and, fixing on a support, change their type of growth. Using this method and combining it with a haircut, you can create “live” arches, pergolas and gazebos using larch trees in landscape design.
The following describes how the larches of different species and varieties look.
Popular species and varieties of larch: photos and description
Widely popular in culture and absolutely frost-resistant — larch deciduous, or European (L. decidua), Gmelin larch, or Dahurian (L. gmelinii), American larch (L. laricina).
Larix decidua - Fallen Larch, or European.
It grows in the mountains of Central Europe, occupies large areas and reaches the level of alpine meadows. It has many cultivars of different habit and type of growth.
Recommended varieties of European larch:
Larix decidua Compacta.
Dwarf varieties of European larch. Branches densely pubescent, softwood needles, green. Annual increments within 10-12, see Autumn needles color from golden to dark orange. Fully frost resistant. Autumn coloring of needles of this variety of a larch of the European look from golden to dark orange. Fully frost resistant.
Larix decidua Lucek.
Srednerosly larch European variety. The branches are upright. Golden needles in spring, pale green at the end of summer. Annual increments 30-50 see. Autumn color of needles from golden to dark orange. Fully frost resistant.
Larix decidua Pendula.
Weeping variety of European larch. Branches densely pubescent, falling, brittle.
Pay attention to the photo - the needles of this larch variety are soft, green:
Annual growths up to 70, see. Autumn coloring of needles from golden to dark orange. Fully frost resistant.
Larix decidua Horstmann's Recurved.
Large size varieties of European larch. The branches are twisted, the growth is irregular, some of them are erect, others are falling. Annual increments within 50, see. Autumn color of needles from golden to dark orange. When describing this variety of larch, it is especially worth noting its high frost resistance.
Larix decidua Krejci Mutation.
Dwarf varieties of European larch. Growth is irregular. Branches densely pubescent, softwood needles, green. Annual increments within 50, see
Larix decidua Pali.
Weeping variety of European larch. Branches densely pubescent, falling, brittle. The needles are soft, green. Annual growths up to 30, see. Autumn coloring of needles from golden to dark orange. Fully frost resistant.
Larix gmelinii - Larch Gmelin, or Dahurian.
Forms powerful forests in the Far East, replacing in East Siberia a close view - L. Siberian. In the highlands it has a curved shape and dwarf growth, which is used by gardeners to create bonsai dwarf trees. The needles are tender, green, slightly bluish. It has a few varieties of varieties.
Larix laricina - American Larch.
Forms large forest tracts in the mountains of North America.
As shown in the photo, the needles of this species of larch are tender, light green:
It has cultivars of different habit and type of growth.
Recommended varieties of American larch:
Larix laricina Tharandf.
Mini-variety of American larch. Round shape. The needles are gray-blue, soft. Autumn needles color from golden to dark orange. Annual increments 5-6, see Fully frost-resistant.
Larix kaempferi - Kempfer Larch.
It grows in the mountains of the Far East. The needles are gentle, gray-green. It has numerous varietal forms with gray and blue needles. Widely used to create bonsai dwarf trees.
Recommended varieties of larch Kempfer:
Larix kaempferi Blue Ball.
Dwarf Kempfer larch variety. The shape is rounded. The needles are soft, green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increment 10 cm. Fully frost-resistant.
Larix kaempferi Cruwys Morchard.
Virtually indistinguishable from Larix kaempferi Little Bogle. Branches are pleiform, densely pubescent. The needles are soft, gray-green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Larix kaempferi Cupido.
Dwarf Kempfer larch variety. The shape is rounded. The needles are soft, gray-green, Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Larix kaempferi Diana.
Large size Kempfer larch. The shape is spreading. The branches are curved, the needles are soft, green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments over 30 cm. Fully frost-resistant.
Larix kaempferi Gray Pearl.
Dwarf Kempfer larch variety. The shape is rounded. The needles are soft, gray-green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant.
Larix kaempferi Little Bogle.
Virtually indistinguishable from Larix kaempferi Cruwys Morchard. Branches are pleiform, densely pubescent. The needles are soft, gray green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Larix kaempferi Mazanek.
Srednerosly grade of a larch of Kempfer. Branches are curved, whip-shaped, randomly located. The needles are soft, green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 30 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Larix kaempferi Minor.
Srednerosly grade of a larch of Kempfer. Branches develop in a vertical direction, whiplike. The needles are soft, green. Autumn color of the needles varies from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 30, see Fully frost-resistant,
Larix kaempferi Stiff Weeping.
Weeping grade of Kempfer larch. Oval oblong shape. The branches are densely pubescent, falling.
The width and height of the plant can be set by the gardener himself. The needles are green and blue. Autumn needles color from golden to dark orange. Annual increments within 50 cm. Fully frost resistant.
Larix kaempferi Wehlem.
Dwarf Kempfer larch variety. The shape is rounded oblate. The needles are soft, gray-green-blue. Autumn needles color from golden to dark orange. Annual gains 5-7cm. Fully frost resistant
Look at the photo larch trees, description which is given above:
Larix sibirica - Siberian Larch.
Forms extensive forests in Siberia and the Far East. This is the most common plant in Russia. The needles are gentle, light green. Unfortunately, practically does not have garden cultivars.
Below you will learn how to grow larch in the garden.
How to grow larch in the garden
When planting and caring for larch do not forget that this is a "freedom-loving" plants. Only in the open, they acquire the characteristic sprawling shape of the crown. In shaded areas and in thickened plantings, they are a little decorative.
Larch soils are undemanding, and sand and clay can be used to take care of growing trees, but these crops still prefer light fertile subacidic loam.
Adult specimens have a strong, branched root system and do not need additional feeding. Young plants can be fertilized in the spring after melting snow on wet ground with complex or combined mineral fertilizer, but by no means fresh manure or faeces.
Transplantation in the care of larch should be carried out either in early spring before bud break, or in autumn after yellowing of the leaves. At the same time, it is possible to deepen the root neck, although it is undesirable. Plants with actively growing shoots require pruning, they do not root well and are ill for a long time, so it is not recommended to replant them.
Young larches easily tolerate transplantation; large ones can be transplanted only after preliminary preparation, when, as a result of repeated pruning of the roots, a dense lump is formed. If the plant is planned to be transplanted in the fall, the pruning is carried out in the spring, and the spring is prepared for transplanting in the spring of the previous year. In the process of how to care for the transplanted larches, you need to follow the same rules as when growing other conifers - water it abundantly, and during spring transplantation, you must also spray until the tree is rooted.
Adult larches are extremely drought-resistant. Young plants require sufficient watering during the period of active growth and are able to tolerate the proximity of groundwater, for adult plants, excessive moisture is detrimental.
Most species are highly frost resistant. Young summer shoots often suffer from late frosts, but grow easily.
The next section of the article is devoted to how to multiply the larch on the plot.
How to propagate larch: conditions for growing crops from seeds
The most rational method of reproduction of larch is seed. Only freshly harvested seeds are suitable, but even among them the percentage of germination is small. When stored under normal conditions, germination is lost after a year, and sometimes even after 3-4 months, but if they are kept in a sealed container at temperatures from 0 to X-5 ° C, they will also grow through 10 or more years.
Seeds fresh from the cones are capable of immediate germination, since their embryo is in a shallow dormancy stage, but dried and the more stored seeds need to be awakened by the embryo through stratification.
The following methods of sowing seed culture are most rational:
- Sub-winter sowing. In the fall, immediately after harvesting, without drying, the seeds are sown in a ridge to a depth of 3-5 cm and mulched to a height of 1-1,5, see. In spring, after germination, the plants wicked out or left on the ridge until autumn or next spring.
- Snowing Seeds are sown in boxes in the fall or winter, kept warm for 2-3 weeks and then taken out in the snow until spring. In the spring - at the beginning of summer, after the emergence of shoots, plants are opened in a row or left in boxes until autumn.
- Cold stratification. At the end of winter, seeds are sown in boxes or bowls in an earthen mixture consisting of rotted leaf earth, peat and coarse sifted sand in the ratio 3: 1: 1. Crops are kept warm for 2-3 weeks, and then stored in a refrigerator or basement at temperatures from + 3 to + 5 ° C for 1-2 months, maintaining an even moderate substrate moisture level and a constant temperature.
Stratified seeds for growing larch trees are transferred for germination in a bright warm (+ 18 ... + 25 ° С) place. Shoots protect from direct sunlight and moderately watered. If the seeds have risen excessively thick, then a pick is necessary. Upon the onset of heat, crops are carried out into the garden, and after quenching, they are planted in a ridge.
When growing larches from seeds, seedlings are unpretentious and develops quickly.
Creeping forms can be propagated by horizontal taps, but rooting rarely occurs in the first year. Perhaps grafting, but it is associated with very great difficulties and ineffective.