In contrast to cold-resistant, thermophilic species and orchid hybrids are recommended to be grown in room greenhouses with artificial lighting. These orchids are very diverse in description, so each gardener will be able to choose the plant that will occupy a worthy place in his home floral collection. Among the most beautiful orchid species of warm content, one can distinguish brotonia, gongoras, guariants, trichoglottis, prosthechs, rodrighesia and some others.
To expand the range of indoor flowering or decorative orchids can be, if you create the conditions of high humidity. The problem of turning dry air of our apartments into the humid air of a tropical forest has long been solved by plant growers - this is the creation of small room greenhouses on window sills or in the depth of an apartment.
As a greenhouse for orchids, you can adapt the old aquarium or show the maximum skills of an aquarist, providing a transparent box with an opening lid artificial lighting, temperature sensors, automatic transoms and sprayers.
And you can do nothing of this, but simply in winter to separate the window space from the dry and hot air of the batteries with plastic wrap. The location for such a hothouse is the eastern or western windows. For especially photophilous species in the winter, it is better to use artificial lighting.
Below are descriptions, photos and names of thermophilic indoor orchid species of medium size with beautiful large flowers, as well as a brief overview of the agrotechnical features of growing them at home.
Types of beautiful thermophilic brotony orchids
Brotonia (Broughtonia R.Br. is a small genus of epiphytic or lithophytic orchids from the Antilles, consisting entirely of 6 species. These are small epiphytic plants with pseudobulbs flattened laterally, bearing at the top of 1 — 3 oblong-lanceolate leaves. Inflorescences of terminal, lanceolate leaves. Inflorescences are terminal, XNUMX — XNUMX oblong-lanceolate leaves. The inflorescences of the terminal, lantsette leafs. Inflorescences are terminal, XNUMX — XNUMX oblong-lanceolate leaves end. The classic "sunny" epiphytes that require strong light, constantly high humidity and complete drying of the roots between waterings.
Broughtonia ortgiesiana (Rchb.f.) Dressier - Brotonius Orthieza
An almost miniature epiphytic or lithophytic species comes from about. Cuba. Pseudobulbs up to 5 cm, double. The leaves are oblong, fleshy, hard, with serrate edges, bluish-gray shade, length 8 — 10.
As can be seen in the photo, this species of orchid has a peduncle up to 20 cm, carries up to 20 flowers with a fine texture, and is capable of branching:
Flowers with a diameter up to 4 cm, their petals and sepals are pinkish-purple. Lip length 1,8 cm, its front lobe slightly wavy on the edge, with a small mark on the tip. In natural habitats it blooms from December to March, and in culture from February to late spring.
It requires a warm temperature mode of cultivation, a high relative humidity of the air and a strong diffuse illumination (in summer at least 35000 lx). Watering is carried out only after complete drying of the substrate, therefore, prefers a block culture.
Broughtonia sanguinea (Sw.) R.Br. - brotonia blood red
Under the name of the epidemiological blood-red (Epidendrum sanguine urn Sw.), This species was among the very first tropical orchids brought to England, and it was already grown in the Kew greenhouses in 1793 year. This is a compact epiphytic or lithophytic orchid with pseudobulbs slightly flattened laterally, not existing on the top of the 1 — 2 oblong-lanceolate leaf. The inflorescence is apical, length 15 — 25 cm, develops from 4 — 9 to 18 flowers.
The flowers are purple-scarlet, with a diameter of 4,5, see. The sepals are narrow-lanceolate, keeled, while the petals are broadly oval, almost round. The lip is wide, almost rounded, with a slightly wavy edge and a yellow 3's lane callus in the center, which is replaced by 8 — 12 red streaks, fanningly diverging from center to edges. Flowering occurs in the spring and summer months - from March to September, the most often flowering plants can be found in May and June.
A type of orchid called brotonia blood-red needs a warm temperature mode of cultivation, high relative humidity and high ambient light (at least 35000 lux).
Watering is carried out only after complete drying of the substrate, therefore, prefers a block culture. When transplanting old (especially rotten) roots should be completely removed, and then strengthen the plant on the new block so that it does not swing.
Due to the bright color of flowers and small size, the species began to be used in hybridization. For example, when crossing with Cattleya (Guarianthe) aurantiaca, the remarkable Cattleytonia variety was obtained, Why Not 'Roundabout' AM / AOS, which received the gold medal of the American Orchid Society.
The following are photos, names and descriptions of indoor orchid species from the Gongora genus.
Types of gongor orchids for home conditions: photo and description
Rod Gongora (Gongora ruiz & Pav.) It was named after A. Caballero-i-Gongora (1740 — 1818), the viceroy of Colombia and Venezuela, and today it has 58 species distributed in Central and South America. These are sympodially growing epiphytes of medium size with oval or somewhat narrowed apex with double folded pseudobulbs, folded leaves and lateral drooping inflorescences developing at the base of the pseudobulb.
All types of gongor orchids at home need a warm or moderately warm temperature mode of growing, in winter the temperature should not fall below 14 — 16 ° С. For successful flowering required illumination of at least 7000 — 10000 lux.
During flowering, the plants develop vertically drooping inflorescences; therefore, it is preferable to cultivate in baskets with large openings in the bottom or on a block with roots covered with some moisture-consuming material. During the year, it needs uniform watering and high humidity (80 — 85%).
Gongora armeniaca (Lindl.) Rchb.f. - gongora peach yellow
The species is found in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. It grows like an epiphyte in the forks of tree branches. The pseudobulbs are somewhat narrowed at the apex, drooping inflorescences, often completely covered with purple dots, develop 5 — 15 peachy-yellow flowers, often covered with reddish-brown spots.
The spinal sepal is smaller in size than the lateral sepals and the base is connected to the column.
Look at the photo - this type of domestic orchids has a lip that is swollen and almost rectangular when viewed from the side, with a cut on the tip:
The column is long, curved, white with purple spots at the base. May bloom in late summer, autumn and winter until March.
Gongora galeata (Lindl.) Rchb. f. - gongora helmet-bearing
Epiphyte, occasionally litofit or land plant from rain and cloud forests of Mexico (600 — 1800 m asl). Medium-sized plants with oval ribbed pseudobulbs, elliptical folded leaves pointed at the ends, and many-flowering drooping inflorescences up to 20 cm.
Flowers with a diameter of 5 cm, yellow or brown, with the scent of oranges, drooping and turned by the lip to the peduncle. It blooms from June to October.
The next section of the article is devoted to the description of home thermophilic orchids, representatives of the genera Guariante and Trichoglottis.
Thermophilic orchids guariant and trichoglottis
Rod Guariante (Guarianthe Dressier & WE Higgins) includes 4 or 5 species recently isolated from the genus Cattleya. These are rather large sympodially growing epiphytes or lithophytes with 2-leafly club-shaped or spindle-shaped pseudobulbs and multi-flowered apical inflorescences. The flowers are large and bright.
Plants of warm or moderately warm content with a short winter period of rest, during which watering is reduced, but the temperature should not fall below 14 — 16 ° С. For successful flowering require strong illumination (20000 — 30000 lux).
Prefer pot cultivation. During active growth, they need high humidity (80%). during rest, humidity may drop to 50%.
Guarianthe aurantiaca (Bateman ex Lindl.) Dressier 8c WEHiggins - orange-red guariant
The species is originally from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. It is found in pine and oak forests at an altitude of 900 — 1800 m above sea level. m. Quite high double pseudobulbs (long to 33 cm) develop terminal inflorescence with 10 — 15 flowers with a diameter of 3,0 — 3,5, see.
Flowers are fiery orange, glossy, with a lip of the same bright cinnamon-red hue and with several darker purple stripes and specks. Some clones of this type of homemade orchids do not fully reveal the flowers.
When hybridized, this species gives the hybrids a delightful orange color and small color. It blooms in spring and summer.
Guarianthe bowringiana (O'Brien) Dressier & WE Higgins - Bouring's Guariante
More commonly known as Cattleya bowringiana O'Brien. A close relative of Cattleya, originally from Honduras and Guatemala. It grows low in the mountains (up to 900 m above sea level) on the steep walls of the gorges, on stones, sometimes completely covered with lichens, near waterfalls. Sometimes found even on sandy soils along the banks of rivers.
Clavid pseudobulbs from 30 to 40 are cm in height, the apical flower bearing bears from 5 to 15 and more medium-sized flowers with a diameter of 4 — 6. The lip of this type of indoor orchid does not have side blades, it is folded with a narrow pillar around the column and completely covers it.
The basic color of the lips is the same as that of the sepals and petals. The back part of the lip is white or slightly yellowish, the front part of the lip is divided into two lobes, it is pink-purple and is separated from the light rear part by a brighter purple stripe.
It can develop several shoots per year, branch and bloom at different times of the year - both in spring and in autumn. The most often flowering plants can be found from the second half of September, in October-November.
Shows photos of species here. orchid description which are given above.
Genus Trichoglottis (Trichoglottis blume) 64 has species from Sri Lanka, South Asia, Indochina, Indonesia, New Guinea, and northeastern Australia. Monopodially growing orchids with branching erect or drooping stems, two-row fleshy forked at the ends or pointed leaves and lateral short-flowered inflorescences.
When describing these indoor orchids, it is worth noting that all species of the genus need a warm temperature mode of cultivation (day — 18 — 30 ° C, night 16 — 26 ° C), strong ambient light (autumn-winter additional lighting). (75 — 80%).
In winter, watering is reduced a little. Preferred block culture with regular spraying.
Trichoglottis atropurpurea Rchb. f. - trichoglottis dark purple
The endemic of the Philippines, grows as an epiphyte at low altitudes (up to 300 m above sea level) along mangrove swamps. Shoots grow monopodially, often branching. Solid erect stems with relatively short fleshy leaves reach a length of 60, see the inflorescences are short, 1-2-flowering. In the period of flowering on the shoots simultaneously develops several inflorescences at once.
Pay attention to the photo - the flowers of this type of indoor orchids with a diameter of 6 cm, dark purple, with a lighter lip:
Have an apple flavor. The lip has short lateral lobes at the base, and its front lobe is also divided into three outgrowths — a central and two lateral ones. Flowering occurs in the summer and autumn months.
Trichoglottis geminata (Teijsm. & Binn.) JJSm. - trigoglottis doubled
Endemic Philippine arch. (o. Leyte), found in scrubs and on volcanic stones near the sea coasts (up to 1100 m above sea level). An epiphyte of medium or large size with upright branching shoots. The inflorescences are very short, 1-flowered.
The flowers are fragrant, 6 diameter cm, wax, yellowish-white with numerous transverse purple stripes and a white lip with an elongated front lobe. Blossoms spontaneously throughout the year.
Trichoglottis philippinensis Lindl. - trichoglottis filip pinskaya
Homeland - lowland forests about. Kalimantan and the Philippine Archipelago (100 — 300 m above sea level). An epiphyte of medium or large size with erect or drooping long branching shoots. This species of plants has short inflorescences, orchids are usually 1-flowered.
The flowers are fragrant, with a diameter of 4 cm, wax, orange-brown, with a white three-blade lip with crimson markings and a yellow spot in the neck. It blooms from April to September.
The following are the characteristics, photos and names of orchid species of the genera Proesteheya and Rodrigesia
Types of orchids Prostheheya and Rodrigesia
Prostehey (Prosthechea WE Higgins) - a fairly large genus from the tropical regions of America, which includes the 93 species. Symptometrically increasing epiphytic or lithophytic small orchids or large size with single or polynomial pseudobulbs and apical multi-or few-flowered inflorescences.
A distinctive feature that is worth noting when describing these orchids - flowers are always oriented lip up.
Prosthechea cochleata (L.) WE Higgins - shell mollusc
This is one of the oldest tropical orchid species known to European science. Under the name Epidendrum fchleatum L., it first bloomed in Europe at the Royal Botanical Gardens (England) more than 200 years ago. Homeland - Colombia, Venezuela, Florida, West Indies and Central America. Epiphyte, rises in mountains to a height of 100 — 1350 m above sea level. m
Pseudobulbs are ovoid, almost bottle-shaped, laterally flattened pseudobulbs, bearing on top of 2 — 3 green, leathery, oblong-lanceolate leaves up to 20 cm. resembling a jellyfish.
As shown in the photo, the flowers of this species of orchids with a diameter of 3 — 4 cm, their petals and sepals are greenish-white, narrow, linear-lanceolate, pointed, sometimes rolled into a straw and lowered down:
The lip with a strongly widened front lobe resembling a clam shell is velvety, purple or dark purple, almost black, with light radially diverging stripes at the base and a yellow tip. Plants of this species bloom, but several times throughout the year, flowers tend to self-pollination and easy fruit set.
The plant is warm or moderate in content (at night the temperature can drop to 10 ° C without harm to the plant), it requires constant high humidity, high ambient light and a well-drained substrate.
Prosthechea fragrans (Sw.) WE Higgins - The Stilt Fragrant
Homeland - Central and South America, the large Antilles. The plant received its specific name for the unusually strong spicy scent of flowers. It grows as an epiphyte in humid plains and mountain forests (up to 2000 m above sea level). Pseudobulbs 7 — 10 cm long, 2 — 3-leaf. Leathery leaves, oblong-lanceolate, blunt at the end, up to 20 length. See Apical inflorescences, up to 15 length. See
The flowers of this orchid species are cream or pale green, turned upside down, up to 5 in diameter. See sepals and petals narrow, widely spaced, greenish-white. The lip is white or cream, with red longitudinal streaks and a strongly pointed tip.
May bloom at different times of the year: in the summer (May-August) and in the autumn-winter period (October-January). Duration of flowering - 10 — 15 days.
The plant is warm or moderate in content; it tolerates severe temperature fluctuations, at night the temperature can drop to 10 ° C without harm to the plant. It requires constant high air humidity, strong ambient light and increased watering during the growth period.
As well as different types of thermophilic orchids, it grows well in both pot and block culture.
Prosthechea vitellina (Lindl.) Dressier - The Stilt Yolk-Yellow
One of the brightest and elegant stoves. Homeland - Mexico and Guatemala. Rises in the mountains to a height of 1500 — 2600 m above sea level. m. and therefore is one of the most cold-loving species in the genus.
Pseudobulbs ovoid, tapering at the end, develop two leathery bluish-green, oblong pointed leaves. Peduncle length 16 — 25 cm, sometimes branching. Numerous flowers (about 20 pieces), scarlet-orange with bright yellow lip.
Sepals and petals oblong-oval, petals somewhat wider sepals. The lip is very narrow, bright yellow, sometimes orange at the tip, pointed. It blooms in spring. Each inflorescence stays fresh for 2 months.
It requires colder conditions of maintenance than other members of the genus, as well as dry, cold wintering with reduced irrigation. Throughout the year, requires a strong ambient light and high relative humidity. It can be kept both in the pot and in the block culture not only in the room greenhouse, but also on the insulated balcony or loggia.
This photo shows what types of orchids are from the kind of Prostehey:
Rodriguesia Rod (Rodriguezia Ruiz & Pav) named after Manuel Rodriguez - Spanish doctor and botanist. It includes 48 epiphytic species common in the rainforests of the American tropics, from Mexico to Peru, but the largest number of species grows in Brazil.
Rootstocks of shoots can be short or long (more than 10 cm). The flowers are collected in a rather thick brush, they stand out clearly against the background of greenery, from fiery red to snow white and spotty. Lip with a short spur.
As shown in the photo, all types of orchids of the genus Prosteheya at home need a strong diffuse illumination (20000 — 30000 lx), obligatory shading from direct sunlight and regular airing:
Rodriguezia lanceolata Ruiz 8 with Pav. - Rodrighesia lanceolate
Better known by the name Rodrigesia unilateral (Rodriguezia secunda Kunth).
The homeland is the rain forests of Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Brazil, Suriname and Fr. Trinidad (650 — 1500 m asl). Epiphytic plant with an elongated rhizome and small pseudobulbs. During flowering this orchid is decorated with garlands of small flowers.
Pseudobulbs, compressed laterally, ovate-oblong, 3 — 4 cm long, single or double. The main part of photosynthesizing leaves is located not on the pseudo-bulba, but on the interstices of the rhizome.
The inflorescences are the same size as the shoots, sometimes branching, with a lot of double-row flowers, and in each row all the flowers are rotated in one direction, which was the reason why the species received the epithet "one-sided".
Flowers of intense pink color, with a diameter of about 1,5 — 2,0, see. It requires a warm temperature regime of cultivation (day — 30 — 32 ° C, night 20 — 22 ° C) with daily temperature changes in 8 — 10 ° C, strong ambient light (autumn - winter lighting is obligatory) and high humidity (80 — 85%). In May — June, the air humidity is slightly reduced to 75%. Preferred block culture with regular spraying.
Rodriguezia venusta Rchb. f. - Rodriguesia is beautiful
Homeland - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. It grows like an epiphyte on the branches of trees at a height of 500 - 1800 m above y. m. A small plant with an elongated rhizome and relatively small pseudobulbs carrying one leaf at the top and 3 — 4 of the articulated leaf at the interstices of the rhizome. Inflorescences drooping, with 5 — 10 snow white flowers with a diameter of about 3, see
Lip with a wide front lobe split at the end, divided into two delta wings with a deep slit at the end. The callus of the lip consists of two longitudinal wax keels of an orange-yellow color. It blooms twice a year - from April to June and from August to October.
It requires moderately warm temperature conditions of cultivation (day - 24 — 26 ° С, night 13 — 16 ° С), strong ambient light (autumn-winter additional lighting is obligatory) and high humidity (75 — 80%). In winter, watering is reduced a little. Preferred block culture with regular spraying.
In the final section of the article, you will learn what other types of thermophilic orchids are.
What other types of thermophilic orchids are: photos, video and description
Genus Encyclia (Encyclia Hook.) includes about 150 species from tropical America. They grow as epiphytes in dry tropical forests with a seasonal climate at a height from 1000 to 3000 m above y. m. The genus is characterized by the presence of a pseudobulb, apical inflorescence, three-lobed lip, free along the entire length. In ancient Greek, “enkiklien” means “surround,” as the genus name describes the features of the lip surrounding the column with its lateral lobes.
Occurs from Mexico to Colombia and Venezuela, grows as an epiphyte or lithophyte, rising to a height of 1000 m above y. It has rather large flowers with red-brown petals and sepals, widened at the ends and curved forward, as well as a bright lip, densely painted with red-crimson veins.
In a culture of flowering plants can be found throughout the year, but most often - from April to mid-summer. It requires warm or moderately warm temperature conditions of cultivation, in winter the temperature should not fall below 16 — 17 ° С. It is very light-requiring, for regular flowering it requires artificial lighting (minimum illumination 2500 — 3000 lux, optimum illumination 25000 — 30000 lux) and difference of day and night temperatures in 5 — 8 ° С.
It grows better in pot culture, requires a well-drained substrate and does not tolerate too frequent watering inside the pot. Needs constant high humidity (80%).
Epidendrum (Epidendrum l.) - a large genus of sympodially growing epiphytic, lithophytic or terrestrial orchids from the tropics of America, numbering 1125 species. Stems from different members of the genus may be miniature (several cm long) or large (longer than 1m), thickened or not thickened, apical inflorescences, multi-or few-flowered, sometimes appear from specialized apical leaves (covers).
The species is originally from Costa Rica and Western Panama. Epiphyte, found in humid lowland forests, rising to the mountains to an altitude of 400 — 2000 m above sea level. m
The description of this plant is as follows: pseudobulids of the orchid epidendrum are erect, 50 — 70 cm long, brownish-purple, leafy on top. Leaves linearly oblong, pointed, 10 long — 14 cm.
Apical 1 inflorescence — 3-flowered. Flowers are 4 long — 6 cm, their petals and sepals are apple green in color. The lip has no lateral lobes, it is bilobed, with chipped edges, orange-red, with 5-furrowed callus. The column is long, with a crimson-purple ending. It blooms from February to June.
It needs moderately warm temperature conditions of cultivation, in winter the temperature should not fall below 15 ° С. Daily difference between day and night temperatures - 5 ° С.
Prefers pot cultivation, transplantation should be carried out no more than once in 3 — 4 of the year. If it is not particularly hot, the plant tolerates low air humidity (50 — 70%), so it can be grown without a room greenhouse, just on a windowsill.
These photos show the types of orchids described above.
Orchid of the genus Psychosis (Psychopsis Raf.) like butterflies. This genus is isolated from the Oncidium (Oncidium) genus and includes the entire 4 species distributed from the south of North America to the north of South America. Pseudobulbs flattened, sometimes almost rounded, single-leaved. Inflorescences are lateral, erect, long. The flowers look like large, yellow-brown butterflies.
Some species grow in hot and humid conditions on the plains, others prefer cooler mountain forests, and therefore need different (warm or moderate) temperature conditions. At the same time, all species of the genus require complete drying of the substrate between waterings.
Psychopsis krameriana (Rchb. F.) HG Jones - Cramer's Psychopsy
The homeland is the rain forests of Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador and Peru (50 — 1300 m above sea level). Pseudobulbs are almost rounded, reddish-brown, flattened, diameter about 2 cm, single-leaved. Leaves are leathery, green with purple stains on the upper side of the leaf blade and brown spots on the lower side, length 15 — 25.
Peduncle erect or slightly curved, articulate, up to 80 cm long, capable of developing flowers for several years. Flowers solitary, large, 8 — 10 cm in diameter, their petals and sepals are yellow with brick-red spots.
The three-lobed lip is 4 long; see with a short prong and a wavy edge. Peduncles develop gradually throughout the year, the maximum flowering occurs in spring and summer.
It requires a warm or moderately warm growing mode (winter night temperature is not lower than 14 ° C), moderate ambient light (18000 — 25000 lux), and high humidity throughout the year (75 — 80%). In winter, during a period of relative rest, the roots of the plants must completely dry out between waterings. Prefers block culture.
Here you can watch a video showing different types of orchids: