Keeping of

The traditional Christmas fir tree with a beautiful crown and fluffy branches has long become familiar. Perhaps, in Europe it is difficult to find a mansion where at least one tree did not grow, and many gardeners are trying to plant this fluffy beauty in the center of the garden to dress up on the eve of New Year celebrations, thus creating a cozy pre-holiday atmosphere on the plot.

Conifer spruce (Picea) belongs to the Pine family (Pinaceae). The genus unites about 50 species distributed in the cold and temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, with more than half of all species growing in the mountains of Central and Western China.

In this article you can get acquainted with the photos, the names of different types of fir trees, as well as their botanical characteristics and learn about the proper farming practices for growing these trees.

What does spruce look like: photo and botanical characteristic

Ate - beautiful, slim evergreen trees. Most species look like real giants - they are large, 60-90 m high, plants with a trunk diameter of 1,5-2 m, reaching the age of 500-600 years.

All ate very similar: trunks straight, branches arranged in tiers and collected in whorls, crowns pyramidal. The bark is gray-brown, young plants have a smoother, and older ones have a rough, coarse one. Needles small, needle, tetrahedral or flat, located spirally. The color of the needles is green or gray-green.

Male "flowers" carrying pollen, solitary, are formed in the axils of the upper needles on last year's branches, female ones are also solitary, appear at the ends of the old branches. Cones are hanging, cylindrical elongated or ovoid. Young cones are green or purple, mature - brown or brown-gray. Ripen by the end of the first year and fall, not crumbling.

See how spruce trees look in a photo in their natural habitat:

Spruce trees rarely grow in solitary, isolated from other specimens, mainly forming large forest populations. In dry places, rich spruce forests are formed - “green-heads” with a dense moss cover and an abundance of edible cap mushrooms. In wet areas, dense but depressed spruce forests grow - “long-distance movers” with a rare cover of sedges and sphagnum mosses. Along the valleys of small rivers and along streams, there are the most beautiful fir forests - the “logs” with rarely standing trees and lush grass stand. But, as a rule, spruce forests are quite dense and shady, which does not allow the formation of dense grass cover and leads to the lush growth of moss.

In nature, they ate extremely unpretentious and hardy - they are able to grow in almost any conditions. The vast majority of species are frost resistant.

Below is a description of the most popular species of fir trees with photos and names.

Popular species and varieties of fir trees: photo, name and description

Picea abies - Common spruce, or European.

The most common coniferous plant in Central and Northern Europe. The species range is extensive and does not capture only the British Isles and the North German lowland.

The European spruce is a slender, shade-tolerant tree with a pyramidal crown and horizontally spaced branches collected in whorls. The trunk is cleared slowly, and often the lower branches are preserved even in mature plants. Older specimens reach a height of 30-50 m and have a trunk thickness of up to 2 m.

The bark peels off thin scales and, depending on the variety, has a different color - from red-brown to gray.

As can be seen in the photo, the needles of a tree are needle-shaped, small (length 1-2 cm), prickly, green:

Cones are hanging, cylindrical elongated or ovoid. Young cones are green-purple, mature - brown. Ripen by the end of the first year. Falling down, not crumbling.

In nature, common spruce (Picea abies) is very variable. “Witch brooms” can develop both on the leading sprout and on the side branches. Less common are natural mutations that completely change the natural form of this spruce. Such diversity has allowed in recent years to cultivate and introduce into the nurseries, and then into the gardens a large number of plants with different habitats: the type of arrangement of the branches, the shape of the crown and the color of the needles. This species ate absolutely frost hardy.

Recommended varieties of Norway spruce:

Picea abies Asgosop

Variety spruce ordinary. Large size. The crown is wide-pyramidal. Color needles green. At a young age, fresh growths can be damaged by late return frosts. After the growing season, at the ends of growths forms a bright crimson-colored buds. After full rooting is actively increasing. Annual increments over 30 cm. Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Pusch (synonym - Picea abies Asgosop Nana)

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. There is no exact version of its origin. According to one of them, it is believed that she was selected from spruce seedlings of Asgosop. As in P. abies Asgosop, in the spring at the ends of growths it forms cones of a crimson color. The crown of this variety of common spruce is wide pyramidal. The width increases more actively than in height. Annual increments do not exceed 10 cm. In 10 summer age can reach a height of 1 m and a diameter of 1,5 m. Needles are small, green. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies aurea

Large size spruce. During the growing season, the increments on the 1,5-2 of the month are colored in a bright golden color. Needles, especially in young specimens, can burn in the sun. Annual gains, as in the usual common spruce. Tapeworm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Aurea Magnifica

Large size spruce. Pyramid crown. In the spring, during the growing season, growths are painted in yellow-golden color. This color, changing its intensity, persists almost throughout the year. After full rooting, annual increments of more than 30, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies aurea WB (synonym - Goldnugget)

Spruce Spruce Minisort, The Witch's Broom, found on Picea abies Aurea. Compact, rounded oval shape. Annual increments 3-6 see

Pay attention to the photo - this species of common spruce in October is colored bright yellow:

During the summer, the needles are green. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Wagu Mazayta

Micro-grade common spruce. Compact spherical shape. Color needles stable, green. Annual increments of 2-3 cm. Possible size in 10-year-old 20-30 cm in diameter. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Berry Garden

Mini variety of common spruce. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant. Rare variety.

Picice abies blatny

Micro-grade common spruce. Round shape. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments within 3 cm, Fully frost resistant.

Picice abies bobek

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. Characterized by the irregular shape of the growth of branches. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments range from 3 to 10, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Botanica Liberec

Mini variety of common spruce. Very compact, round shape. Needles saturated green color. Annual increments 3-6 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Bouchalka

Mini variety of common spruce. Compact, round, slightly irregular shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments range from 3 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies brno (synonyms - Minuta WB, Minima Kalous WB)

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense rounded oval shape. Annual increments within 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Cervena Skala

Micro-grade common spruce. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments within 1-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Clanbrassiliana

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. Dense, rounded conical shape. Annual increments of 8-12 cm. In North America, instances are known that have reached 1,5 m in height. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies dado

Mini variety of common spruce. Compact, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments range from 3 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picice abies dubenec

Mini variety of common spruce. Compact, rounded oval shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies dumpy

Mini variety of common spruce. Round, slightly loose form. The needles are green. Annual increments range from 3 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Echiniformis

Dwarf form spruce, very close in size to the annual increments of mini-varieties. They vary within the limits of 3-6 in her. See Compact, round shape. The needles are rigid, green. Completely frost-resistant.

Picea abies formanek

Creeping form spruce. Dwarf. Very popular variety of Czech breeding. To make it more interesting form, it is recommended to tie up the leading escape to the vertical support. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments vary within 8-15, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Frohburg

Middle-grade common spruce. Weeping drop form. The branches are located close to the trunk. Annual increments within 15-20, see. Needles are green. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies gamshutte

Mini variety of common spruce. Rounded, slightly flattened shape. The needles are green and blue. Annual increments range from 3 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Gold Drift

Middle-grade common spruce. Weeping, yellow-coniferous form, found among the seedlings of Norway spruce Inversa. Annual increments within 10-15, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies hasin

Micro-grade common spruce. Rare enough in our gardens. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments within 1-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies hiiumaa

Spruce micro-variety of ordinary Estonian selection. Very rare in our gardens. Dense, round shape. Annual increments within 1-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Holub Gold

Sredneroslyy spruce variety of ordinary Czech breeding. The needles are soft, throughout the season, yellow-golden color. Annual increments within 10-15, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Holub 1

Spruce micro-variety of ordinary Czech breeding. Dense, rounded oval shape. The needles are tough, before the beginning of the growing season it is completely blue, and later on it becomes bluish-green. Annual increments within 2, see Rare variety. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies hradok

Micro-grade common spruce. Rare in our gardens. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments within 1-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picice abies humilis

Middle-grade common spruce. It is characterized by an irregular form of growth. The needles are very tough, green. Annual increments range from 10 to 20, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picice abies husarna

Mini variety of common spruce. Rounded, slightly flattened shape. The needles are green and blue. Annual increments range from 2 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Inversa

Large size spruce. Weeping form. Very beautiful and popular variety among gardeners. After full rooting, annual growths vary within 20-40, see. Needles are hard, green. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies jana

Mini-variety of common Czech spruce. Very dense, round shape. With age, takes a more oval shape, reaching the size of 30 on 40, see. Growing in the sun shows much better quality, corresponding to this grade. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Johanka

Mini variety of common spruce. Round, slightly nesting shape. The needles are green. Slowly growing variety. Annual increments range from 2 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies kevon

Mini variety of common spruce. Round-oval shape. The needles are bluish-green. Slowly growing variety. Annual increments range from 2 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picice abies kirzhach

Mini-grade. Natural mutation of the common spruce. Found by one of the authors in the forests of the Vladimir region. At the time of introduction into the garden, it had a round-oval shape the size of 20 on 30, see. Crohn was located on a trunk, in 30, cm from the ground. After 16 years of growth in the garden has reached the size of 1,5 m in width on 1,0 m in height. Does not have a pronounced leader. Multiverge. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies kuba

Micro-grade common spruce. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments within 1-3, see Fully frost-resistant. Rare variety.

Picea abies lhota

Mini variety of common spruce. Compact, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments range from 3 to 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Little Gem

Micro-grade common spruce. Very beautiful and popular variety. Round shape. 1-3 annual growth in cm. At 15, the age is equal to 50-60 cm in width by 30-40 in height. Fully frost resistant.

Picice abies loreley

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. Creeping growth. By fixing the leading one to the vertical support, as well as one or two auxiliary shoots, you can achieve a beautiful cascade form of growth. Trailing growths of falling branches tend to grow in the vertical direction. In the 15 age, the crown diameter can be 1,5 m. Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Luua Pari

Dwarf spruce variety common Estonian selection. 2 has different forms of growth. It can develop as a dwarf tree with a pyramid-shaped growth. In Estonia there are 30-year 3 specimens in height in 1,5 m in width. It may also have a dense round-oval shape, in which weak signs of pyramidal growth appear with age. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Malecek

Micro-variety of Czech breeding. Compact, round shape. Annual increments within 3 cm per year. The needles are hard, green. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Maracana

Micro-grade common spruce. Compact, round, very dense form. Annual increments 2-3, see per year. The needles are hard, green. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Mikulasovice

Mini-variety of common Czech spruce. Dwarf, very dense, conical shape. Needles tough, dark green. Annual increments 2-5 cm per year. The cushion form of this variety is much less common. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Mionsi

Spruce micro-variety, Very compact, dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies most

Micro-grade common spruce. Compact, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual gains 1 cm. Fully frost-resistant.

Picice abies muhlerin

Mini variety of common spruce. Compact, rounded oval shape. The needles are tough, bluish-green. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Od Goly

Micro-grade common spruce. Compact, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies ohlendorfii

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. Pyramid shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments within 5-10, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Palecek WB

Mini variety of common spruce. Dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Parsonii (synonym - Zwergnase)

Micrograss spruce ordinary. Dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Pavelka

Spruce micro-variety of ordinary Czech breeding. Dense, rounded oval shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Pekarek

Micro-grade common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant. Rare variety.

Picea abies Pet Kamenu

Spruce micro-variety of ordinary Czech breeding. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Gains 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Prokopka

Micro-grade common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Reflexa

Variety spruce ordinary. Weeping form. Branches are hard, falling. The needles are green. Annual increments 15-40, see Fully frost-resistant. Very decorative.

Picea abies rydal

Large size spruce. During the growing season on 7-10 days, growths turn a juicy crimson color, after which they turn green again. Soft needles, thin branches. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Slavice

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant. Very rare.

Picea abies sonneberg

Micro-grade common spruce. Quite dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies strapac

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. It is characterized by uneven growth of branches. The branches themselves are thick, the needles are hard, dark green. Annual increments within 10, see Fully frost-resistant, Rare variety.

Picea abies Suncrest

Mini variety of common spruce. Very dense, rounded shape, becomes wide-conic, multi-vertex with age. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual gain 3-7, see Fully frost-resistant,

Picea abies Super Majxner

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 2-3 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Svata Mari

Micro-grade common spruce. Dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Svojek

Micro-grade common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Truba 5

Micro-grade common spruce. Dense, rounded oval shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 2-3 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies uplaz

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Van Bemmel's Dwarf

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. The needles are tough, green, Annual increments 1, see Fully frost-resistant. Decoration collection.

Picea abies Vermont Gold

Mini variety of common spruce. Found on Picea abies Repens. Flat-round, creeping form. After the growing season becomes completely golden. Throughout the season retains this color. Annual increments within 3-8, see Planted in the sun can burn. Recovers quickly. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies Visel

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies vyrov

Spruce micro-variety, Very dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies WB on Pigmaea

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies Wichtel

Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. Very dense branching, stiff needles, green. Annual gains 1 cm. Fully frost-resistant. Decoration collection.

Picea abies Willi's Zwerg

Variety spruce ordinary. Dwarf. Shirokopyramidalnaya, multi-vertex form. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea abies zadusi

Mini variety of common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 3-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies zahori

Mini variety of common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 3-6, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea abies zajecice

Mini variety of common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 3-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

  • Picea abies Zvihadlo. Mini variety of common spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 2-5, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea abies Cukrak. Micro-grade common spruce. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments within 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant. Rare in our gardens.
  • Picea abies Kobliha. Micro-grade common spruce. Rare in our gardens. Very compact, round shape. Annual increments within 1-3, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea abies minuta (synonyms - Brno, Minima Kalous WB). Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense rounded oval shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments within 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea abies Pitzi 2. Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea abies Zadverice. Micro-grade common spruce. Very dense, round shape. The needles are hard, green. Annual increments 2-3, see Fully frost-resistant.

These photos show varieties of common spruce trees, the description of which you could see above:

Picea asperata - Fir-tree rough

It grows in moist, burying drained soils in the western regions of China. Evergreen tree up to 40 m tall. Crohn thick, shirokokonicheskaya. The branches are horizontally located, somewhat falling at the ends. When describing this species of spruce, it is especially worth noting rough, brown bark. Needles to 2 cm, bluish-green, slightly silvery. Brown-brown cylindrical cones of size 10, see. The species is practically not tested, it is conditionally winter-hardy under conditions of the middle band. May be damaged by return frosts. Poor landing landing in the shade. In the past few years, several dwarf varieties of this spruce have been planted in Russian gardens. After 3 years of testing, it can be argued that the varieties are completely frost-resistant, being under the snow cover.

Recommended grade of spruce rough:

Picea asperata Mongolei

Micro grade spruce rough. Very compact, round shape.

Pay attention to the photo - the needles of this type of fir trees are hard, almost blue:

1-3 annual gains, see. Tested in the middle lane for 3-4 years. Suffers landing in slight shading. Fully frost resistant under snow cover. Recently, the species of this variety has been clarified.

Picea engelmanii - El Engelman

One of the most beautiful blue firs. Forms forests in the mountains of western North America. Close to Picea pungens - spruce barbed.

Spectacular evergreen tree with a dense narrow pyramidal crown, reaching a height of 20-50 m. The branches are gathered in dense whorls, the branches are slightly drooping. Needles needle thin, straight, 15-25 mm long, bluish-green, more tender than that of spruce barbed. Cones are hanging, cylindrical-ovoid, 4-8 cm long. Young cones are green, mature - light beige. Ripen by the end of the first year. Falling down, not crumbling.

In recent years, a sufficient number of dwarf forms of this spruce have been introduced into the gardens of Europe. Do not become an exception and the gardens of Russia. Its varieties are compact and spectacular: Jasper, Tomschke, Talbot Lake, Hobo, Pocahontas. Very unusual variety - Snake. The twig-shaped branches of this cultivar are similar to the branches of the more well-known spruce variety Cranstonii.

Recommended varieties of spruce Elgelman:

Picea engelmanii jasper

Mini-grade ate Engelman. Dense, rounded flattened form. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea engelmanii Talbot Lake

Micro-grade ate Engelman. Very dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

These photos show the species of spruce trees, the description of which is presented in this section:

Picea glauca - Spruce gray or Canadian.

It grows in the east of North America. The natural form is similar to the common spruce, but forms a looser crown due to some "infantilism" of the branches and branches. Needles 8-18 mm long, bluish-green and rather thin, have an unpleasant smell. Cones are oblong, small, cm long 3-6 and 1-2 wide, see. Young cones are green, mature-light brown.

In culture, the natural form is rarely grown due to its large size and poor tolerance to the sun in the spring. But varietal varieties are very popular. The shape of the crown and the location of the branches of the cultivars are varied, but in the gardens mainly “dwarfs” of pyramidal and spherical shape prevail. Winter endurance varieties are high, but they can be actively damaged by the rays of the spring sun. All varieties are better planted in the penumbra, and in hot periods provide additional sprinkling of their crowns. In order to care for these spruces in the way that proper agricultural technology implies, before the onset of the growing season, all varieties of this species should be treated for fungal diseases with copper-containing preparations.

Varieties recommended for planting in gardens: pyramidal-columnar - Conica, Conica Blue, Sanders Blue, Daisy's White, Sport, Zuckerhut; globular - Cecilia, Dendrofarma Gold, Elf, Minitip, Blue Planet, Burning Well.

Recommended varieties of spruce gray:

Picea glauca Alberta Globe

Micro-grade Canadian spruce. Very compact, wide-pyramidal shape. This species of spruce needles are dark green. Annual gains 1-2, see Fully sun-tolerant. Hardy.

Picea glauca Cecilia

Canadian spruce mini-variety. Compact, spherical shape. Needles tough, dark green. Annual increments 3-6 cm, Fully frost-resistant.

Picea glauca Conica

Shirokopyramidalny grade ate Canadian. The needles are dark green. Annual increments within 3, see. In the gardens of the middle band, planted in the sun, can burn in early spring. Often this leads to the loss of decorativeness of individual branches or the death of the whole plant. Fully frost resistant.

Picea glauca Conica Blue

Canadian spruce mini-variety. Compact, narrow pyramidal crown shape. Blue needles, annual increments within 3-5 cm, completely frost-resistant.

Picea glauca Daisy's White

Canadian spruce mini-variety. Dense, narrow-pyramidal shape. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments within 3-5 cm. At the end of May on the 7-10 days colors increase in cream color. When describing this variety of spruce, it is worth noting that it is very shade-tolerant and frost-resistant.

Picea glauca Dendrofarma Gold

Micro-grade Canadian spruce. Witch's Broom, found on Picea glauca Alberta Globe. Dense, spherical shape. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments within 2-3 cm. At the same time as Picea glauca Deisy's White, paints the increments in a yellow-cream color. Recommended landing in the penumbra. Fully frost resistant.

Picea glauca Sander's Blue

Canadian spruce mini-variety. Dense pyramidal shape. Annual increments within 3, see. More tolerant to sunlight than P. glauca Conica. Fully frost resistant.

Picea glauca Sport

Micro-grade Canadian spruce. Narrow oval, somewhat pyramidal shape.

Below are photos, names and descriptions of other species of spruce.

Other varieties of fir trees: photo, name and description

Picea jezcensis - El Ayan

A very ancient species of spruce. It grows on the mountain slopes of the Far East. Tree conical shape up to 40 m height. The needles are 1-2 long, cm, spiky, bicolor, green above, gray-blue below, blue. Cones are oval-cylindrical, light brown, 5-7 cm long. In culture, it is preferable to plant in the penumbra. Responsive to sprinkling crown. In Russian gardens it has been observed over the last 3-4 years.

Recommended varieties of spruce Ayan:

Picea jezoensis Compacto

Mini-grade spruce Ayan. Compact, round shape. The needles are very prickly, silvery-green-blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea jezoensis Marianske Lazne

Mini-grade spruce Ayan. Compact, round shape. The needles are prickly, silvery-green-blue. Annual increments 3-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea mariana - Black spruce

It grows in swampy soils and forms forests in North America and Canada. The description of this species of spruce is outwardly similar to spruce gray, or Canadian, but has more gray needles. The crown is narrow-tip-like, uneven, the branches and branches are thin. Needles 6-18 mm long, from green to bluish-green, rather thin and very dense. Cones ovoid, small - long 2-3,5, see. Young cones dark purple, mature - gray-brown.

It has varieties with different types of branches and crown shape. Most varieties are pyramidal and spherical “dwarfs” with green or gray needles.

Previously, only one sort of Nana could be found in the gardens. In the past 3-4, the range of cultivars has expanded. During this time, such varieties of black spruce were tested: Nana, Bessneri, Doumetii, Aurea.

Recommended varieties of black spruce:

Picea mariana Beissneri

Middle grade spruce black. Compact conical shape. The needles are soft, green-blue. Annual increments within 15, see. Resistant to frost. Perhaps spring burning of individual branches.

Picea mariana nana

Micro-grade black spruce. Dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3, see Fully frost-resistant and tolerant to the sun.

Picea obovata - Siberian spruce

Forms extensive forests from Northern Europe to Kamchatka and Manchuria. Externally similar to the common spruce, but has a narrower crown and slightly drooping branches. Twigs are thick. Needles 10-18 mm long, matte. Cones are cylindrical ovoid, 6-8 long. M. Young cones are purple, mature - gray-brown.

Very resistant and frost resistant. It has a few, but very decorative cultivars.

Recommended varieties of Siberian spruce:

Picea obovata Bruj

Micro-grade Siberian spruce. Quite dense, round shape. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments within 5 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea obovata Kandinka

Micro-grade Siberian spruce. Round shape. The needles are soft, green. Annual increments within 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika - Serbian spruce

A rare species growing on the steep limestone slopes of the mountains of Bosnia and Serbia. It is externally similar to Siberian spruce, but differs in the shape of the crown and color of the needles. The crown is narrow pyramidal, almost columnar. Boughs short, spaced from each other and raised at the ends. Young branches are brown, pubescent. The needles are compressed, 8-18 mm long and 2 mm wide, shiny, dark green above and gray below. Cones ovoid-longish, small (length 3-6 cm), shiny, brown. Fruiting from an early age.

Highly decorative and hardy. It has numerous cultivars, these are mainly various dwarf forms.

Recommended varieties of Serbian spruce with photos and descriptions:

Picea omorika Berliner Weeper

Weeping form of Serbian spruce. Green and blue needles, Annual increments within 5-7, see Rare variety in our gardens. Fully frost resistant.

Picea omorika Chocen

Micro-grade Serbian spruce. Very compact, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost resistant.

Picea omorika Cindarella

Dwarf grade Serbian spruce. Oval-round shape. The needles are small, gray-green. Annual increments within 6-9, see Fully frost-resistant. Very beautiful, recognizable variety, while rare in our gardens.

Pica omorika de ruyter

Dwarf. Dense, narrow-pyramidal shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments around 8-15 see. There is no exact information on its final size, but in 25 years its possible size is 3,5-4,0. Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika Frohnleiten

Compact dwarf. Dense, wide-pyramidal shape. The growth of the branches has a strictly vertical direction.

Pay attention to the photo - the needles of this variety ate hard, green-blue, silver:

Annual increments 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika Fusch

Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Compact, round shape. Needles green. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika hallonet

Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Dense, round, pillow shape. The needles are soft, green-blue. Annual increments 4-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika Havel 2

Micro-grade Serbian spruce. Very compact, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 1-2, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika Kuschel

Mini-grade or Serbian. Dense, round shape. The needles are tough, dark, green-blue. Annual gains around 5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea omorika Minima

Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Slightly friable, rounded oval, pillow shape. The needles are tough, dark, green-blue. Annual increments 5-8, see Fully frost-resistant.

  • Picea omorika Miriam. Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Dense, round shape. The needles are green and blue. Annual increments 3-6, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea omorika Nana. Dwarf. Very dense, beautiful pyramidal shape. Tough needles, green and blue. In 20 years the height is 3 m. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea omorika Pendula. Sredneroslyy grade Serbian spruce. Very dense, wide oval, falling form. A distinctive feature of this variety is the ability of several leading shoots independently, without support, to keep the vertical-horizontal direction of growth. The needles are dark green and blue. Annual gains of 30-50 see. Height of adult plants can reach 7-9 m. Soliter. Very decorative variety. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea omorika Peve Tijn. Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Dense, spherical shape. The needles are hard, green-blue, during the summer changes its color to golden. Annual increments 3-8, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea omorika Pimoko. Popular mini Serbian spruce variety. Very dense, spherical shape. Needles tough, green-blue. Annual increments within 5, see. With age, it increases more in width than in height. The 25 years reaches the size of 2 m wide by 1 m high. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea omorika Radloff. Dwarf. Dense, falling form, Needles soft, green-blue. To give the plant a more vertical direction of growth, the leading shoots must be tied to a support. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea omorika Valenta. Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Compact, rounded oval shape. Needles slightly stiff, green and blue. Annual increments within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea omorika Wodan. Dwarf grade Serbian spruce. Dense, narrow-pyramidal shape. There is an irregular growth of the branches. The needles are very tough, dark green. Annual increments within 7-10, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea omorika Zuckerhut. A dwarf, possibly a medium-high grade Serbian spruce. Very dense, beautiful pyramidal shape. The needles are soft, green-blue. In 20, the height can be 5-6 m. Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea omorika Pendula Bruns. Full-grown variety Serbian spruce. Very dense, columnar, falling form. A distinctive feature of this variety is the ability of the leading shoots on their own, without support, to keep the vertical direction of growth 20-40 cm. Height of adult plants can reach 10 m. Soliter. Very decorative variety. Fully frost-resistant - P. omorika Slavia. Mini-grade Serbian spruce. Dense, round shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant.

Pica orientalis - Eastern spruce

It forms the mountain forests of the Caucasus and Asia Minor at altitudes from 1000 to 2500. M. Often grows together with fir Nordman with an undergrowth of evergreen holly, laurel, rhododendron and ivy.

This species of spruce is similar in appearance to common spruce, but it has some specific differences. The crown is dense. The branches go down to the ground and are located whorled and uneven. Young branches are light brown, almost white. The needles are dark green, glossy, short, 6-8 mm long, and very densely arranged.

As shown in the photo, the cones of this variety were spruce cylindrical-ovate, 6-9 long, see:

Young cones are purple, mature - purple. One of the few fir trees that hibernate problematically in the conditions of the northern temperate zone. Her cultivars may freeze and heave burnt young growths, and sometimes whole branches. Particularly dangerous is the battle of snow from the sun's rays in the Fevale and March days. In this regard, all varieties of Eastern spruce, planted in such conditions, are considered to be conditionally wintering. Despite this, in recent years a positive experience has been gained in growing varieties of Eastern spruce.

Recommended varieties of Eastern spruce:

Picea orientalis aureospicata

Dwarf, perhaps srednerosly grade Eastern spruce. Pyramidal, peaked form. Close to the habit and color of young growth to Picea orientalis Aurea. In the spring on the 2-3 week stains grows in golden yellow color. Annual increments within 10-5 cm. Limited winter-hardy. Recommended landing in the penumbra.

Pica orientalis juwel

Mini variety of Eastern spruce. Round-pillow shape. The needles are green. Annual increments within 3-5, see. Recommended planting in partial shade. Limited winter hardiness.

Picea orientalis minima welle

Mini variety of Eastern spruce. Round-pillow shape. The needles are green. Annual increments within 3-5, see. Recommended planting in partial shade. Limited winter hardiness.

Picea orientalis Schoven Horst

Mini variety of Eastern spruce. Round-pillow shape. The needles are green. Annual increments within 3-5, see. Recommended planting in partial shade. Limited winter hardiness.

Picea orientalis Spring Grove

Mini variety of Eastern spruce. Round-pillow shape. The needles are green. Annual increments within 3-5, see. Recommended planting in partial shade. Limited winter hardiness.

Picea orientalis Tom Thumb Gold

Micro-grade Eastern spruce. The Witch's Broom, found on the spruce of Eastern Skylands in the United States, has a round-tier shape. In the spring of needles for the entire season is painted in golden color. Annual increments within 3-5, see. Recommended planting in partial shade. Planted in the shade loses its golden color and may even die over time, but also landing on the sun, especially at a young age, is detrimental to it. Very decorative and popular variety. Limited winter hardiness.

Picea pungens - Spruce spiny

The most common species in the culture of blue firs. In nature, it grows in the Rocky Mountains, in Utah and Colorado at an altitude of 2000-3500 m above sea level.

Evergreen tree height 30-50 m. Crohn pyramidal. Mutkov boughs markedly separated. The branches of young growths are light yellow-brown. This type of spruce got its name because of its hard, prickly, dense needles of gray or green color, length 2-3, see. Cones oblong-cylindrical, length 6-10. In culture, it is extremely stable and absolutely frost-resistant.

It has many varieties of different habitus with a different type of arrangement of branches, the shape of the crown, the color of the needles.

Recommended varieties of spruce barbed:

Picea pungens albospica

Dwarf. Pyramidal grade ate a prickly. Blue needles. At the end of May, on the 2-3 of the week, the growths are painted in white color. Annual increments within 10-20, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea pungens bialobok

Dwarf. Pyramidal variety spruce barbed Polish selection. Blue needles. At the end of May, on the 2-3 of the week colors increase in white-cream color. Annual increments within 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea pungens blaukissen

Mini variety spruce barbed. Round-oval shape. The needles are hard, blue. Annual increments within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea pungens byczkowski

Pyramidal variety spruce barbed Polish selection. Green blue needles. At the end of May, on the 2-3 of the week colors increase in white-cream color. Annual increments within 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea pungens Fruchlings Gold

Dwarf. Pyramidal grade ate a prickly. Blue needles. At the end of May, on the 2-3 of the week colors increase in white-cream color. Annual increments within 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea pungens Hermann Naue

Dwarf. Round shape. The needles are green and blue. Forms crimson cones at the ends of vegetative branches. Annual growth within 10-15, see Fully frost resistant.

Picea pungens isli fastigiata

Srednerosly grade ate a prickly. Most often narrow-pyramidal form, but there are wide-pyramidal specimens. The needles are prickly, blue. Annual increments 20-25, see Fully frost-resistant. In order to avoid collapse and breakage of the branches in snowy winters, fixing them is recommended.

  • Picea pungens Jablonec. Dwarf grade spruce barbed. Round-oval, with age, it is possible that the shape is slightly pyramidal. Tough needles, blue. Annual increments within 15 cm. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea pungens Maigold. Dwarf. Pyramidal grade ate a prickly. Blue needles. At the end of May, on the 2-3 of the week, the growths are painted in white color. Annual increments within 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea pungens mecki. Dwarf grade spruce barbed. It is characterized by uneven growth of branches. The shape is close to conical. Annual increments within 15 cm. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea pungens Nimetz. Dwarf grade spruce barbed. Pyramid shape. Blue needles. At the end of May, on the 2 week stains grows in white and cream color. Annual increments within 10-12, see Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea pungens Olo. Micro-grade spruce barbed. Very dense, round shape. Green blue needles, Annual increments within 3 cm. Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea pungens Ossario. Dwarf grade spruce barbed. Round-oval shape. The needles are hard, blue. Annual growth within 15 cm. Fully frost-resistant.
  • Picea pungens Pendens. Large size spruce barbed. Dense fashigiata form. In the early years it may have a flattened form, but with age it actively extends the conductor in a vertical direction. The needles are gray-blue. Annual increments within 30, see Solitaire. Fully frost resistant. Perhaps there are two different cultivars, named the same - Pendens.
  • Picea pungens Saint Mary's Broom. Mini variety spruce barbed. Round-oval shape. The needles are hard, blue. Annual increments within 5-7, see Fully frost-resistant,
  • Picea pungens The Blues. Pygmy weeping grade ate barbed. The Witcher's Broom, which gave life to this cultivar, was found on P. pungens Glauca Globosa, but it has more blue and long needlesthan the parent plant. To give the cultivator a more interesting shape, it is necessary to fix the leading shoot at an angle of 45-60 degrees. Annual increments within 15 cm. Fully frost resistant.
  • Picea pungens Waldbrunn. Mini variety spruce barbed. Round-tier, flat shape. Blue needles. Annual increments 5-8, see Fully frost-resistant.

Picea sitchensis - El Sitinskaya

It grows along the west coast of North America. It is considered one of the largest among the fir trees, reaching 50 m in height. Pyramidal shape, pointed. The needles are two-color, green-blue. Immediately after the growing season acquires rich silvery shades. Cones are brown, up to 10 cm long. Prefers moist soil and high humidity. In recent years, her cultivars have been successfully tested in our gardens. Mandatory conditions for their proper cultivation is regular sprinkling of crowns, as well as twice the treatment of fungal diseases with copper preparations: in the spring, before the growing season, and before winter.

Recommended varieties of spruce sitkinskoy:

Picea sitchensis Nona

Micro-grade spruce sitkhinskoy. Round shape. The needles are green and blue. Annual increments 3-5, see Fully frost-resistant

Picea sitchensis Schenber

Mini variety of Sitkhinskaya spruce. Round-oval shape. Tough needles, green and blue. Annual increments 6-10, see Fully frost-resistant

Picea sitchensis Silber Zwerg

Mini variety of Sitkhinskaya spruce. Round shape. Green and blue needles, silver. Annual increments within 10 cm. Fully frost resistant. Recommended high humidity

The following describes how to grow a spruce in the garden and how to care for these trees.

How to grow spruce and how to care for a tree in the garden

When growing fir trees, keep in mind that these are shade-tolerant, but light-loving plants. Only in the open, they acquire the typical shape of the crown. In the shaded areas and in the thickened landings they are of little decorative.

An important condition for growing spruce of all kinds is the presence of light, fertile, loamy, slightly acid soils. Also, quite successfully, these trees can develop on any soils, including on poor sandy, and on heavy loamy, but will be less lush. Dwarf varieties should not be grown on overly rich soils - they can lose their typical crown shape.

Adult specimens have a strong, branched root system and do not need additional feeding. Young plants can be fed in the spring after melting snow on wet ground with a complex or combined mineral fertilizer of weakened concentration. Top dressing with fresh manure and faeces is absolutely unacceptable.

Transplantation should be carried out either in the spring before the buds bloom, or in the fall. Plants with actively growing shoots root poorly. Deepening the root collar is acceptable, but not desirable. Young plants tolerate transplanting easily. Large specimens can be transplanted only after preliminary preparation of the root ball. To do this, 6-12 months before transplantation, the plant is dug several times around the circumference of the crown, cutting the roots, resulting in a dense root ball. When caring for spruce after planting requires abundant watering, and during spring transplanting and spraying right up to rooting.

Adults ate very resistant to both waterlogging and drought, but varietal forms are undesirable in extreme conditions.

Proper planting and care of fir trees are shown in these photos:

Most species are frost resistant. Young summer growths of fir-trees often suffer from late frosts, but they easily grow. In order to avoid the loss of form due to heavy snow, it is recommended to tie up multi-stem varietal specimens for the winter when leaving for growing firs. Creeping (elfin) varieties are often spat out from heavy wet snow and ice accumulating on the ground. Therefore, in order to care for spruce trees in the garden in the way that proper agricultural technology implies, branches of creeping forms must be laid on elevated gratings above the ground.

To create spectacular compositions in the garden, learn about the use of fir trees in landscape design.

The use of firs in the landscape design of the garden (with photo)

Spruce - one of the main conifers used in the design of gardens in regions with long and frosty winters. The most common spruce is the main “coniferous accent” in the compositions of northern parks. The use of spruce-barbed garden design is very popular - it is a favorite component of the design of public buildings and memorials. The remaining types of fir trees are rare guests of parks and gardens. The dominance of common spruce and barbed trees over the other species is fully justified, since they are not only the most enduring, but also have a considerable number of various garden forms.

The use of fir trees in landscape design is truly universal. Varieties with the classic pyramidal crown shape are used to create alleys, planted singly as dominants and groups to divide the space into zones. Spherical and dwarf pyramidal forms include complex compositions of small gardens, rockeries and mixborders. Creeping and spreading varieties are indispensable for background plantings and for grafting on shtambah. Spruce - one of the best conifers to create hedges, perfectly amenable to cutting. The formation of more compact specimens is possible by plucking the central buds of the lateral shoots in the fall and shortening the same shoots in the summer.

The next section of the article is devoted to the cultivation of seed oil.

Reproduction of spruce seeds: the necessary growing conditions

Only freshly harvested planting material is suitable for growing spruce from seeds. When stored under normal conditions, germination is lost after a year, but if you keep them in an airtight container at temperatures from 0 to + 5 ”C, then germination persists for more than 15 years. At the same time, significant fluctuations in temperature and humidity, which seriously reduce this period, should be avoided.

The seeds of most species that have fallen out of the cones are capable of immediate germination. Seeds with hardened integuments need to wake up the embryo, which requires a period of even low temperatures for 1-2 months.

There are several ways to germinate spruce seeds.

The simplest of these is sub-winter seeding in a ridge to a depth of 1,5-2 cm with mulching to a height of 1-1,5. See. In the spring, after germination, plants plant out (seated with pinching roots) or leave on the ridge until autumn or next spring.

Snowing, i.e., sowing of seeds in boxes in autumn or winter, followed by removal under snow until spring. In the spring or at the beginning of summer, after the emergence of shoots, the plants are lashed out in a row or left in boxes until autumn.

Before as propagate spruce seeds, many use the method of cold stratification. To do this, at the end of winter, the seeds are mixed with large, clean, slightly wet sand, sawdust or sphagnum moss, placed in plastic bags and stored in a refrigerator or basement at temperatures from + 3 to + 5 ᵒC for 1-3 months. Another option is sowing seeds in boxes or bowls. The earth mixture should be clean, light, consisting of rotted leaf earth, peat and coarse sifted sand in the ratio 3: 1: 1. After sowing, seeds are stored in a refrigerator or basement at temperatures from + 3 to + 5 C for 1-3 months. During this period, it is necessary to maintain an even moderate level of substrate moisture and avoid temperature fluctuations.

After stratification, seeds stored in bags are washed and sown in boxes or bowls. Crops are exposed to light in a warm place (+ 18 ... + 23 ° C), where they germinate. A necessary condition for the cultivation of spruce from seeds is the maintenance of seedlings in the light, but not in the sun, and moderate watering. If the seedlings are excessively thickened, then a pick is required. If the seedlings develop normally, then upon the onset of heat they are taken out into the garden and after hardening (gradual accustoming to the sun and fresh air) are planted in a row for growing.

Varietal varieties during seed reproduction do not repeat the characteristic features very well, and it is very difficult to identify them in the first year. For propagation of varietal forms using a vegetative method.

And in conclusion, learn how to propagate spruce cuttings and layering.

How to propagate spruce: methods of reproduction by layering and cuttings

It is very difficult to propagate vegetatively natural forms, varietal - much easier. Easier than other breeds of varieties of species with thin branches, for example, spruce gray (Canadian) and black spruce.

Horizontal cuttings - the method of reproduction of spruce trees, which does not damage the mother plant, but does not guarantee the preservation of the pyramidal crown typical of spruce trees. As a rule, crooked or creeping plants grow from rooted branches. It is quite promising reproduction by horizontal layouts for varieties with drooping and spreading crown. Bred branches rooted for two or even three years.

Relatively well rooted cuttings from young varietal plants with compact densely branched crown. Cuttings taken from wild species, especially from old specimens, root very badly.

Early spring - the moment of the awakening of the kidneys - most suitable for the reproduction of spruce cuttings. You can do this in the summer after the end of the first wave of growth, but in this case, the cuttings never have time to form roots and overwinter only with the influx of callus, which is fraught with freezing.

In columnar and narrow pyramidal forms only vertical shoots are taken; in creeping varieties, on the contrary, any, except aspiring upwards; in spruce trees with a free, oval or spherical crown, the choice of the cutting does not matter.

Harvested cuttings are placed in a substrate consisting of coarse washed sand with possible additions of perlite, vermiculite, top peat, crushed sphagnum moss or small sifted coniferous bark.

At spring cutting, the temperature of fir trees is initially maintained at + 15 ... + 18 ᵒС, and after bud break up it is brought to + 20 ... + 23 ° С. It is undesirable to lift it above + 25 ° C, higher than + 30ᵒС is unacceptable.

When breeding spruce cuttings need to pritenyat from direct sunlight and maintain a constant moderate soil moisture, while avoiding over-moisture.

Spring and early summer cuttings can take root by the middle of summer. However, often by the fall they do not have time to form roots, and in this case they require an air-dry shelter for the winter. Well-rooted cuttings overwinter without shelter.

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