The use of conifers in landscape design

The use of conifers in landscape design is practiced everywhere. In addition to the high decorative qualities, the hvoyniki have one more indisputable advantage: these cultures are beautiful throughout all the seasons, since they (except for the larches) do not drop needles for the winter. If you care for such plants properly and timely cut the crown, they will be a worthy decoration of your garden for many decades.

In all regions of the earth, these noble plants are used to create mixborders and alleys, curtain and hedges. Even for southern gardens, so rich in evergreens, conifers are absolutely necessary - only they are able to effectively shade and create a background for exotic species. Moreover, some coniferous species became characteristic elements of southern landscapes.

It is impossible to imagine the coast of the Black and Mediterranean seas without columns of cypresses, Italian landscapes are inconceivable without tents of pine-pines. The parks of China, Korea and Japan are always associated not only with pine trees, but also with their traditional cryptomeria. And in the design of the northern gardens, the conifers are absolutely indispensable, since there are no other evergreen plants capable of maintaining the composition of the garden throughout the year. In spring, with its noble rigor and seeming firmness, coniferous plants contrast with the tender foliage of deciduous species. In the summer, they create the perfect backdrop for flowering grasses, shrubs and trees, shading them and opposing themselves to their impermanence. In the autumn, with its calm greenery, the composition of coniferous plants softens the brightness of the falling foliage and gives hope for the revival of elusive beauty. In winter, the role of conifers in the landscaping of the site becomes dominant - only they keep the garden volumes, maintain its proportions, without them the winter garden would be flat and boring.

On this page you can see photos of beautiful landscape design in the country with the use of coniferous plants, as well as learn how to decorate the site.

The best ornamental conifers for the garden (with photos)

The best ornamental conifers for midland gardens are thuya, cups, cypress, yew and tsugi. The unusual needles and the shape of the crown of these plants give the compositions a southern flavor, significantly distinguish them from the local species.

Of particular value are cultivars (varietal forms) of conifers. The number and variety of them is truly incalculable. Almost all conifers introduced into the crop have varieties with a modified growth pattern, with an unusual crown shape, type and color of needles.

Look at the photo - decorative coniferous crowns can be any - spherical, flattened, free-growing:

The needles are not only green, but also silver-blue, golden and even variegated. Sometimes the varieties of the same species are so different from each other that it is not easy even for a specialist to recognize their relationship. The more variety forms, the wider their variety, the more interesting the designer's work, the more original and colorful the garden will be. The only thing that should not be forgotten is the compliance of the selected species with the climatic conditions of the region.

These photos show the best coniferous compositions in the landscape design of the garden:

Compositions with the dominant branches and landscape garden design photos

In the garden, an important task is assigned to decorative conifers - due to their firmness and monumentality, they become the main structural elements of the whole composition. Conifers are dominants, the main high-altitude "points" like the whole garden, hook and any of its fragments.

As seen in the photo, tall conifers in landscape design are always the first to attract attention in the garden:

Beautiful evergreen pyramids oil, fir, pseudo, yewimmaculate columns juniper - beautiful tapeworms. The noble forms of these slender trees are suitable for isolated planting against the background of a meadow or a large lawn. Pine trees are undoubtedly good as soliter, and larches. Spreading crown, beautifully curved branches and powerful trunks of adult specimens of these plants - the best design of any large lawn. Old trees are of tremendous value - being the "patriarchs" of the garden, they emit a special aura.

In creating a composition conifers in any garden always play a major role. Large and beautiful conifers involuntarily attract the eye. It is from their landing that it is necessary to begin the garden planning, it is they who become the skeleton of the future garden. But we must remember that when gardening a plot with conifers, not only large verticals can be dominant. In a limited space, plants will perfectly manifest themselves: on uneven boles; having a horizontal shape of growth, or even completely creeping along the ground.

Pay attention to the photo - in landscape design with coniferous plants having a vertical shape of growth, you can emphasize the importance of any small architectural form:

At the same time, the plant itself, having such a winning neighbor. Conifers are often soloed in gardens, having not only a varied crown shape, but also its various colors varying with the seasons.

Beautiful group compositions with coniferous plants in the garden

Creating group coniferous compositions in modern gardens of various types is a very interesting and demanding task. And here the harmonious combination of sizes, shapes, colors of those plants that are supposed to be planted comes to the fore. In large gardens, conifers are rationally planted in groups consisting of plants of the same species: arrays, scenes. They will be the backdrop not only for lawns, but also for smaller conifers and deciduous plants. In gardens of regular type, conifers are usually used to emphasize the exact geometry of paths, hedges, small and large architectural forms. These gardens, parks are interesting to visit.

How to make so that on rather limited space, measured in 3-6 in hundreds, to create a correct, nice looking, beautiful composition of coniferous plants? First of all, you should not plant a group of species of the same species, it is boring and irrational, a small garden should be varied.

In small gardens, conifers, as a rule, play the role of dominant ones. That is why forethought is especially important in their layout. The choice is to stop on the most original conifers. Art groups created according to the principle of contrast in shape and color will look impressive.

In them, the plants are not just side by side, but also emphasize the originality and dignity of each other in form or color. Perfectly in coniferous compositions, the needle needles of junipers, spruces and pines with scaly needles of thujas and cypress trees, with flat glossy leaves of yews, are combined in the plot. Fragments created on raised terraces look very advantageous in small gardens. Artificially transformed relief helps to position each plant in the most advantageous way. Proper use of geoplastics techniques will allow to plant a sufficient number of different plants in a limited space.

At the same time, the correct combination of various forms and colors will only enhance the natural perception of this fragment.

As shown in the photo, selecting coniferous plants for composition in a small garden, one should prefer miniature forms:

But we must remember that after stable rooting, they also begin to actively grow. Miniature varieties are growing much slower, but still they thicken with time. Plants close, resulting in the whole fragment becomes a little decorative. At the same time, the plants themselves lose their attractiveness. Poor ventilation in such plantings can lead to the development of various fungal diseases.

For compositions with conifers in the landscape design of small gardens, container and pot planting is very relevant. This picture is very characteristic of compact European gardens. Unfortunately, in the middle lane when creating miniature gardens in containers due to the freezing of earthen coma there is a risk of losing the whole plant or any part of it. Another problem is the considerable weight of the compositions, which makes them moving to a safe place for the winter.

This photo shows a beautiful landscaping of the site with conifers:

Mixborders with conifers in the design of the site

Conifers in landscape design - an ideal material for the creation of modern modular flowerbeds mixborders. Harmoniously combining conifers with deciduous shrubs, herbaceous perennials, very effective compositions can be achieved. Of particular importance in them is the texture and color of the needles, foliage and diversity of growth forms of the jointly planted plants. Remember that the natural perception of the created mixborder depends on the correct ratio of lines, volumes, color spots.

Next to the conifers in the landscape of the garden, rhododendrons, dwarf barberries, maples, magonies, spireas, and oaks perfectly coexist and look. Of the perennials, we mark badans, ferns, mountain women, dwarf hosts, cereals, and orchid-shoes. In the foreground always look heathers, stonecrop, thyme. The modern conifer mixborder is a complex multifunctional fragment of a garden where each plant plays its own special role.

When creating a mixborder for landscaping with coniferous plants in the central part of the garden, it is important to take into account that it can be bypassed and viewed from all sides. Therefore, it is necessary to adhere to the following rule - the largest conifers should be planted closer to the center of the composition, and lower to the periphery, observing high altitude reduction.

With such a panoramic placement of plants in the "conifer parade" group, the composition becomes voluminous and easy to read. But such mixborders are quite rare. More common are fragments created against the wall of a house or fence. But they already have other configurations and targets. In the background one or several vertical dominants of decorative coniferous trees should be planted, most often with a shift from the center of the composition. Its central part, and again with an offset relative to each other, can take different height spherical and weeping forms.

In the foreground planted the most dwarf plants, as well as conifers, having a creeping form of growth. In this kind of mixborders, when creating coniferous compositions in landscape design, it is necessary to remember the important role of the lawn. That he will bring the eye of the beholder to what you have created. Its smooth surface and timely a haircut - recipe for success. Carpets of creeping conifers, especially junipers, can play the same role.

If the priority is to cover nondescript garden buildings, and the artistic component of the flower garden is of less interest, then the auxiliary background is created from homogeneous tall plants.

When planting conifers near the walls of the house with windows, as well as near the garden paths, it is necessary to take into account the growth rate and the final size of the trees and shrubs. Otherwise, additional work can not be avoided.

In conclusion, I would like to say that often spectacular modern mixborders do not obey the classical rules of landscape design. Like the garden as a whole, it is the fruit of your fantasies and craftsmanship and will always reflect your individual preferences.

Look at how beautiful are the coniferous compositions presented on these photos on the site:

Beautiful landscape design with conifers and photos of rock gardens in the country

Coniferous trees and shrubs in landscape design - the most valuable material for decoration of any type of rock garden. Especially naturally they look in the rocky gardens of landscape style. In such compositions, the images of the mountain plateaus, peaks, stony valleys and gorges are joined through a variety of conifers. Compact tapered varieties of western, thistle, juniper and pine thuja are suitable as tapeworms. Planted at different levels, they visually increase the volume of both the rock garden and the garden as a whole.

But of course, the main forms of ornamental conifers for the stony landscape are spherical, or as gardeners like to call them, “pillow” cultures. “Witch brooms” found in nature on spruce, pine, fir, larch, most often have exactly this form.

They, grafted on the appropriate stocks of species of plants, gave birth to numerous miniature varieties. Conifers with this form of growth will look most organic in the “pockets” between the stones, filling the voids and masking the defects of the stony construction. The conifers in landscape design and in the foreground of the “mountain valley” will be good, flowing around the rocky outcrops and enhancing the naturalness of these elements.

On the ledges of the terraces and on the tops of separate groups of stones, weeping forms of various species of spruce and Canadian hemlock look great. Lace laced branches of the latter are especially elegant and harmonious. On rocky hills, alpine plants of high altitude will be excellent companion buddies. Do not give them and dwarf varieties of barberry Thunberg. Bright-leaved varieties of barberries look great among the stones, tinting the green image created by conifers.

These photos show the design of the rocky garden using conifers:

Coniferous plants in the landscape: decorative collections

Collecting conifers is an interesting and responsible activity. It, like any other type of collectibles, subject to general rules. A collection is not a random collection of something, but a systematic union based on a specific attribute. Starting to create a coniferous collection in the landscape design of the suburban area, it is necessary to determine for itself the basic principle of placing collected plants in the garden.

There are gardens in which conifers are planted with solid multi-meter arrays. Other plants in them play the role of only extras, and the main part is performed by unusual and rare conifers. A more difficult and interesting task is set by a gardener who seeks to subordinate the placement of his collection to the overall style of the garden. Here, each plant is selected its exclusive place.

It must be remembered that over time, the gardener can change addictions to certain plants, therefore, in the already existing structure of the garden, without disturbing the style, you will have to plant something new.

After the end of the first, cumulative stage, as a rule, there is a rethinking of what has already been collected. The gardener suddenly begins to realize that many conifers, which form the basis of his collection, have a very similar habit, and their names are full of catalogs of most nurseries. Well, if you have already learned how to see and understand this, then it is time for a tougher and more accurate selection of plants. Get ready to part with some of your pets. At the same time, make sure that ornamental coniferous plants for the garden occupy worthy places in the plots of your less experienced gardener friends. And you, in your own garden, the vacant spaces will occupy new, more complex and rare varieties.

As a rule, collectors are energetic people. In search of treasured plants, they try to travel all over the world, to visit coniferous arboretums, nurseries, private gardens of the same keen-hearted people as they do. But after that follows reward in the form of new and rare plants, ideas on their cultivation, new design solutions. Be aware, the collectible virus can fly past your garden. But if he visits him, then do not wait for peace, be prepared to live according to his laws. Do not be alarmed by this and believe that the creation of collections is an interesting and fascinating activity.

A few tips to help create your own, unique collection of conifers.

  • The collection is not created at the same time. It takes many years to create it. Accept the fact that the main thing in collecting is the process, the achievement of the final goal by definition cannot be.
  • Develop a working concept of the created collection, outline the types and varieties that you would like to have in it.
  • The basis of the coniferous collection in our modest-sized gardens should be compact varieties.
  • Remember the names of all varieties is impossible, in addition, sometimes they can just forget. Plates denoting the species and varietal affiliation, statistical records are non-permanent attributes of each coniferous collection.
  • Unnamed plants are a minus of any collection, and conifers are no exception.
  • The collection can not consist only of rare plants. Coniferous "extras" only emphasize the greatness of the "main characters" - rarities. But remember that after the end of the first, cumulative stage, you will increasingly have to refer to the 10 rule of steps, the essence of which boils down to selecting the most characteristic, recognizable plants for your collection.
  • Compact varieties of rhododendrons, barberries, maples will be excellent conifer companions. Also in the rocky gardens, under coniferous plants, there is always a sufficient number of comfortable seating for Alpines.
  • Communicating with other collectors, visiting their gardens will diversify your knowledge and, accordingly, improve your collection.
  • Do not be afraid of risk. Create rare, marginal coniferous species and cultivars optimum growing conditions in your garden. Subsequently, they can become an ornament to your collection.
  • The most rare and valuable conifer varieties, as a rule, have the most unusual shape and unpredictable color. They are easily recognizable.

Coniferous in the landscape design of the dacha: alleys, hedges, borders

In the landscape design area conifers - one of the best plants for creating alleys, hedges and even borders. There is nothing surprising here, because most of them retain the compact form of the crown until old age. Inexhaustible source are varietal honyniki. For alleys and fences, rocks with pyramidal, columnar and pin-shaped crown are especially valuable - these plants clearly keep the line and practically do not need formative pruning. Dwarf pyramidal and spherical shapes - an ideal material for creating low hedges and borders.

Pines, spruces, firs and pseudo-heaps are surprisingly good for high evergreen alleys when gardening with conifers, for the lower ones - yew trees, cypress cypress trees, thujas and junipers.

For hedges, as a rule, choose plants that can withstand the forming haircut - yew, spruce, thuja and juniper. For planting they use relatively cheap non-stock material, which seems to be justified from an economic point of view, but this is only at first glance. The fact is that these plants subsequently require expensive skilled haircuts. And do not forget that this procedure will need to be repeated annually. It is much more rational to use compact varietal forms that do not require shearing.

As can be seen in the photo, in landscape design with conifers for this purpose almost all species and cultivars with dense pyramidal, columnar, egg-shaped or spherical crown shape can fit:

Only dwarf tight-custy varieties are suitable for creating borders. Of course, the border of such plants will not be cheap, but durable and surprisingly beautiful. Extremely spectacular dwarf varieties of cypress, juniper and spruce, but the main material for the borders, of course, are spherical varieties of Tui. It should be remembered that in the winter they should be protected from snow.

Rounded crowns easily fall apart and break under its weight. To find a suitable replacement for injured plants, as a rule, is extremely difficult, the aesthetics of such a border is hopelessly lost.

Varieties of decorative conifers for landscape design

The alternating seasons of the year paint in coniferous compositions the dominant shades of green with bright, unusual tones. In some conifers, this color change is quite short-lived, in others it stretches for several months. Most suitable for the design of the site conifers pine and spruce.

Such sorts of mountain pine are very popular among collectors. (Pinus mugo) as Ophir, Winter Gold, Zundert, Gold Star, Golden Glow, Schweizer Tourist, Little Gold Star, Starkl, Hostyn Gold, Laarheide, Lemon.

As a rule, the first, at the end of August, yellow growths of the current season in Ophir. Then comes the turn of everyone else. This rich golden color will last in such plants until the spring, gradually painting the whole plant in gold.

See how beautiful such compositions of coniferous plants look on these photos:

Very interesting is another group of mountain pine varieties. Entering it: Kokarde, Rositech, Fruchling Gold, Chameleon, Sunshine, Dikobraz.

They have bright, but not so evenly, as in the varieties from the previous group, the young spring growths that have just completed the growing season are colored. They become striped, yellow-green. This coloring will last until autumn.

Very spectacular varieties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) Trollguld, Candlelight, var. lapponica Fritche, Jakutsk, Meffengofd, Moseri.

In late spring, the beginning of summer is painted in a yellow-golden color Trollguld, a Candlelight paints needles in milky-cream tones. This color, changing its intensity, will delight you until next spring. And P. sylvestris var. in the late autumn, lapponica Fritche, Jakutsk, Meffengofd, Moseri will be painted in golden tones, and in the end of spring they will turn green again.

In the last couple of years, golden varieties of white pine trees have appeared in our gardens. (Pinus strobus) Louie, Wendy, Golden Candles.

Sort Louie almost all year round has golden color needles, depending on the time of year, changing its intensity. The bright yellow branches of these trees look great in decorative coniferous compositions both against the background of a snow-white winter cover and in early spring. For the Wendy and Golden Candles varieties, insufficient information has been accumulated at the moment. It is believed that closer to winter, from the base to the periphery of each branch, the needles on them should be painted in a golden color.

Very rare in our gardens are varieties of twisted pine. (Pinus contort a) Taylor's Sunburst and Golden Striker, which are the decoration of any coniferous composition.

Look at the photo - these decorative conifers in May, young growths become bright gold, by the end of summer losing this rich color, becoming light green in September:

Grade Chief joseph painted in gold in early October and remains so until the spring.

The varieties of various species of fir are no less brightly colored. They, unlike the pines, it almost always happens in the spring. Aurea Magnifica, Gold Drift, Perry's Gold, Geel UH, Holub Gold, Vermont Gold.

In these varieties of common spruce (Picea abies) May gains are colored gold. Almost all of it lasts for several months, eventually losing its intensity. But a very compact variety of common spruce Aurea WB is colored gold in the fall, and for the Rydal and Cruenta varieties, for about ten days in May, young growths will be bright crimson. The same unusual color gains and dwarf varieties Spring Fire. But at the moment, due to the complexity in his reproduction, it is practically unavailable for Russian gardens. I want to believe that only for now.

Varieties of spruce spruce (Picea pungens) Bialobok, Fruchlings Gold, Maigold, Byczkowski, Nimetzl In the middle of May, for two weeks, young growths are almost simultaneously painted with creamy-yellow tones of varying intensity. With the general similarity of these varieties, we point out some of their individual characteristics. In Maigold, unlike all the other varieties listed, the needle itself is green-blue in color, and the increments are painted in yellow-gold tones.

This is especially clearly seen in the event that you manage to plant this variety in close proximity to Albospicata or Fruchlings Gold. Ayl varieties Nimetz increments are stained a little later than the rest. Their bluish-cream color gradually becomes snow-blue.

Pay attention to the photo - the Serbian spruce ornamental coniferous plant (Picea omorika) Peve Tjin becomes golden at the end of May:

It is a little pigeon, it keeps this coloring until late autumn. A new variety of Serbian spruce Roter Austrieb, planted in the sun, colors the spring growth in dark crimson color.

Varieties of fir gray (Picea glauca) Daisy's White and Dendrofarma Gold vary in shape of growth. But both in the middle of May for about two weeks paint their growths in a milky-cream color, which then whiten completely.

Beautiful Eastern spruce variety (Pica orientalis) Aurea, which from late May to mid-July, stains grow in golden color.

And of course, one can not but say a few words about the larches and metasequoise. With the onset of the first cold days and with the arrival of night frosts, larches become the most noticeable figures in the coniferous garden. Their bright, light yellow, and subsequently rich red crowns will surely attract your attention. And here it does not matter what kind of one you like is.

At this time of year, they are all equally good, but we are most often admired by the common in the gardens of the northern temperate zone of Russia:

European larch (Larix decidua)

Larch Japanese (Larix kaempferi)

American Larch (Larix laricina)

And if you managed to “tame” in your garden with the glysetostrobus metasequoia, then its autumn yellow-peach color cannot be repeated by any other plant. This is the undisputed favorite of the October garden.

Mulch as an element of design coniferous garden

Previously, when growing conifers, mulching was practically not used. But over time, numerous trips to European gardens made us take a different look at this aspect of gardening. It turns out that mulch is an excellent design element for coniferous gardens.

It is possible to mulch with all kinds of materials: from the branches processed in the shredder and mowed grass to the pine nuts shell and coconut fibers. But the most effective mulch is the bark of larch or all sorts of pine species. The most convenient fraction of bark in use, having a size of 5 × 5, see. Of course, the most spectacular is bark of pine. But, unfortunately, it is not often on sale and at the same time it is very expensive.

So what are the goals we pursue by mulching our coniferous plants? There are several of them, and, in our opinion, they are all important and functional.

  • Moisture retention is an essential mulch property. Even in the driest periods, with its help, the root system of plants will avoid excessive drying.
  • A five-inch layer of pine mulch will reliably cover the coniferous planting from weeds and seed germination.
  • The addition of a finely processed pine bark fraction (2 x 1cm) under the main, larger pine mulch 1-centimeter layer enhances the formation of an extensive network of additional suction roots, which not only contribute to crown growth and increase in the mass of the main root system, but also help the plant more actively absorb water from the surface of the earth.
  • Decomposing, mulch improves the quality of the soil, helps the earthworms and numerous beneficial microorganisms to grow in it.
  • In the snowless, frosty winters, the 5-8-centimeter layer of pine bark mulch helps to reduce freezing of the root ball of conifers. This is especially true in the first years after their landing.
  • Dumping landings with a well-calibrated fraction of bark is not only a sure design move in the design of the garden, but also a natural decoration of the lower tier of conifers.

This photo shows a photo of decorative coniferous trees decorated with mulch:

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