The papiopedilium or lady's slipper orchid stands apart in the line of other Orchid plants. First, on a high flower stalk, most cultivars develop only one flower, and not several, like other Orchidaceae representatives. Secondly, the flower necessarily has a swollen, elongated lip, which is their distinguishing feature.
In veneer shoes, orchids of the genus Pafiopedidum (Paphiopedilum), captivates everything, from compact shoots, the leaves of which are collected in neat, sometimes motley, bilateral rosettes, to fairly large, fancy flowers on pubescent peduncles. Many species grow and bloom well on windowsills in residential areas, and some lovers collect and contain only pafiopedilums.
After reading this article, you will learn how a lady's slipper flower looks like and how to care for it at home.
Agrotechnology orchid care venerin slipper
According to the home care agrotechnology, pafiopedylums can be divided into 3 ecological groups - terrestrial, lithophytic and (rarely) snyphyte. They all prefer potting.
According to the requirements for temperature and light during the care, papiopedilums are divided into three groups. The first group includes variegated species that live at low altitudes above sea level, are contained in a warm temperature regime (winter night temperature 16 — 18 ° С) and preferring diffused lighting.
These are shoes from subgenera:
Paphiopedilum (Barbata section).
The second group consists of zeolithic, as a rule, mountain 1 — 2-flowering species that require moderate and cold conditions of maintenance (winter night temperature 10 — 14 ° C) and intense illumination.
This includes views from the section Paphiopedilum. The third group includes green leaf shoes with many-flowered peduncles, which need warm content and bright light.
These are types of three sections:
Most of the shoes from the subgenus Braehypetalum in the culture stand apart, preferring not just warm content, but differences in day and night temperatures, moderate watering and a calcium-rich substrate.
When caring for veneer shoes, the right ground is very important. Land mixtures that include leaf and sod land, peat and river sand are suitable for growing pafiopedilums from the Paphiopedilum section.
The land mixture is prepared in the same way as for most houseplants, mixing all the components, taken in certain proportions.
In accordance with the proper agricultural technology for the care of papiopedilums at home, a good drainage from broken clay shards is put on the bottom of the clay pot. Plant placed in the center of the pot, gently straighten the roots and poured on top of the substrate.
It should not be compacted, instead the pot is shaken a little while planting, tapping the transfer table on the bottom. The land mixture should cover all the roots and the very base of the shoots, while the shoots themselves must remain on the surface.
Epiphytic substrates prepared on the basis of crushed bark with various additives from charcoal, foam plastic and sphagnum moss are suitable for growing all other groups of pafiopedilums.
Examples of land mixes for shoes from the subgenus Paphiopedilum:
- Leaf ground (1 part), black lowland peat (2 parts), large river sand (1 part);
- Finely chopped rhizomes of ferns (1 part), crushed sphagnum moss (1 part), leaf ground (1 part), large river sand (1 part);
- Shredded pine bark (2 parts), sphagnum moss (2 parts), river sand (I part).
Sometimes as a substrate for the care of venereal shoes at home use the bark of seed gradation (with a diameter of pieces 0,6 — 0,8 cm), planting plants in the same way as in land mixtures. It is desirable to cover the substrate surface with live sphagnum moss, this will protect young roots from premature growth. If plants are kept in conditions of insufficient moisture, a thin layer of sphagnum can wrap the base of young shoots.
A special place is occupied by the orchid pafiopedilumy from the subgenus BrachypetalumIn which substrates are injected additives containing easily washed out calcium, for example, dolomite crumb. At the same time, chalky or crushed-stone chips may be present in the pot as a drainage layer, and the eggshell or crushed shells of mollusks can be poured over the substrate. If dolomite flour is added, it is added to the calculation of 1 g per liter of substrate and mixed thoroughly.
When leaving, these orchids of the genus papiopedilum can be kept on a stony substrate, sweeping away crushed clay of large fraction, dolomite crumb and coarse river sand in the ratio 2: 1: 1. Such a mineral substrate implies a practically hydroponic culture; therefore, regular dressings are needed, which are introduced with every second irrigation.
Calcium in the substrate for pafiopedilums from the Brachypetalum section is also introduced in the form of dolomite flour, chalk crumb, eggshell, etc.
When caring for an orchid, a lady's slipper at home should be watered infrequently but abundantly. The amount of irrigation water per plant should be several times the volume of the pot. No wonder they say: "Shoes can not be ruined by abundant watering, but you can ruin too frequent watering."
When watering, the substrate should be well-wetted, and then for 2 — 3 days the plant can not be watered. For good growth when caring for orchids, most shoes need only one abundant watering with top dressing and one abundant watering with clean water per week to wash the substrate and roots from salinization.
Here you can watch the video of the care of indoor venerian shoes:
The short rhizome of many types of pafiopedilums with a small number of adventitious buds that are capable of developing is most often the reason for the inability of plants to survive for long periods of unfavorable conditions. Pafiopedilums do not give "babies" either on the shoots, or on the peduncles, or on the roots, so the hope for renewal lies only in the viability of these buds of the rhizome.
The following are photos and descriptions of plants of a lady's slipper of various types:
Papiopedilum (lady's slipper) Orchid: photo, names and description of plant species
Paphiopedilum appletonianum (Gower) Rolfe - Pafiopedilum Appleton (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Barbata).
A variegated slipper originally from Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and from Fr. Hainan (China). Occurs in the undergrowth among decayed plant debris as a land plant at a height of 600 — 700 m above y. The pubescent greenish peduncle 1 — 2-flowered, up to 50 cm.
The flowers of this venine shoe look like a greenish-purple calyx. Sepal with green and purple stripes, petals with callused brown spots, staminodes with two distinct notches on the ends.
Flowering specimens can be found from February to June, some colors are from October to December.
Paphiopedilum argus (Rchb. F.) Stein - Pafiopedilum Argus (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Barbata).
Very rare slipper from Fr. Luzon (Philippines). It grows only on the eastern or western slopes of the mountains, rising to a height of 800 — 2500 m above sea level. m., as a rule, in a thick layer of moss at the base of tree trunks or in leaf litter and humus among bamboo thickets.
As shown in the photo, this orchid papiopedilum leaves are spotty, bluish-green, with purple underside:
Purple pubescent single-flowered peduncle up to 45 cm long, erect, develops a single greenish-purple flower with a white striped dorsal sepal and spotted side lobes. It blooms from January to April.
Paphiopedilum barbatum (Lindl.) Pfitz. - bearded papiopedilum (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Barbata).
Homeland - Malay Peninsula. Occurs in mountain forests at a height of 200 — 1300 m above sea level. m., litofit.
The leaves are variegated, stems 1 — 2-flowered. The flowers are purplish-brownish, with a diameter of 10, see. At the edges, the side petals bear numerous dark bristles and dark callused warts.
When describing this venine shoe, it is worth highlighting the lip of the flower - it is purple at the front and greenish-brown at the back. In nature, plants bloom twice a year.
Paphiopedilum callosum (Rehb.f.) Stein - Pafiopedilum corpus callosum (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Barbata).
A variegated slipper from the foothills of Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. This type of pafiopedilum grows on low rocks at an altitude of 300 — 1300 m above sea level. m in substrates of fallen, ripe leaves, sand and mosses, in moderate shade.
Hairy erect 1 — flower-bearing flower-bearing stem up to 45 cm. Spinal sepal with longitudinal stripes, side lobes down, crescent-curved, and slightly deflected backward, with dark warty along the upper margin.
Variable view. It blooms in autumn and early spring.
Paphiopedilum concolor (Lindl.) Pfitz. - Pafiopedilum monochrome (Brachypetalum subgenus).
Grows in Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and China (Prov. Yunnan). Litofit or ground plant, rises to a height of 1000 m above y. m. A small orchid with spotted leaves, covered with numerous purple spots on its underside.
Peduncle 1-3 flower. The name “monochrome” of this venerian shoe is given for its monochrome color: the flowers of the plant are white or cream, the petals with small chestnut-purple dots are rarely found. The lip is elongated, its outer edge is bent inward.
Staminody with a large yellow spot in the middle. It blooms during the year, the main peak of flowering occurs in the summer months - from May to September.
Paphiopedilum delenatii Guill. - Pafiopedilum Delenat (subgenus Brachypetalum, section Parvisepalum).
Homeland - North Vietnam and China (Yunnan). It is found at low altitudes in the valleys or at the foot of the limestone mountains on rocks and rocks.
The leaves are variegated, erect stem, 1 — 2-flowered. Petals and sepals pink, velvety. The lip is swollen, with the front edge curved inward, often more brightly colored. Staminody with two bright yellow spots in the center, divided across the red-purple longitudinal stripes.
With good care, this orchid veneer slipper blooms in spring or early summer.
Paphiopedilum fairrieanum (Lindl.) Stein - Pafiopedilum Fairy (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Paphiopedilum).
Homeland - Sikkim, Bhutan, northeast India (Assam). Occurs in river valleys along the banks and on chalky rocks under ambient light conditions under the canopy of tall grasses and low trees. Rises to a height of 1400 — 2200 m above y. m
The leaves are pale green, sometimes with purple spots on the underside. Peduncle erect, 1 — 2-flowered. The flowers are greenish-white with numerous purple-purple stripes. Lip olive with purple streaks.
The main flowering period of this orchid is a lady's slipper at home - autumn.
Paphiopedilum glaueophyllum JJ Smith - Pafiopedilum sizolitny (Paphiopedilum subgenera Cochlopetalum section).
Litofit comes from Sumatra and Java. It grows on volcanic slopes, at low altitudes in areas with abundant regular moisture throughout the year. Peduncles dodging, develop from 10 to 18 months, on each of them alternate around 20 flowers. Spinal sepal glossy, light green.
As seen in the photo, this orchid has a slipper side petals cream-white with pinkish tips, covered with purple spots:
The lip is lavender-pink, yellowish to the upper edge. Peduncles appear in the spring-summer period.
Paphiopedilum godefroyae (Godefr. - Leb.) Stein - Madame Godefroy Pafiopedilum (Brachypetalum iodode).
Homeland - Vietnam, Burma, Thailand. Occurs at low altitudes, on steep limestone rocks.
A variegated slipper with a short 1 — 2-flowering erect peduncle. Flowers pubescent, snow-white or yellowish with numerous purple spots. Staminody with a yellow vertical stripe in the center.
The plant a lady's slipper of this species blooms in the summer, from May to September.
Paphiopedilum haynaldianum (Rchb.f.) Stein - Hayald Pafiopedilum (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Pardalopetalum).
Motherland - the islands of Luzon and Negros (Philippines). Occurs on stones and trees or in cracks filled with humus at a height of up to 1400 meters above sea level. A large green leaf plant with a downed pubescent peduncle 50 — 75 long, cm, which develops 4 — 6 yellowish-green flowers with a diameter of 7,5 — 16,0, see.
When describing a plant a lady's slipper of this species, it is especially worth noting its elongated drooping petals, which carry large chestnut stains, a khaki-colored lip has dark green veins.
It blooms from February to May, although flowering specimens can be found throughout the year, with the exception of June.
Paphiopedilum helenae Aver. - Elena Pafiopedilum (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Paphiopedilum).
Homeland - the north of Vietnam and southern China. Zelenolistny humus epiphyte, found in mountainous areas at a height of no more than 850 — 900 m above y. amidst plant residues in the cracks of stones, on the slopes of river gorges facing north or on vertical stony slopes, sometimes at the base of small tree trunks or shrubs.
Dwarf clones with narrow green leaves 4 — 12 cm long. Single flower with a diameter of 5 — 7 cm, the general tone of its color is yellow-brown. The lip is smooth, brownish-orange, length 2 — 3 cm, width 1,5 — 2,0 cm.
Primary flowering occurs in the autumn months, but individual specimens continue to develop flower stalks until mid-winter.
Look at how looks like an orchid Helen's slipper on these photos:
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum (Lindl. Ex Hook.) Stein - Pafiopedilum is the most persistent (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Paphiopedilum).
Epiphytic or lithophynt green-leafed slipper from India (Assam), Thailand, Laos, Burma, where it rises to the mountains to the height 3000 — 4000 m above sea level. m
Peduncle 1-flowering, erect, up to 25 cm. An interesting property of the flower of this venine shoe is the gradual corrugation of the upper edge of the side petals, which immediately after blooming look even, but after a day they become small fold.
Flowering occurs in the spring months and lasts from March to May.
Paphiopedilum insigne (Wall, ex Lindl.) Pfitz. - Pafiopedilum is wonderful (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Paphiopedilum).
Homeland - tropical Asia. Variable view. Leaves are green, narrow. Peduncle erect, 1 — 2-flowered, up to 30 long, see
The flowers are apple-green or greenish-yellow, with a spotted wide oval sepal, bearing a wide white border along the top edge, brownish side petals and a yellowish-green lip of a brown shade.
The blooming of this homemade Venus's shoe begins in September — October and lasts until February of the following year.
Paphiopedilum malipoense Chen & Tsi - Pafiopedilum Malipoenze (subgenus Parvisepalum).
It is found in the shadow of semi-deciduous mountain forests in the north of Vietnam and in China (Yunnan) at an altitude of 1300 — 1600 m above sea level. m., where it grows in the shade on the chalk outcrops of rocks. Plants settle in the breaks and cracks of vertical cliffs, preferring the eastern slopes. Leaves are spotty, wide, purple below, slightly wavy.
Peduncle erect, 1 — 2-flowered, 40 long — 60, see. Flowers, 12, cm, apple-green.
Pay attention to the photo - this orchid has a lady's slipper, the lip is swollen, with the front edge curved inwards:
Staminody with a dark spot below. It blooms in spring, the flowers develop very slowly and keep around 2 months.
Paphiopedilum primulinum M. Wood & Taylor - Pafiopedilum pale yellow (subgenus Cochlopetalum).
Lithophytic or ground plant from the north of Sumatra, rises to 500 m above sea level. m. The leaves are bright green, without purple dots. Peduncle dodging, many-flowered, long 50 — see 70.
The flowers are yellow or greenish in comparison with the other members of the subgenus Cochlopetalum are smaller. Flowers open alternately, leaving the plant in flowering state for about a year.
With good care for the orchid slipper in the home conditions, flower stalks in this species appear in spring and summer.
Paphiopedilum spicerianum (Rehb.f. ex Masters & T. Moore) Pfitz. - Madame Spicer Pafiopedilum (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Paphiopedilum).
The green leaf comes from the north-east of India (Assam) and north-west Burma. Butt epiphyte at the base of tree trunks or lithophyte on the vertical walls of the gorges. Occurs at a height of 300 — 1300 m above y. The peduncle is upright, 1 — 2-flowered, up to 25 long, see
As shown in the photo, this Venus shoe has greenish-white flowers with a funnel-shaped dorsal sepal, short corrugated petals and a brownish lip:
Staminody has a pink spot with a yellow dot in the center. It blooms from October to December.
Paphiopedilum suhhakulii Shoser & Senghas - Pafiopedilum Sukhakula (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Barbata).
A variegated sliver originally from Thailand. It grows at a height of 1000 m above y. m on clay soils, occurs along river banks in moderate light conditions.
Peduncle erect, up to 12 cm long, bears a rather large flower with unusual wide green petals, completely dotted with dark purple spots and dots, with small pointed striped white spinal sepal and medium sized lip, purple-brown in the upper part and pale green at the bottom.
Houseplant venere slipper of this species blooms twice a year - from February to April and from August to December.
Paphiopedilum venustum (Wall. Ex Sims) Pfitz. - Pafiopedilum is adorable (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Barbata)
Homeland - Assam, Bangladesh, V. Himalayas, Myanmar, Nepal and China (Prov. Yunnan) (1000 — 1500 m above the sea level). It grows as a terrestrial plant in the basement of cliffs, in dense undergrowth, bamboo thickets, river canyons.
Land plant with spotty purple-green leaves. Inflorescences are upright, 1 — 2-flowering. A flower with a diameter of 9 cm, with wide greenish-purple netalia, dotted with large dark purple spots and a greenish-pink lip, covered with a network of purple veins.
It blooms twice a year - from January to April and from June to December.
Paphiopedilum villosum (Lindl.) Stein - Pafiopedilum hairy (subgenus Paphiopedilum, section Paphiopedilum)
Green leaf slipper from Indochina. It grows as an epiphyte, lithophyte or land plant, rises to a height of 1100 — 2000 m above y. m. Strongly hairy erect peduncle, 1 — 2-flowered.
The flower is yellow-brown, with extended tips of the side petals directed forward. Staminody yellow with a green dot in the middle.
It blooms from autumn to spring.
On these photos you can see orchids Venerin slipper, the description of which is given above:
The final section of the article presents photos and descriptions of the hybrid types of the flower Venus slipper.
What is the flower of a lady's slipper of hybrid species: photo, video and description
Registration of hybrid pafiopedilums began in 1866, when the very first hybrid of venereal shoes was obtained in England - Harrison Pafiopedilum (Paphiopedilum harrisianum)whose parents were P. villosum and P. barbatum.
After 8 years, a second hybrid was registered in 1877, Paphiopedilum nitens (Paphiopedilum insigne X P. villosum).
Appeared in Europe a little later Paphiopedilum spicerianum He also took part in hybridization, with his participation another 2 of a new hybrid was obtained - in 1884 in Paphiopedilum Leeanum (Paphiopediluminsigne X P. spicerianum) and in 1888 in P. Lathamianum (Paphiopedilum spicerianum X P. villosum). Subsequently, these hybrids became the ancestors of more than 13500 Greksov Venus shoes.
A wide hybridization of venereal shoes assumed the development of standards for the quality of their flowers, so the American Orchid Society (AOS) for the hybrid pafiopedilums developed the Standard complex, distributing hybrids into groups.
It was developed several criteria for assessing the shape and shade of flowers, according to which the ideal flower has the shape of a flat circle, when viewed from the side its upper sepal and side petals should lie in the same plane.
The lip may not be too round, but should be placed vertically and protruding. In reality, nonselective groups are far from this ideal; their flowers can be triangular, oval, and even slightly twisted. Unlike the Americans, the British adhere to the criterion of roundness of flowers in front, but do not necessarily pay attention to the flat arrangement of the sepals and petals in profile. The description of flowers of a lady's slipper of hybrid species is presented in the table.
Table "Standard complex of papiopedilum hybrids according to color characteristics":
|Group||Original parent species||Modern
|Albino forms P. insigne. P. fairrieanum||P. Greenvale 'Trail' P. Kenglow 'Val' HCC / AOS|
|Yellow-flowered||Albino forms P. distinguished, P. ArmeniaFor any inquiries, We're here to answer you. sit, P. niveum||P. Betty Bracey 'Springtime' AIM / AOS P. Annette 'Golden Age' AM / AOS|
|P. boxallii, P. villosum, P. sukhakulii f. aureum||P. Gege Hughes 'Harvest Moon' B / CSA|
|Red and spotty||Red
|P. barbatum, P. villosum, P. charlesworthii,
P. fairrieanum, P. bellatulum
|P. Dragon's Blood 'Masterpiece' AM / AOS|
|Spotted||P. insigne, P. villosum,
P. boxallii, P. bellatulum, P. gratrixianum
|P. Winston Churchill 'Indomitable' FCC / AOS|
|White and pink tones||Belo
|P. niveum, P. bellatulum, P. godefroyae,
P. insigne f. sanderae, albino forms P. delenatii, P. vietnamense
|P. FC Puddle FCC / BHS P. Silent Knight 'Crystelle' AM / AOS P. Rosy Dawn 'La Tuilerie'|
|P. bellatulum, P. delenatii, P. vietnamense||P. Alix de valec P. Alcudia|
|P. charleswortii, P. fowliei, P. braemii, P. barbatum,
P. purpuratum and etc.
|P. (Betty Bracey X Skip Bartlett)|
Another direction of selection of venereal slippers for growing at home went along the path of intrasectional crosses.
Maudiae-type hybrids are formed by species from the Barbata section.
The very first was a wonderful hybrid Paphiopedilum Maudiae 'Magnificum' AM / AOS, AM / RHC (Paphiopedilum callosum var. Sanderae X P. lawrenceanum var. Hyeanum) with white-green flowers of very beautiful shape.
Introduction to Hybrid Hybridization Paphiopedilum Maudiae 'Vinicolor' gave new hybrids a bright cherry color.
Paphiopedilum sukhakulii he added on the side petals a scattering of evenly distributed contrasting spots, Paphiopedilum mastersianum introduced his share in the form of dense fleshy flowers and gorgeous spotted leaves.
Look at how hybrid plants the lady's slipper look on these photos:
Hybrids created by crossing species from a subgenus stand separately. Parvisepalum:
They have pubescent, soft-looking flowers of muted pink, greenish or yellow shades, the leaves are usually spotty.
The most popular hybrids with Paphiopedilum delenatii.
For example, greenish-white primary hybrid Paphiopedilum Deperle obtained by crossing P. primulinum X P. delenatii, and a pinkish hybrid P. Gina Short obtained by crossing P. Pinocchio X P. delenatii.
Here you can see photos of flowers of a lady's slipper from a subgenus. Parvisepalum:
Multicolored hybrids are based on sections. Cochlopetalum и Coryopedilum. Although this group of turret shoes has a rather large sheet rosette, it enjoys the special love of orchid growers for the duration of flowering - some cultivars can bloom for a whole year.
In contrast to large multi-flowered hybrids, there are mini-hybrids created on the basis of the section Brachypetalum with the participation of the species Paphiopedilum bellatulum. Paphiopedilum concolor, Paphiopedilum. godefroyae, etc. Almost all of them have short peduncles and rounded or triangular flowers of white color with purple spots. Selection is carried out in the direction of increasing flowers and intensity of purple color.
And in conclusion - another collection of photos of orchids Venerin slipper of various types: