Pandanus (Pandanus) belongs to the Pandanaceae family (Pandan).
Homeland: Africa, India, Polynesia.
Among ornamental plants the ramp takes pride of place. Its exotic appearance and unpretentiousness to the growing conditions were loved by many gardeners. Today, the people of the flower pandanus has a number of synonymous names - pandanus, screw palm, screw tree, screw pine. In many ways, the explanation of such names lies in the spiral placement of its leaves. However, it is worth noting that pandanus is not a type of palm, and especially pine.
The cultivated pandanus grown at home is significantly different from its counterpart in the wild. If in Madagascar, in Vietnam and other tropical countries, it is a huge tree approximately 15 m in height, which is distinguished by the presence of air roots on the trunk, long narrow leaves and fruits similar in taste to pineapple, at home it is a decorative shrub.
This houseplant requires a lot of space, because in a short time it reaches impressive size, but at the same time it creates a cozy atmosphere with exquisite tropical notes. Therefore, if there is a spacious hall, veranda, and a winter garden in the house, estate, or office space, such an amazing and spectacular shrub will perfectly fit and decorate the interior.
Features of the screw palm Pandanus: description of leaves and fruits
Pandanus or spiral palm is often confused with the dragon-seed, varieties of bromeliads. In order to avoid such a situation, it is worth pointing out the main external features of this bush.
Adult potted plants form a stem up to 1,5 m tall, on top of which is a bunch of sword-shaped curved leaves, which are placed like a screw thread. The leaves of the pandanus are strong enough, oblong narrow shape, at the edges have sharp thorns and are arranged in a spiral in three dense rows.
At the age of two years, supporting roots begin to develop, which in domestic species do not reach large sizes and require additional reinforcement. This plant blooms quite rarely and predominantly in the wild. The flowers resemble spikes and have a pleasant aroma, which is similar to the smell of a rose.
The fruits of the pandanus, which grow only in living nature, acquire a rounded shape and bright red color, are about 15-20 in diameter and refer to pineapple in their appearance.
For greater clarity of the description of the produced flower pandanus, take a look at the photo, which presents different types of this decorative tropical shrub:
In tropical countries, such a tree is cultivated for the sake of tasty fruits and strong leaves, which are used by local people as weaving raw materials. For flower growers, collectors, this wonderful plant is an excellent exhibit in their greenhouses.
Popular types of houseplant pandanus
In nature, a beautiful and unusual pandanus tree is represented by more 700 species, but at home only some of its varieties please the eye.
Most often in the range of flower shops are:
- Pandanus veitchii (pandanus veycha)
- Pandanus utilis (pandanus useful)
- Pandanus sanderi (pandanus sander)
Pandanus veycha - a popular houseplant, which among its relatives does not differ in large size. Thus, an adult flower can reach 1-1,5 m in height, which makes it more compact and adapted to a limited space in a modern house. The leaves of such a shrub are narrow with a rich dark green shade, at the edges of which there are clear white stripes. Massive leafy plates have a dense skin, and their length is about 1 m. This kind of bloom at home does not indulge its owners. The people of this species was nicknamed "hiding" due to the high stem hidden under the weighty leaves.
Pandanus useful - a home flower that can grow up to 2-3 m in an enclosed space. In the wild, this kind of plant can be found more than 20 m in height. In a residential environment, this exotic representative is interesting only for its gorgeous and spectacular leaves, since the inflorescences are not peculiar to it. The situation is completely different with uncultivated counterparts, which have fragrant spike-like inflorescences and tasty fruits every year. A distinctive feature of the leaf plates at the useful pandanus are thickly placed spikes of red color on their edges.
Pandanus sander - A great variety for interior landscaping in tall homes and office spaces. The trunk of the plant is short, reaching an average of 1,5-2 m. Glossy oblong leaves harmoniously combine a dark green core with yellowish longitudinal stripes and small spikes along the edges. The dimensions of the leaf plates are impressive: the width is about 5-6 cm, and the length is more than 70 cm. The proposed description of the room pandanus indicates its relatively small dimensions, which confirms the ability to cultivate the plant and decorate it with elite winter gardens and luxurious halls.
How to grow indoor palm pandanus
In addition to the interesting and exotic appearance, the advantage of pandanus, so called room "palm", is its unpretentiousness to the habitat. Therefore, even beginners in floriculture can create the necessary conditions for its full growth and development at home. One has only to learn the basic rules of cultivation.
- Location: light, a few hours of sun a day will be enough to maintain all vital processes within normal limits.
- Temperature: warm, not lower than 15 ° С, considering the tropical origin of the ornamental plant. Drafts are undesirable and can significantly worsen the condition of the leaves. Humidity: without special claims and requirements, it may be minimal, but in some cases it causes drying of the tips of the sheet plates.
- Substrate: flower soil with 1 / 3 loam.
The described modest requirements for the full growth of ornamental plants will not create any particular hassle, even for beginners. They are the complete and comprehensive instructions on how to properly grow pandanus and achieve the desired results without any experience in floriculture.
Pandanus Flower Room Care Tips
The exotic of the tropics is becoming more accessible and real, since the care of the room “palm tree” pandanus in familiar home conditions does not have complicated requirements. The “livability” and unpretentiousness of such a green “pet” will allow, with minimal effort, to bring a bit of African flavor into the interior. That is why an inexperienced florist can safely acquire such a miracle of nature in the store and with the help of simple actions, minimal skills and knowledge to grow a healthy and luxurious plant.
The advice of specialists in this field can be the main “guide” in the professional care of room decorative flower pandanus
Watering: The substrate must be constantly wet, but do not overdo it, because excessive water can cause rotting of the rhizome. As a liquid for irrigating the soil, it is necessary to choose purified soft water, the temperature of which should not be below + 30 ... + 35 ° C. In winter, when all vital processes slow down, it is important to reduce the number and frequency of watering - 1 once every 3-4 of the day.
Spraying and gentle rubbing them with a slightly damp cloth at least once in 1-2 weeks affects the state and growth of leaves. It is necessary to be careful with the axils of the leaves, since the ingress of water into them can adversely affect the general condition of the flower. It is possible to increase the soil moisture in the hot summer period with the help of a pallet in which it is necessary to place wet moss, pebbles or expanded clay, and place it under a pot with ornamental shrubs.
With the advent of aerial roots, it is worth ensuring their integrity and protecting against damage and drying. It is recommended that root processes, in order to avoid their drying, be “wrapped” in moistened moss, changing it periodically.
Top dressing: in the summer every week, in the winter - once a week in 4. As a fertilizer for more effective care for your exotic pandanus home flower, you can purchase ready-made mixture in a specialized flower shop.
With a lack of sunlight, it is worth using fluorescent lamps around 8 hours per day, placing them at a distance of at least 70 cm above the plant.
Follow these tips, and care for a spectacular pandanus flower in normal home conditions will be a pleasant and easy procedure. And most importantly - all efforts and efforts will be rewarded by the glossy shine of dark green leaves, elegantly covering a durable trunk, while creating a unique feeling of a tropical oasis.
Why pandanus leaves dry and turn yellow: plant diseases and pests
Unpretentiousness - the main advantage of pandanus for beginner gardeners. However, exceptions to the "rules" always occur, respectively, there are rare cases when this home plant becomes ill and is exposed to the harmful effects of pests.
Among the possible diseases of indoor pandanus, it is worth noting damage to leafy canvases in the form of dried edges and yellow spots. In order to avoid such unpleasant situations, it is worth sorting out the reasons that provoked them. After all, if they are eliminated, the need for treatment will "disappear" by itself.
If the leaves of pandanus gradually dry, you should pay attention and eliminate the following adverse factors:
- Insufficient air humidity.
- Lack of moisture in the soil.
- Direct sunlight.
A possible answer to the question of why home pandanus dries may be a shortage of essential nutrients in the soil, which is easily eliminated with the help of properly selected fertilizers.
Novice flower growers can also dock with situations where the leaves of a home pandanus turn yellow and fall off. The reasons for this phenomenon may be several:
- Use cold or hard water.
- Bright sunlight and its excess.
- The presence of significant amounts of calcium in the substrate.
According to experienced flower growers, one of the main reasons why the pandanus turns yellow and fade is justly the poor-quality composition of the green mixture. In order to cure a room flower from such “illnesses” it is necessary to eliminate all adverse conditions and he will thank the healthy shine of the luxurious leaves.
In the case when leaflets that appear are too small without intrinsic stripes and spikes, then most likely the problem is a lack of lighting.
All the listed reasons are easily corrected, therefore it will not be difficult to “cure” a room ornamental shrub.
Like many other representatives of home greenhouses, decorative screw palm with the usual name pandanus can be damaged by insect pests. Among the most dangerous options are the following:
- Spider mite.
Shchitovka - parasites, the presence of which is indicated by sticky brown formations on the stems and leaves of the plant, resembling small scales. The way to fight such insects is simple enough - spray the leaf cover with concentrated soapy water and after a while gently wipe everything with a clean sponge. Insecticides can be used to obtain a greater effect: “Permethrin”, “Actellic”, “Fufanon”.
CEREBRAMS - insects that, through their vital activity, lead to drying, twisting and falling off of the foliage on a helical palm. Alcohol and anti-coccid solutions should be used as a “medicine” for lubricating hardwood plates.
Tick of the web on the damaged flower leaves peculiar specks, which develop into spots and subsequently lead to full wilting of the leaves. In order to avoid the appearance of such a parasite, it is necessary to prevent low air humidity and periodically treat the plant with acaricides.
Summing up the described features of the helical palm tree, one can affirmatively note: "Pests and diseases are rare for it!"
Recommendations with illustrative examples of how to grow, care for a plant and “treat” pandanus, look at the video that contains compressed and useful information for newcomers in the field of floriculture:
How to transplant pandanus: transplant sequence
The active growth of the helical palm at home requires periodic transplantation - every 2-3 of the year. This procedure provides comfortable conditions for the normal life of the ornamental shrub. The first signal of the need to transplant a room pandanus is the soil covered with roots. The sequence of this process is simple and covers the following steps:
- At first, gently handle an adult plant, while trying not to damage the fragile air processes. Do not rhizome from the ground, because such actions can cause damage to the entire flower.
- SecondlyWhen choosing a pot, you should give preference to a deep vessel, at the bottom of which a third will take drainage. In order to avoid scratches on the sharp thorns of the bush, you can carefully collect the foliage in a bundle.
- Thirdly, put the pandanus in a new pot is necessary at the usual level, without deepening it.
Transfer: If necessary, it is not necessary to increase the procedure, because it will stimulate the growth of the helical palm.
Important! Despite the presence of supporting air roots, tied to a bamboo pole. Supporting roots eventually push the plant out of the pot. When transplanting, do not take a larger pot, otherwise the plant will grow too large for the room.
Given the described sequence of actions, even an inexperienced florist will be able to figure out how to properly transplant the pandanus and achieve the desired results.
How to root pandanus: methods of reproduction
An important step in the breeding of decorative screw palm tree is its breeding. Today, professional growers use several methods of reproduction:
- Side shoots.
- By dividing the bush.
All breeding options for indoor pandanus species in ordinary home conditions have their own characteristics, advantages and performance technique.
Side shoots ornamental shrubs allow to breed it by cutting. Such processes for the formation of roots must be at least 20 cm long.
The whole procedure is quite simple.
Cut edges of cuttings it is necessary to cover with charcoal and a little dry. The next stage is the planting of shoots in a substrate of peat land and sand and coating of plastic film to create a greenhouse effect. Temperature conditions should not exceed the limits of the norm - + 25 ... + 27 ° С. For accelerated rooting, a mandatory item is regular spraying of the cuttings and airing. Rooting duration ranges from 1,5 to 2 months.
Such actions are a detailed explanation of how to properly implant an exotic pandanus without special skills and floricultural experience.
Reproduction by seeds requires more time and effort. The harvested seeds without pre-treatment are ready to be planted in a special soil of leafy earth and sand. The first shoots under the plastic wrap appear no earlier than 2-4 weeks. And only with the advent of 3-4 leaves, such sprouts can be transplanted into separate pots. A prerequisite for a successful result in such a procedure is a stable temperature of at least + 25 ° C, regular watering and ventilation.
Child rosettes that grow in an adult plant, make it possible by dividing the bush to perform the procedure of its reproduction. And as soon as such branches reach heights above 20, they have roots that can function independently.
Carefully cut out sockets should be dried for no more than 12-20 hours, then landed in a pot with prepared drainage and soil. Abundant spraying, moderate humidity and underheating are the conditions that will positively affect the development of the young plant. After a few months, rooted sockets of the helical palm tree are preferably transplanted into a stationary container with soil consisting of turfy ground and sand.
Minor efforts will allow to grow a healthy luxurious flower that will easily decorate the interior of any room, bring a touch of exotic and elegant.