Belongs to the aroid family. It grows in the tropics of Central and South America. Named this flower in honor of the German botanist Y.F. Dieffenbach The color of the plant starts up in April-May and literally a couple of days, after which the flower fades. Its inflorescence is associated with a green-cream veil.
Dieffenbachia flower grows quite quickly, but only if it is done according to the rules. At home, a new leaf appears on the plant weekly, and when it unfolds, you can see the top of the next one inside.
The beauty and power of this plant is widely used in the design of modern interiors of homes and offices. The flower may be of various sizes. Large varieties for 5 years grow to two or more meters in height, and smaller varieties to 1 meters.
It has a very thick juicy stem, which resembles in its appearance the trunk of a tree. Do not forget about what could be the harm from dieffenbachia with careless handling of this plant.
The plant is quite demanding to care. It does not tolerate extreme cold, drafts and requires regular watering. But look at the photo - what beauty and power of the Dieffenbachia flower can end up:
Diefenbachia care at home
How to care for dieffenbachia properly at home? I'll tell you. This flower can be grown both in the open air, and in room conditions. There are no special rules for growing in certain conditions.
The plant prefers a clarified place of detention, but the direct sun can harm it. When there is insufficient light, the color of the leaves changes, it becomes more faded. Houseplant with a monochromatic green leaf color grows well in a shaded place, while its leaves become brighter green. Also, indoor flower feels great at a distance of one or two meters from the window in unstable sunlight.
Proper maintenance of dieffenbachia at home should begin with the organization of the place of its growth. Throughout the year, the flowers of this species contain at room temperature, and in summer - within 20-25 degrees of heat. And in winter the temperature in 18 degrees is suitable for the plant.
The plant does not tolerate a decrease in temperature below 15 degrees. It is better that the ambient temperature at night also does not fall below 15 degrees. The plant does not tolerate drafts, it loses leaves from them.
In spring and summer, the plant should be watered abundantly, but excessive moisture should be avoided, but you should not overdry the soil. Excess moisture is the result of yellowing of the leaves of the plant. In autumn and in winter, it is desirable to reduce the amount and regularity of watering, but, again, do not let the land dry out. By the way, you need to water the flower with water, which must be defended beforehand.
The flower requires high humidity. To do this, it is advisable to spray the plant regularly with soft, chlorine-free, or boiled water, and wash the leaves once a week. If the plant is not so big, then you can spray it under the shower, while avoiding water on the soil in the pot.
To feed a flower is advised in the spring and summer every ten days for half the dose. The main thing that the composition of the fertilizer was absent lime. As a fertilizer suitable mineral fertilizers, you can use and organic. However, do not forget that the varieties of palm trees with leaves that are painted white, with an excess amount of nitrogen and insufficient light may turn green, losing their varietal properties. Therefore, for such varieties, it is recommended not to use organic fertilizer as a top-dressing, and to use mineral fertilizer every 20 days.
The leaves of the flower are short-lived, so that after a certain period of time the stem becomes bare, therefore the plant must be rejuvenated from time to time. Leaves are advised to cut off the upper part by about a centimeter under the knot 1,5-2. Milky juice should be removed from the cut with warm water, dried on the bottom with a paper napkin and powdered with a little charcoal, which should be chopped in advance.
Dieffenbachia turns yellow: what to do?
If you notice that the leaves of the palm tree turn yellow, then the reason for this is an excess of moisture. The fact is that the root system of the plant is fragile and delicate. If the roots of the flower are all the time in a moist state, then in just a few weeks they will begin to rot.
What to do if dieffenbachia turns yellow, despite all the correctness of organized care? Here you can only advise one thing: completely release the root system, inspect it, remove rotted parts, process with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and plant in a new soil with good drainage. Re-rooting of pruned shoots is also widely practiced.
The first signal for alert is the yellowing of the lower leaves of the palm tree, which do not so much change the color as they fade. If you do not immediately transplant a plant, then it may die.
Another reason why this flower may turn yellow leaves. It is covered in excessive sunlight. This plant is much better in a shaded room, so if a pot with a palm tree is long on the window, then on its leaves you can see the appearance of initially small bright dots, and later - the huge size of the spot. In order to restore the color of the leaves, it is recommended to simply remove the palm tree in the shade. However, in the cold season, when the day is shortened, it is advisable to regularly place the pot with the plant on the window. A lack of sunlight, like its excess, can lead to yellowing of the leaves. You can solve this problem, but not always - try to light the room where the flower is located with fluorescent lamps, but it should not be too bright.
If you notice that the upper leaves of the palm tree, rather than the lower leaves, are primarily on your palm, this means that the soil lacks phosphorus and potassium, maybe even nitrogen. In this regard, the palm should be fed complex fertilizers, which contain certain doses of nutrients.
They also say that due to constant drafts the leaves of the flower may turn yellow. In this case, the leaves change color at the edges, which initially turn yellow, and then dry.
Transplantation and propagation of dieffenbachia
How to transplant a plant and when? It is advisable to do this every year at the end of April. But you can make a transplant in the winter, spring period - from February to May.
Dieffenbachia transplant begins with a preparatory phase. A new pot in which you plan to replant a palm tree, should be more spacious than the one that was previously, just 1 -2 centimeters on the sides and deeper.
The soil for transplanting should include turf, humus, peat and dry mullein in the ratio 1: 1: 0,5: 0,5. Humus, coniferous soil, peat and sand can be used in proportion 1: 1: 1: 0,5. According to your desire, you can add charcoal to the soil. In large pots it is recommended to replace part of the soil coma.
Reproduction of dieffenbachia in the home is mainly carried out by grafting and subsequent rooting of the apical buds. Palm tree multiplies the top of the shoot with leaves or part of the stem, which must be present at least two internodes, either by dividing the bush, or by air layering.
Seeds propagate the flower, for the most part, only breeders.
When a flower becomes bare, more precisely, the leaves fall, it can be propagated by top cuttings. To do this, cut the top of the cuttings so that they have at least a few pairs of leaves. Then you need to put them in a vessel with water or in a mixture of sand and peat. All this is recommended to cover with a plastic bag to reduce evaporation. After two or three weeks, sometimes even longer, the roots can appear. As soon as you notice the first leaves on the cuttings, the plant can be transplanted into small pots.
Propagation of the dieffenbachia palm tree with the help of stem cuttings takes place as follows: the stem is cut into single-buds and placed strictly upward in a low container with soil, which consists of peat and sand in the same ratio. To speed up rooting, you can add sphagnum.
Reproduction by air layouts is rarely used. To do this, first make notes on the stem and incise them. However, if there are small adventitious roots, then this is not recommended. After all this, it is advisable to overlap the stem with sphagnum, on top of it with a plastic bag and tie it on both sides. It is important that the plastic bag should be transparent. As soon as the roots appear, the stem together with the plastic bag should be cut. A branch with moss to land in the substrate is necessary. Be careful, the moss must be wet and not dry, otherwise the young roots will die out.
What could be the harm from dieffenbachia? And can you keep her at home?
Dieffenbachia palm juice is very poisonous. When he gets on the skin of a person, irritation immediately appears. The most dangerous is contact of the plant sap with eyes and mouth. In this case, the person is threatened with blindness or swelling of the tongue with the simultaneous disappearance of the ability to speak. What could be harm from dieffenbachia for people and domestic animals, it becomes clear from the fact that all parts of the plant, without exception, are very poisonous.
A very interesting historical fact is connected with this. In slave time, because people chatted a lot or verbally reproached, American planters forced slaves who were guilty to bite the stem of this flower. His milky sap fell on the mucous membrane of the mouth and contributed to the occurrence of laryngeal edema and tongue, later the man remained mute for a long time. That is why the population of South America called this palm "dumb rod."
Quite a lot of fans who are engaged in growing various plants are interested in the question of whether it is possible to keep dieffenbachia at home? There is no doubt that it is poisonous, but its juice cannot seriously harm the health of an adult. The maximum that can occur when the palm tree sap is applied to the skin of the hands and face is the appearance of a frivolous sore that will heal pretty quickly. To avoid such troubles, when breeding a plant by grafting and forming a crown, it is recommended to use gloves, and after working with special care, wash your hands with warm water and soap.
Quite another thing when the juice gets suddenly on the mucous membrane of the mouth or the eyes of a small child, who, in most cases, pulls into his mouth everything he sees. The consequences can be much more serious, for example, temporary blindness will appear, the child will not be able to talk, and he may have severe dizziness or spatial disorientation. In this regard, it is desirable to remove the plant away, you can hang on the wall or put on a tall cabinet. For pets, especially for cats, the palm tree is deadly. If the cat bites the leaf of this flower, it will suffocate due to severe swelling of the larynx.
Thus, it can be said that it is possible to grow a Dieffenbachia palm tree at home, but it is recommended not to forget about precautions when working with a plant.
If you want to donate a palm tree to someone, then it is better to do that to a family in which there are no small children and domestic animals, so that, although without intention, but not to harm them.