Orchid called Cymbidium (Cymbidium) - It is an evergreen epiphyte that lives on the crowns and trunks of trees in tropical forests. Representatives growing on the ground or on the surface of rocks are rarely found.
Family: Orchidaceae (Orchids).
Homeland: Tropical Asia, Australia. For the first time, the culture was described in 1799 by a Swedish botanist P. U. Swartz.
Depending on the type or variety of flowering period occurs in spring, summer, autumn or winter. Cymbidium is a beautiful cut plant that costs a very long time.
Flowers - small or large - Cymbidium orchids are arranged in several pieces on the peduncle, which in plants belonging to different species and varieties can be bent, directed downwards or straight, can reach a length of up to 1,5 m. Flowers emit strong and at the same time gentle smell. That is why cymbidium in China is called the “King of fragrances”. The palette of shades is extremely wide: it is brown, cream, yellow, red, greenish yellow, violet and other colors and tones. Both the sepals and petals are often the same color, they have the same shape - lanzento or sickle. Their lip is three-bladed, differs in most cases with a colorful and bright scale.
Cymbidium lives in the indoor environment 3-7 years.
Types and varieties of Cymbidium orchids: photos and names of popular varieties
Among the more existing 100 species of cymbidium flower the most attractive, and therefore the most popular gardeners call the following:
Homeland aloelist cymbidium is northeastern India. The growing area of culture today extends beyond these boundaries, stretching to the southeast, encompassing Burma and Fr. Java. Unfortunately, this extraordinary beauty orchid in our time fell into the category of rare plants. This is due to the fact that its tubers are used for the production of medicines. Under natural conditions, aloeloid cymbidium is often presented in the form of thickets on tree trunks.
See how this species of cymbidium orchid looks like in the photo:
It is noticeable that it is low - no more than 30 cm. In a culture, pseudobulbs have an egg-shaped form, foliage is leathery, linear-belt-shaped, about 30 cm long, peduncle is hanging down, about 40 cm long. The flowers have a small diameter - about 4 cm, painted yellow, with a purple center. Flowering plant in January - June.
In contrast to the previous variety, the most common types of terrestrial orchids are cymbidium lanceolate. Pseudobulbs have a fleshy structure, different fusiform shape. The maximum leaf length is 50 cm, and the width is 5,5 cm.
The shape of the foliage elliptical. Peduncles in the species of lanceoliferous orchids Cymbidium of medium length - no more than 35 cm, upright. They are often located around 8 fragrant flowers about 5 cm in diameter. The color of the petals and sepals - green light, the central vein - purple. The lip has a greenish-white color, the middle lobe is decorated with red spotting, and the side blades are decorated with chestnut-red stripes arranged in parallel. The flowering period of the plant lasts from April to October.
For mosquito cymbidium characteristic foliage leathery type. Leaf lengths vary in the range of 30-90 cm. The inflorescences are erect, their height can be from 15 to 65 cm. On each of them 3-9 can have strongly smelling flowers whose diameter is on average about 5 cm.
Looks like the photo on the photo:
The petals are painted in greenish-yellowish colors, decorated with purple-red central veins, as well as purple blotch - at the very base. The lip of the flower has a yellow or green hue, on the side lobes there is a chestnut-red stripe, on the middle lobe - a red-purple spot. Under greenhouse conditions, the plant may produce color over the course of 12 months.
For Cymbidium Low tend to grow to 90 cm in height. It is characterized by flattened pseudobulbs. The leaves can be as long as 60 to 75 cm, and wide - about 2 cm. They have lanceolate-linear shape, pointed at the end. On one thick and curved peduncle with a height of about 1, m can appear from 15 to 35 of strongly smelling flowers, the diameter of each of which varies within 10 cm.
Looks like a flower of the species called Cymbidium Low, look at the photo and compare it with the description below:
The petals, as can be seen, have green-yellow shades, decorated with longitudinal stripes of brown color. They have a three-lobed lip of pale yellow color, on the front lobe of which there is a V-shaped spot with a brown-reddish tonality. Flowering plant throughout February - July. Very widely used by breeders for breeding hybrid varieties.
Looks elegant and color orchids cymbidium day. The photo of the species under this name is presented below - appreciate the beauty of the plant and its uniqueness.
The flowers are not large, their diameter is no more than 5 cm. On the same stalk can simultaneously be located from 5 to 15 flowers, painted in pale cream tones and complemented by a central purple magenta shade. The white lip has a front lobe, intensively curled back. Flowering plants occur in the period from August to December.
Raznovydnost orchids called tracy - Cymbidium, which is considered the largest among the other species. It was first discovered in the vastness of Burma. The arcuate or direct peduncle grows in length by more than 1 m. It can simultaneously originate from 15 to 20 fragrant flowers with a diameter of about 15. Petals are colored yellow-green, there is a red spot along the veins. The lip of the lip is wavy; there are red spots and stripes along the front lobe.
Sheets are endowed with a belt-like linear shape, their width is about 2 cm, and the length is no more than 60 cm. The plant blooms for a relatively short time - from September to January.
Despite its name, such orchid varietyas a giant cymbidium (photo can be viewed below), it is inferior in size to the Tracy type described above:
His homeland are the slopes of the Himalayan mountains. Peduncles powerful, inflorescences - hanging type, about 60 long cm, they are no more than 15 fragrant flowers, the diameter of which - no more than 12 cm.
The flowers are colored yellow with a green tinge, with purple-red stripes on them. There are also purple streaks and spots on the cream lip. The flowering period lasts from November to April. A distinctive feature of this species is that cut flowers stand in a vase no more than a couple of days.
Of the many hybrids of cymbidium, the most suitable for heated indoor spaces are such pygmy cymbidium, partly due to the fact that he has thermophilic parents.
Originally from Japan and China. How dwarf cymbidium looks like, look at the photo below:
The culture has 3 to 5 linear sheets, each of which is curved, with a pointed tip, reaching no more than 20 cm in length, and about 2 cm in width. the base of which are located bracts lanceolate form.
The diameter of the flowers is no more than 10 cm, they are painted in brown-red shades, the edges, however, are yellow. On the white three-lobed lip (length - about 2 cm) there are brown-red spots. Petals have an elliptical shape and blunt tips, curved. Flowering plant from December to March.
Thanks to the work of breeders today, many varieties of hymbrids of cymbidium were bred. The most popular with gardeners are the following:
Cymbidium Golden Vanguard "Emperor".
Cymbidium Koh Hou "Twelve".
Cymbidium Oriental Legend "Princess Rose".
Cymbidium "Faridah Hashim".
The first hybrid on the list gives fragrant yellow color throughout all 12 months.
The second pleases the eye with creamy white fragrant flowers with red interspersed throughout the summer.
The third is characterized by pink flowers, the petals of which are decorated with dark central stripes.
The fourth is distinguished by miniature flowers that appear in the summer months and captivate with their soft yellow color and delicate aroma.
The fifth is included in the category of long-flowering varieties, which was fallen in love due to small flowers (up to 8 cm in diameter) located on the hanging peduncle.
You can enjoy the beauty of cymbidia of different types and varieties by viewing the photo:
Examine a selection of images in detail, and let them help you choose the green "pet" that best suits your home greenhouse.
Propagation of the cymbidium plant at home by dividing pseudobulb
Orchid cymbidium is propagated at home by the method of dividing pseudobulb. To do this, use only an adult plant that has reached the flowering phase, and the procedure is not recommended more often than 1 times over 3-4 years. Otherwise, the root system will be subjected to stress, which will adversely affect the "health" of the orchid.
The division of the bush can not be done:
- In summer, when the plant is actively growing and lays flower stalks.
- In autumn and winter, when the orchid blooms.
A suitable period is the early spring, when the culture is at rest, most effectively during the transplant.
Two days before reproduction by dividing cymbidium, it is necessary to stop watering, irrigate with a spray gun, fertilize. Orchid removed from the pot, remove the dry foliage, cut off too old and spoiled roots. Then several pseudobulbs, which have already matured and have one growth point, are separated with a sharp knife from the rhizome with a sharp knife.
The sections of the cuts are processed using crushed charcoal or cinnamon. Shrubs are left for some time in the fresh air until the roots are completely dry.
After that, they are planted in containers with the substrate so that the growing point is located as close as possible to the central part of the pot. It is contraindicated to bury pseudobulbs in the ground so that they do not rot.
Planting delenok cymbidium carried out in pots, the size of which is slightly larger than the size of the root system. At the bottom of the traditionally laid drainage. As it can be used:
- Expanded clay.
- Pieces of foam.
Next, fill the soil: you can buy in a specialized store a substrate for orchids, and you can make it yourself. For this you need to take:
- Three pieces of bark of conifers, well chopped.
- Two parts of sphagnum moss.
- One piece of leaf humus.
- One part of river sand.
- One piece of charcoal.
- One piece of perlite.
Care after transplanting Cymbidium orchids at home (with video)
After transplantation, the cymbidium clematis requires proper care for them so that they can adapt. In particular, containers with plants are placed in places where there are no drafts, a high level of humidity prevails. Watering at this time should be moderate, water should be poured only on the edge of the pot. To the usual mode of care, you can go after a month or two.
Orchid transplantation is performed every 2 of the year after flowering using the same technology and into the substrate described above, only the pseudobulb division itself is omitted.
If old pseudobulbs remain that do not have leaves (sometimes even yellowed and wrinkled) when transplanting cymbidium orchids at home, you can arrange the right care for them and also get new plants as a result. They are separated, placed in containers containing crushed bark of coniferous trees and sphagnum moss, covered with film, thus erecting a greenhouse. As they dry, the moss and bark are sprayed. When sprouts and roots appear on pseudobulbs, they are transplanted into flowerpots for permanent growth.
Familiarize yourself with the video about the care of cymbidium at home, and feel free to apply the recommendations and advice of the masters of gardening in practice:
How can you grow cymbidium from seeds at home
Many amateur gardeners are interested in the question of how to grow a cymbidium at home from seeds. Experts say that this method is time consuming, time consuming and there are special conditions that it is impossible to create at home. Therefore, it is used only by breeders for breeding new varieties. Professionals also warn: if you come across a situation when you are offered to buy seeds collected from cymbidium at home in the market at home, without hesitation, refuse to buy them, as they are counterfeit.
In order to grow indoor cymbidium, it is extremely important to choose the right location: year-round need air, a lot of light and sun. But with lighting it is very important not to overdo it - direct sunlight can cause burns.
It is recommended to place pots with these plants on window sills facing west, east - this is an ideal option for any season. If there is an opportunity to use only the south or south-west window sill, then you will need shading in the summer. The content of cymbidium on the north and north-east window sills should be abandoned in winter, since the plant will lack lighting. If possible, the flower during the warm period of the year should be taken out to the garden or to the balcony at least 4 hours a day.
On the question of how to care for cymbidium at home, the masters of gardening recommend not to be lazy and carefully monitor the thermometer.
Comfortable temperature: in summer it is warm, from August to night it is much cooler. It is recommended to maintain this temperature:
- In spring and summer: during the day - from 18 to 22 ̊С, during the night - from 13 to 15 ̊С.
- Autumn and winter: during the day - from 16 to 18 ̊С, during the night - from 10 to 12 ̊С.
The orchid can “survive” the temperature rise to a maximum of 28 ̊С, but there is no guarantee that it will bloom in such conditions at all.
Cymbidium is a plant for which it is necessary to keep the humidity of air high, otherwise the tips of the leaves will begin to shrink, and the buds and color will fall off intensively. To ensure proper conditions, it is necessary to put a flowerpot with a flower on a special pan, on which wet expanded clay balls or pebbles are laid.
You can also frequently spray the foliage and humidify the air around the plant with clean water using a spray bottle. But you should act very carefully during this procedure so that the drops do not fall on the color itself. If the room that contains the orchid is cool, then the spraying should be abandoned.
Watering: from March to the end of September, plentiful, the rest of the time to water a little. To understand when in the warm season you need to water the plant once again, you need to pay attention to the condition of the soil - it should dry out between two waterings.
It is unacceptable that the water in the vases stagnated - it is fraught with diseases. During the rest period in the fall and winter, the recommended watering frequency is 1 once every 14 days, but if the room is hot and the air is too dry, then more often the soil does not dry out and the pseudobulbs do not shrivel.
You can learn more about the irrigation regime as one of the aspects of Cymbidium orchid care at home by watching the video below:
Top dressing: Every 4 week, add special fertilizer for orchids to water for irrigation: “Ideal”, “Rainbow”, “Kemira Lux” at a concentration of ½ of that indicated on the package. In the middle of summer, the frequency and volume of nitrogen fertilizers should be reduced, and potassium fertilizers, on the contrary, should be increased. While flowering continues, it is not necessary to feed the plant at all.
Why do cymbidium yellow, blacken and dry leaves: the main disease
Like all Orchids, cymbidia suffer from diseases and are attacked by parasites. The main reason for this is a violation of the plant conditions described above. The most dangerous for these orchids are such pests:
- Spider mite.
spider mites settle on the surface of sheets and in buds, sucking cell sap from the plant. The fact that they attacked the orchid, we can conclude by the presence of such signs: white dots on the back of the leaves, a thin web that weaves various parts of the culture. In cymbidium, the leaves gradually turn yellow, then discolor to a gray tint, and eventually turn brown. To fix the problem, it is necessary to treat the plant with the help of “Actofit”, “Vermitek” or “Fitoverma”.
Presence of aphids can be identified by appearing sticky secretions on the surface of an orchid. Also, the yellow color of the leaves is intensively starting to develop, the buds are deformed, dry out and fall off. From the pest saves "Fitoverm" or tincture of tobacco with soap, which you need to treat the plant.
Orchids affect the sinuses of leaves, stems, flower stalks, pseudobulbs. This is another reason why the leaves of the home cymbidium turn yellow. Immediately on them appear small yellow spots, then brown-brown or purple-crimson, depressed. Honeydew is observed on the plant, which becomes a breeding ground for black fungus - some parts of the flower become sticky and black. You can fight the pest with the help of Fitoverma.
Important to remember: if parasites were seen on one of the orchids, it is necessary to isolate it from other green “pets” of the home greenhouse, remove all damaged parts, transplant to another substrate, having previously treated the roots with a weak solution of one of the above insecticides.
The main diseases that Cymbidium suffers from include:
- Gray, black, brown, fusarium rot.
Mosaic is a viral disease, which is accompanied by the fact that cymbidium leaves blackened intensively: young streaks and black spots appear, which are located parallel to the central veins, and on the old - necrosis of tissues. As a result, the orchid stops growing, it blooms badly. The disease is incurable. The affected plant will have to be destroyed. Tools for the care of representatives of the home greenhouse will need to be treated with alcohol (70%) in order to avoid the spread of the virus.
Atraknoz occurs under the influence of the fungus. Shoots, pseudobulbs, leaves suffer. On their surface there is a spot of brown color, which is dotted with additional small black dots. There is a gradual dying off of the foliage, and cymbidium gradually dries. To get rid of the disease, it is necessary to reduce watering, reduce the air temperature in the room to the recommended values, cut off the infected leaves, reduce the application of nitrogen fertilizer, and treat the Orchid with Fundazole.
Due to too high concentration of water in the substrate, puffiness appears on the plant. The leaves are covered with “blisters, warts” or transparent spotting due to the fact that their cells do not have time to absorb water. Do not avoid edema, if you take out the watered orchid in a too cold room or leave on a draft. To fix the problem, you need to normalize the temperature and watering.
Why have cymbidium rotted roots and how to grow them to reanimate a flower
If the cymbidium has partially or completely rotted roots, this means that the plant has suffered from gray, black, brown, or fusarium rot. Symptoms of diseases also appear on the outer part of the plant: brown and brown spots are visible on the petals, which grow rapidly, leaves are covered with watery spot, turn yellow, curl, die off.
Rot can also occur on potted soil. If such symptoms occur, you need to know how to reanimate the affected cymbidium: remove the plant from the substrate, inspect the roots, remove all affected areas, sprinkle the cut-off areas with “Fundazole” or “Tetracycline”.
It is also necessary to get rid of rotten outer parts and transplant the orchid into a new pot with a clean substrate. Watering is definitely necessary to reduce, since an excess of moisture provokes the development of rot, then spray with “Fundazol”, and as a preventive measure, treat the flower once a month with copper sulphate.
If the roots of cymbidium almost completely rotted away, then they can be increased. How to do this, tell experienced masters of garden affairs. According to them, the root mass of a flower grows rapidly.
To do this, soak the remaining roots for 30 minutes in one of the solutions: 4 g zircon on 1 l of water or 1 g of succinic acid on 1 l of water. Then the plant should be planted in a new pot (the size of which should be slightly larger than the root system itself), filled with the substrate, the composition of which was described above. At the bottom you need to remember to lay out the drainage. Watering is allowed no earlier than the third day after planting, otherwise the wounds of the roots will not have time to heal.
Why does cymbidium orchid not bloom at home and what to do to make it bloom profusely?
One of the answers to the question of many gardeners about why cymbidium does not bloom at home is a violation of the temperature regime in the period of its active growth and the laying of flower stalks. If the temperature maximum in the room at this time overshoots the 22 ̊C mark, the buds will completely stop tying.
Since the orchid is a typical resident of places where there is a significant temperature difference between day and night, it is necessary to make a similar shake-up for the plant and at home. This is the main way how to get cymbidium to bloom abundantly at home.
- First, you need to reduce the frequency and abundance of watering.
- And secondly, it should be ensured that the difference between the night and day readings of the thermometer is about 8 C. It is recommended to reduce the night temperature to 10-12 ̊С. In the summer, it is possible to take out the plant for the night in the garden to the balcony. In winter, it is permissible to leave the pot on the balcony or loggia, only if they are insulated.
Another reason why Cymbidium orchid does not bloom at all is due to insufficient acidity of the soil. In this case, the plant needs a so-called pH-stress. It needs to be watered with a solution of sulfuric acid at a concentration of 0,01% or with a special preparation called “Kislinka” - the acidity will increase, the peduncles will begin to build up more intensively. During active growth, it is recommended to apply liquid organic dressings. Alternatively, you can prepare a solution of 1 l of water and a pinch of pigeon / sparrow droppings.
During the laying of peduncles - for most varieties in June - September - it is necessary to provide orchid bright lightingBut do not overdo it, so that the flower does not get burned. The missing amount of light is another factor why the cymbidium plant does not bloom at home.
The culture has no color at all, if the old pseudobulbs have faded and died off, but the newly formed ones are still too young. The only thing left to do if cymbidium does not bloom for this reason is to wait two or three years. This is the period that passes before their entry into the flowering phase.