Decorative cypress, the use of which in gardening of home gardens has recently gained wide popularity, looks very similar to its direct "relative" - cypress. Of the obvious differences can be distinguished more thickened branches of cypress and relatively small cones with only two seeds, while the cypress them much more.
Cypress (Chamaecyparis) belongs to the family of cypress (Cupressaceae). All 7 species of the genus are highly ornamental large evergreen trees found in North America, Japan and China.
The branches, as a rule, are unevenly spaced from the trunk and form a dense keg-like crown. Sprigs are flattened, covered with typical for a family of scale-like needles.
As you can see in the photo, cypress seedlings and young plants have needle needles, very small and soft:
In maturing plants there are needles of both types, and in varietal forms there can be any, including a combined one.
"Flowers" are located on the side branches. Male - yellow, ovoid-oblong, female - almost rounded with 6-8 cross-opposite scales. Cones ripen in the first year, they are small, rounded and tough. Seeds are small, two-winged, elliptical or round, according to 2-5 pcs. in the fruit.
In this material you will be able to get acquainted with the photo, name and description of cypress species and popular varieties, as well as learn about the agrotechnology of cultivation of these trees and their use in landscape design.
Popular species and varieties of cypress: photos, names and descriptions
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana -Calvis Loveson.
A large, spectacular tree growing in North America, in forests from southwestern Oregon to northwestern California.
The trunk is straight, 25-30 m in height and up to 1,7 m in diameter. The branches of this species of cypress trees are short, horizontally standing, the tips of the branches hang down, which is why the crown acquires an acute-pointed shape with its tip bent to the side. Twigs flat, located on the same level, almost horizontally. The bark is reddish brown with round scaly plates. The needles of adult plants are scaly, greenish-gray above and gray-green below.
Cones bluish-green, numerous, small (about 8 mm in diameter), rounded. Mature in the first year. Lawson's cypress has a truly innumerable number of varietal forms widely used in gardens in regions with a moderately warm and slightly frosty climate.
In the conditions of the northern temperate zone of Russia, application is limited due to insufficient frost resistance and long growth of frozen plants or sunburned plants. When describing a cypress tree of this type, it is worth noting that the winter resistance of different varietal forms is significantly different - each of the varieties requires testing.
The varieties of this cypress are considered to be more sustainable if grown in a horizontal plane. It is true here, too, there is a serious danger of sloughing out of the snow or branch breakage. Summarizing everything written above, it can be argued that the varieties of Lawson's cypress are conditionally suitable for growing in conditions of central Russia. This plant is not for beginners, require planting in partial shade, in conditions of high humidity and protection from drying out winter winds. Two-time treatment for fungal diseases with preparations containing copper is desirable.
Recommended varieties of cypress Lawson:
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Alumii Gold.
Middle grade cypress Lawson. Pyramid shape. Scaly needles. The annual growth of 20-25 cm, golden immediately after the growing season, subsequently green. In 10-year-old age, the possible height of 2,5 is m. Conditionally frost-resistant.
Chamaecyparis lawsonianaTharandtensis Caesia.
Mini-cypress Lawson's cypress. In youth, the form is round, with age it becomes conical. The needles are green and blue, in the shade it becomes completely green. Annual increments 3-7, see Conditionally cold-resistant.
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Sunkist.
Dwarf cypress Lawson's cypress. Oval-conical shape. The needles are scaly, yellow-green, with drizzle of gray. Annual increments within 15 cm. Conditionally frost-resistant.
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Wissel's Saguaro.
Full-grown variety of cypress Lawson. The needles are scaly, gray-green. Annual growth of 30-40, see. In Western European culture, part is used as a tapeworm. In the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia, little has been experienced. Conditionally frost resistant
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis -Nutkan Cypress.
A large beautiful tree that grows on the coast of northwestern North America - in Nuthka Bay, Alaska, in British Columbia. The trunk is straight, reaching a height of 30-40 m and thickness up to 2 m. Crohn is narrow-point-like.
Pay attention to the photo - the branches of this species of cypress trees are densely sprawling, hanging down:
Twigs most often hanging, located in the same plane. The bark is brown-gray, peeling large plates. The needles of adult plants are dark green, scaly, tight-fitting. When cracking produces an unpleasant smell. Cones are round, with a diameter of about 1 cm, in bunches on 4-6 pcs. Unlike other members of the genus ripen on 2-th year.
It is used infrequently in culture, it has few varietal forms. Demanding to high humidity, but does not tolerate soil moisture. In the conditions of the northern temperate zone of Russia, the natural form is quite stable, but is not capable of reaching maximum sizes due to freezing in severe winters. The frost resistance of varietal forms is different and requires individual testing.
Recommended variety cypress nutkansky:
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis pendula.
Large size variety of nutkansky cypress. Scaly needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 30 cm. There are isolated positive cases of growing the Pendula variety in mid-band conditions.
Chamaecyparis obtusa - Stupid cypress.
It grows in the forests of Northern Japan. The tree is up to 40 m high, with a trunk up to 2 m thick. The crown is wide, dense, sharply rounded. The ends of the branches are hanging. Twigs are flattened. The bark is red-brown, more or less smooth. The needles are scaly, ovate-rhombic, thick, dark green above and gray-green below. Cones are orange-brown, single, on short petioles, 8-10 cm in diameter. Ripen in the first year.
In the conditions of the northern temperate zone of Russia, it can successfully hibernate if it is planted in partial shade, in places with high levels of humidity in the atmosphere. From this it becomes clear that the stupid cypress varieties will be much more comfortable in the gardens located on the shores of the Gulf of Finland than in the gardens of the Moscow region. But also in the latter, progress has been noted in the cultivation of individual varieties of this cypress.
Recommended varieties of cypress blunt:
Chamaecyparis obtusa Aurora.
Dwarf cypress variety blunt. Rounded, with age wide-pyramidal shape, dense branching. Scaly needles, light green. This stupid cypress variety has annual increments within 5, see Frost-Resistant. Recommended shading and protection from the winter wind.
Chamaecyparis obtusa Chirimen.
Mini-cypress stupid cypress. Pyramidal, multispeed form. The branches have a pronounced vertical direction of growth. Small scaly needles, tough, dark green, with shades of gray. Annual increments within 10, see
Chamaecyparis obtusa Fernspray Gold.
Srednerosly cypress blunt variety. Pyramidal, sparse form, at a young age with its structure resembles the characteristic shape of a fern, Annual gains 10-12, see Recommended shading and protection from draining winds.
Chamaecyparis obtusa Nana Gracilis.
Popular variety of cypress blunt. At a young age, the cushion-shaped, wide-conic form with age.
Pay attention to the photo - at this grade of cypress of a stupid type of a branch comb, dense, dark green color:
Annual growth 3-7, see. Responsive to the evening sprinkling of the crown.
Chamaecyparis obtusa Rigid Dwarf.
Dwarf cypress blunt form. Round shape, needles scaly, dark green color. Annual increments within 3-5 cm. Rare slowly growing variety. Protection against a drying winter wind is recommended.
Chamaecyparis pisifera - Cypress pea fruit.
Large tree forests of Japan.
Barrel straight, up to 50 m. Crohn's narrow-point-like. The branches are horizontal and extremely uneven from the trunk. Twigs flat, hanging, located on the same level. The bark is smooth red-brown with bluish-gray peeling thin plates. The needles of adult plants are scaly, from the upper side green and shiny, from the lower - matte, gray-green. The cones are dark brown, not woody, numerous, small, rounded, up to 6 mm in diameter. Ripen in the first year.
It has many varietal forms, divided into 3 main groups:
Filifera - with narrow scaly needles, located on narrow, long, hanging shoots;
Plumosa - with flat scaly needles, located on the ascending dense branches;
Squarrosa - with a soft styloid needle-shaped needles, located on heavily branching dense shoots.
The most stable form for the northern temperate zone of Russia. In recent years, many cultural forms have been successfully tested. Planting in the penumbra is desirable, and when planted in the sun in February and March, shading from the sun is imperative. The soil is drained, preferably mulching with pine bark. Spring treatment for fungal diseases with copper preparations is also desirable.
These photos show cypress species described above:
Recommended varieties of cyanopopia cypress:
Chamaecyparis pisifera Bolevard.
Sredneroslyy cypress pea variety. Oval-conical shape. The needles are scaly, green-blue, silvery. Annual increments 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant. Recommended spring shading.
Chamaecyparis pisifera Plumosa Aurea Compact.
Dwarf cypress pea variety. Rounded oval, wide-conic form with age. Scaly needles, light yellow, golden. Annual increments up to 10 cm, Fully frost resistant. Recommended yusennee shading.
Chamaecyparis pisifera Plumosa Compressa Aurea.
Peppermino cypress minisort. Round shape, dense branching. Scaly needles, green and blue. Annual gains 3-8 see. This variety of cypress is completely frost-resistant. Recommended spring shading.
Chamaecyparis pisifera Sungold.
Dwarf cypress pea variety. Slightly friable, wide-round form, wide-oval with age. Scaly needles, yellow-golden in the sun, green in the shadows. Annual gains 5-8, see Fully frost-resistant and tolerant to the sun.
Chamaecyparis pisifera Plumosa Rogers.
Dwarf cypress pea variety. Round conical shape.
As seen in the photo, this cypress variety has scaly needles, golden yellow throughout the year:
Annual increments up to 10. Fully frost-resistant. Recommended spring shading.
Chamaecyparis pisifera Squarrosa Intermedia.
Sredneroslyy cypress pea variety. Ovalnoconic form. Scaly needles, green and blue. A very popular variety in Europe, perfectly shaped. Fully frost resistant and tolerant to the sun.
The following describes how to care for cypress in the garden.
How to care for cypress at the site
Cypress - light-loving, but shade-tolerant plants. Even when grown in the shade, they completely retain the decorative effect. In the northern gardens it is undesirable to plant cypress trees in open sunny places - in the shade they overwinter better and do not get burned in the spring sun. However, planting and caring for cypress varietal forms with golden needles in thick shade is impractical because they lose their typical color.
In the southern regions, cypress trees prefer fertile loamy soils; in the northern regions, they require loose, well-aerated sandy soil. This is due to the easy and quick defrosting of roots in sandy soils.
Adult specimens have a strong, branched root system and do not need additional feeding. Young cypress trees during care should be fed in the spring after the snow melts with complex or combined mineral fertilizer on wet ground. High concentrations of fertilizers are destructive!
Transplant cypress transfer easily. It is better to hold it in spring or early summer, if there is a formed root ball, it is not forbidden in summer. Slight root penetration is possible. Planting and care of large cypress trees in the garden should be carried out only after a dense root ball has been created. To do this, 6-12 months before the intended transplant, the plant several times incised the roots, deeply digging it around the crown circumference. After transplanting requires abundant watering. Plants transplanted with actively growing shoots, be sure to shade and spray until rooting.
Cypress moisture-loving, but absolutely not tolerate stagnant groundwater. Adults, well-developed specimens are exceptionally drought-resistant. In the dry summer, cypress trees do not give rise to a wet autumn, as a result of which poorly matured young shoots freeze out, but this does not destroy the plants.
The frost resistance of species is different. Most of them are not able to withstand a long harsh winter. Mature trees are more resistant to frost than younger ones. When caring for cypress trees in the garden for the winter, it is advisable to warm the plants. The best shelter for srednerosly specimens - light piping with pine spruce branches, for dwarfs - the device of the hut from the branches.
At the end of winter - at the beginning of spring, many species suffer from apical shoots of the past year. "Burnt" and frozen shoots cut out. For even spring awakening, abundant watering and spraying is recommended. Especially important is watering after the frost winters are heavily freezing the soil.
These photos show the agro methods of care for cypress trees in the garden:
Cypress trees are very popular and quite common in the gardens, not only with a warm, but with a moderately cold climate. Unfortunately, not all of them are hardy enough, which prevents them from being widely introduced into the assortment of northern gardens.
The leader in landscape design is Lawson's cypress.
Numerous and diverse forms of this type are used universally: free-growing - as solitary and to create groups, pyramidal and columnar-like - as dominants and for the formation of clipped fences, spherical - for borders and in rockeries. In the design of northern gardens, cypress trees are indispensable for giving them a southern flavor. Cypress and blunt cypress trees are the most hardy and frost-resistant - their varietal forms are especially good for planting in rocky gardens. Similarly, but in smaller quantities used in gardening and other types.
Next, you will learn how to propagate cypress seeds, layering and cuttings.
How to propagate cypress seeds
Seeds rationally reproduce only natural varieties. The characteristic signs of varietal forms during seed reproduction are repeated poorly, and it is very difficult to determine them in the early years due to juvenile and crown deficiencies in seedlings.
The seeds collected in the autumn must be thoroughly dried at a temperature of + 32 ... + 43 С. It is better to store them in an airtight container at a temperature from 0 to + 5 ° С, avoiding significant fluctuations and constant humidity, then they will not lose their germination more than 15 years.
Cypress seeds have a resting “sleeping” embryo. To awaken the seed, cold stratification is required for 2-3 months. In early winter, for reproduction of cypress trees, seeds are sown in boxes or bowls filled with loose sandy soil, and stored in a refrigerator or basement at a flat temperature (+ 3 ... + 5 C) and moderate substrate moisture.
Stratified seeds are exposed to light in a warm (+ 18 ... + 23ᵒ) place where they germinate. Shoots protect from direct sunlight and moderately watered. Excessively thick shoots dive.
Normally developing crops are carried to the garden upon the onset of heat and, after gradual accustoming to the sun and fresh air, are planted in the ridge for growing, avoiding blown and open sun spots. In the shade, young plants develop faster and better winter. Transplantations, even repeated, cypress transfer very easily.
Cypress reproduction by layering and cuttings
All species and varieties of cypress quite successfully multiply vegetatively.
With horizontal layers made in spring or early summer, rooting occurs by the end of summer. Cuttings quickly go to their own roots, but hurrying with the separation of the branch from the mother plant is not worth it until spring.
All species reproduce quite easily by cuttings. Especially well rooted cuttings from young varietal plants, and even better - from juvenile forms.
Rooting cuttings during the reproduction of cypress trees can be carried out throughout the year, but the first half of summer is preferable. When grafting at the end of summer, rooting should only be carried out in room conditions.
It is undesirable to take actively growing cuttings. The best are mature lateral shoots of the current or last year with a length of 5-15 cm (cuttings of vigorous forms are larger, dwarf - less). The needles in the lower part of the cutting can be saved, but in order to avoid rotting, it is better to remove it without damaging the bark. Chopped cuttings are fixed in a clean loose substrate and watered moderately. With high humidity, moderate substrate humidity and even room temperature, roots are formed during 1-2 months. The factors that prevent successful rooting are sudden changes in temperature, overheating above 25 °, and sharp fluctuations in the moisture level of the substrate.
Well-established plants overwinter without shelter. Weakly rooted cuttings can winter only in bright cool rooms.