Contrary to the common opinion among floristic beginners that all members of the Orchid family prefer keeping conditions close to tropical ones, there are also forms that need cool cultivation. Cold-loving varieties of orchids are recommended to grow on warmed balconies and loggias, where the winter temperature does not exceed 15 degrees.
Not all orchids can be adapted to the conditions of window sills and room greenhouses.
Some plants do not have enough space to grow on a small window-sill, others do not have light, and the third one has summer coolness.
The desire to grow flowering, but cold-loving orchids prompted enthusiasts to go outside the apartments and learn glazed balconies and loggias.
It turned out that, having equipped a warmed balcony with a small electric heating water heater brought to it and having achieved a constant temperature maintained there in winter, it is possible to significantly expand the range of large-flowered orchids.
Similarly, for example, you can have great big ones:
Odontoglossums (Odontoglossum) and a number of related genera.
With photos, names and descriptions of cold-loving varieties of orchids you can find on this page.
What are room cold-loving orchids: the representatives of the Plevrotallievyh and their photos
Speaking about what kind of room cold-loving orchids are, first of all it is necessary to single out such representatives subtribe:
They do not have a rest period and need a cold growing mode, in which the summer daytime temperature should not exceed 24 ° С, and the winter night temperature should not rise above 10 — 12 ° С.
For good flowering, all cold-loving pleurotallium need a diurnal difference between day and night temperatures in 4 — 6 ° С. In addition, they need moderate ambient light (20000 lux), constantly high humidity (70 — 75%) and regular airing. Shading from direct sun rays is mandatory at any time of the year.
The following is a description of some orchid flowers, subtribe Plevrotalium.
Dracula chimaera (Rchb. F.) Luer - Chimera Dracula
Endemic of Colombia, where it grows in foggy mountain forests at an altitude of 1500 — 3000 m above sea level. m. in high humidity. Shoots are small, do not form a pseudobulb, univalent. Leaves petiolate, oblong-elliptic, pointed at the tips, non-folded.
As shown in the photo, in this species of orchids the inflorescences are erect or slightly drooping, rather long (2 times longer than the leaves), few-flowered:
The flowers on the inflorescences are revealed alternately at long intervals. The flowers strike with their unusual appearance - three large, fused at the base of the sepal with strongly elongated tips densely covered with small brown-purple spiky-shaped processes, two side petals resemble closely set eyes, and the whitish-pink lip has a shoe-shaped shape.
No wonder this orchid was given the specific name “Chimera” in honor of the mythological three-headed monster with the heads of a lion, a goat and a dragon. It usually blooms irregularly, but more often in spring (February – May), sometimes in autumn (October).
Draculae are more thermophilic than other nlevrotallievye. They need constantly cool and humid content with night temperature 12 — 15 ° С, increased relative air humidity (> 70%), regular airing and obligatory shading from direct sunlight.
Require well aerated substrate. It is better not to grow in pots, but in mesh baskets or on blocks with a completely closed root system.
Masdevallia veitchiana Rchb. f. - masdevallia veycha
Homeland - Peru and Colombia. It grows as an epiphyte, lithophyte, or even a terrestrial plant in mountain forests (2200 — 4000 m above WM). Forms compact cushion-shaped clones, leaves are linear-oblong, leathery, shiny, length 16 — 18 cm.
The inflorescences are erect, up to 30 long, see. In this variety of orchids, the flowers are single, bright orange-scarlet with a slight purple and yellowish moire, cast in the sun with any fluctuation of the flower.
The distance between the spinal and lateral sepals 12 — 14, see. Sepals, fused together with their bases more than one third of the length, form a kind of socket. They are wide-triangular, with tail-shaped processes at the ends. Petals and lip are very small, oblong linear.
Flowering plants in culture can be found throughout the year, the main flowering is carried by weight well (April-May), as well as in the fall (September-December).
Here you can see photos of orchid varieties, the names of which are presented above:
Varieties of cold-loving odontoglossum orchids (with pictures)
Many representatives of subtribe Oncidiinae tribes Maxillarieae in nature they grow in high-mountain forests, in conditions of low temperatures, strong ambient light and regular alternation of dry and wet seasons.
Cold loving odontoglossums for successful cultivation and regular flowering require cold content in the summer (better if the temperature is not above 24 ° C), significant changes in day and night temperatures, high humidity, moderate ambient light (15000 - 30000 lx), poorly tolerated direct sunlight.
The following describes what odontoglossum orchids are.
Odontoglossum Kunth - odontoglossum count
The genus includes about 60 species from the highland forests of Central and South America. These are sympodially growing epiphytes and lithophytes, rarely terrestrial plants.
Pseudobulbs of this variety of domestic orchids are single-pomer, double at the apex, inflorescences are small or multi-flowered, develop from the buds at the base of the pseudobulb. The flowers are often large, sometimes fragrant.
Odontoglossum harryanum Rchb. f. - odontoglossum harry
Homeland - Colombia and Peru. The pseudobulbs are oval-oblong, compressed laterally, 5 — 6 cm long, becoming grooved and wrinkled with age. Paired leaves develop on top of pseudobulb, they are leathery, oblong, dull, up to 44 cm.
As can be seen in the picture, in this variety of orchids, the inflorescences are shorter than the leaves, few-flowered:
Flowers with a diameter of 6 — 7 cm, contrastingly colored. Sepals oblong-elliptical, wavy, 4,5 long, see. Their main surface is painted in golden-yellow color with large chestnut-brown spots, occupying almost the entire area.
As a result, only the edges and mesh openings between the brown spots, the most dense and shallow at the base of the sepals, remain yellow. Petals oblong, length 4,2 cm, slightly pointed at the tips, which are bent back.
The three-lobed lip is elongated (3,5 cm), with rounded lateral lobes, curled upward, and an almost heart-shaped front lobe tapering at the end. The main background of the lip is white, the lateral lobes are covered with numerous violet-pink-purple or purple-purple stripes in the form of branching veins diverging to the edges.
Callus bright yellow, consists of two comb blades and ends in the front part with two diverging teeth in two in white.
Plants of this species can bloom at different times of the year, flowering depends on the nature of the clone, and on the conditions of detention. The maximum flowering occurs in May, July and August.
Look at the photo, what are the odontoglossum indoor orchids:
Varieties of orchids rinhostel for home conditions: photo, name and description
Rinhostele (Rhynchostele Rchb.f) - a small genus of spectacular epiphytic orchids, including 17 species distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica and Venezuela. Epiphytic or lithophytic plants with 1 — 2-leaf pseudobuds. Inflorescences little or many-flowered, lateral. The flowers are very attractive, sometimes fragrant.
Rhynchostele cordata (Lindl.) Soto Arenas 8c Salazar - heart-shaped rinhostele.
More commonly known as heart-shaped odontoglossum (Odontoglossum cordatum Lindl.).
The homeland is the highland misty forests of Central America, from Mexico to Costa Rica (1900 — 2000 m asl). Pseudobulbs are oval, flattened laterally, 4,5 — 9,0 cm long, univalent. At the base of the pseudobulb there are large green vaginal leaves.
The inflorescences of a variety of orchids called the rinhostele are heart-shaped 5 — 12-flowered. The flowers are 4,0 diameter — 7,5 cm, yellow with red-brown spots. Lip white with the same marks at the base. Callus at the base of the lip is raised, boat-shaped. It blooms in spring and summerfrom March to July.
When cultivated at home, this variety of orchids does not tolerate high summer temperatures (above 24 ° C). Extremely negative attitude to transplants.
Rhynchostele bictoniensis (Bateman ex Lindl.) Soto Arenas 8c Salazar - rinkhostele biktonskaya.
The homeland is the high-mountainous misty forests of Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador (2000 — 3200 m). Inflorescences 10 — 20 — flowering, erect, 40 — 80 long, see Flowers wide open, up to 5 cm, yellow-green with red-brown spots, fragrant.
Lip is white or pink-lilac, sometimes with wavy edges. Callus at the base of the lip with two teeth. It blooms in autumn, winter or spring, depending on the growing conditions, the main flowering is observed from October to February.
Here you can see photos of varieties of homemade orchids, the names of which are given above.
Rhynchostele rossii (Lindl.) Soto Arenas 8c Salazar - rinhostele Ross
Homeland - Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua. Inhabits rainforests, rising to the mountains to a height of 3000 m above sea level. m. Pseudobulbs are oval, unilateral, compressed from the sides. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, up to 8 cm. Lateral inflorescences are 12 long — 17 cm, develop from 2 to 5 flowers.
Flowers with a diameter of 4 — 6 cm, very diverse in color, usually white or pinkish with completely spotted sepals, partially spotted petals and a lip completely devoid of spots.
The lip with a pointed end, shaped like a claw, its edges are wavy and slightly cut, the end is bent back. Coloring lips from white to pink. The callus is concave, stretches from the base to the tip of the lip, bright yellow with several red stripes on the concave surface. It blooms from February to April.
Rhynchostele uroshinneri (Lindl.) Soto Arenas 8c Salazar - Rinhostele Uro Skinner
The homeland is Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico, where it grows in alpine misty forests on rocks and rocks as a lithophyte or land plant (1800 — 2500 m above sea level). Pseudobulbs are oval, laterally compressed, 1 — 3-leaf.
At the base of the pseudobulb on rhizome shoots, 3 — 4 green short leaves are also developed. The leaves are dark green, narrow, lanceolate.
Inflorescences are upright, length up to 90 cm, many-flowered. The flowers are fragrant, with a diameter up to 6,5 cm, olive-yellow with numerous red-brown spots, the lip is pink-white with purple veins. Callus at the base of the lip is forked, white with purple dots. Orchid blooms in summer and autumn.
These photos show what rinhostele orchids are:
Varieties of indoor orchids Rossioglossum: photos and color characteristics
In the genus Rossioglossum (Schltr.) Garay & Kennedy Includes 10 species from mid-mountain and high mountain rain forests of Central America. These are epiphytic, rarely lithophytic plants with 1 — 2-leaf pseudobulbs. The leaves are simple, elliptical or lanceolate, sessile or petiolate. Inflorescence single or multi-flowered, lateral.
All members of the genus suffer greatly if the temperature exceeds 24 ° C.
Rossioglossum grande (Lindl.) Garay et Kennedy - Rossioglossum large
It grows in the mountain deciduous forests of Mexico and Guatemala along forest edges and river banks at an altitude of 2500 — 3000 m above sea level. Quite a large plant with dense, ovate or almost round pseudobulbs, flattened laterally and bearing at the top of the 2 — 3 leaf.
In this variety of indoor orchids, lateral inflorescences are formed at the base of the pseudobulb and bear from 4 to 8 large (cm 8 — 14 diameter) yellow-brown flowers with a pale yellow lip.
Callus lips are fleshy, orange-yellow, with two conical outgrowths in front and 2 — 4 teeth in the base. It blooms from November to March, but may begin to bloom even two months earlier. It needs a cold and dry winter dormancy (daytime temperatures 20 — 21 ° С, at night 9 — 10 ° С, with daily differential 10 — 12 ° С), constantly high humidity (75 — 80%) and moderate ambient light (13000) —25000 lx).
Rossioglossum williamsianum (Rchb. F.) Garay et Kennedy - Williams Rossioglossum
Homeland - Guatemala, Costa Rica and Honduras. Large clones of these epiphytic or lithophytic plants are found at low altitudes up to 1000 m above y. The species is very reminiscent of Rossioglossum grande, and for a long time was even considered its variety.
Differs from it in larger leaves and pseudobulbs, but smaller flowers with a slightly less bright color. The petals of Rossioglossum williamsianum are shorter and wider, and the column has hooked wings. It blooms from May to July.
The main characteristic of this cold-loving orchid is the greatest loyalty to warm temperatures, it can be grown not only in a cold, but also in a moderately warm (but not hot) room. It needs a dry winter dormancy period (daytime temperature 22 — 24 ° С, at night 15 — 16 ° С with daily differential 7 — 8 ° С), constantly high humidity (75 — 80%) and ambient light (13000-25000 lx) .
Photos and names of other cold-loving orchids, which are in nature, are presented in the next section of the article.
What other cold-loving orchids are in nature
Warczewiczella discolor (Lindl.) Rchb.f. - varshevitsella multi-colored
Very nice sympodially growing epiphytic orchidwhich is found in shady humid mountain forests of Venezuela, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras and Cuba at an altitude of 700 — 2100 m above sea level. m
The leaves are light green, at the base of small pseudobulbs form a kind of fan, and 2 apical leaves are opposite, 16 cm long, 1,5 cm wide, pointed.
Inflorescences are straight, drooping under the weight of a flower. On each inflorescence a single flower with a diameter of 5 develops. See sepals oblong-lanceolate, spaced, petals somewhat shorter and wider, white in color with a slight purple-violet shade, to the edges turning into pure white.
The purple-purple lip in the center has a white-dissected white callus, all the combs of which are folded and serrated. May bloom in two seasons - in spring and summer.
It requires a cold temperature mode of growing (winter night temperature 12 — 16 ° C), constantly high air humidity (80 — 85%) and moderate ambient light (13000 — 25000 lx). It does not tolerate a strong desiccation of the substrate coma, preferring uniform moisture throughout the year. It is necessary to shade from direct sunlight.
Cochlioda lindl. - cochleid
Symptomatically growing epiphytic or lithophytic herbaceous perennials with ovate-oblong, slightly flattened from the sides with univalent pseudobulbs. Inflorescences are lateral, many-flowered, develop at the base of pseudobulb.
Cochlioda noezliana (Mast.) Rolfe - Noezly Cochleive
Very beautiful small plant with bright flowers, distributed from Central Peru to the north of Bolivia at an altitude of 2000 — 3500 m above sea level. The pseudobulbs are ovate-oblong, slightly flattened, 3 — 4 cm long, univalent. Inflorescence curved, many-flowered.
The flowers of this orchid variety are about 1 cm in diameter, red-orange with a yellow spot in the center of the three-lobed lip with four short tooth-like bright yellow outgrowths. It blooms mostly from mid-spring (April) to mid-summer (July). However, in a culture of flowering plants can be found throughout the year.
It requires a cold temperature mode of growth, high humidity during active growth and diffuse illumination (13000 — 25000 lx).
Cuitlauzina La Have & Lex. - quitlausina
The genus is named after the king of Mexico. A small genus from Central America, consisting entirely of 6 species. These are epiphytic or lithophytic plants with 1 — 2-leaf pseudobulbs, lateral inflorescences. Inflorescences are small or multi-flowered. The flowers are mostly white or lavender, fragrant.
Cuitlauzina pendula La Llave & Lex. - quitlausin oscillating
Among the Russian orchid growers, this plant is more widely known as Odontoglossum citrosmum (Lindl.) Beer or Odontoglossum pendulum (La Llave & Lex.) Batem. Symptodically growing epiphyte of small or medium size, growing in the mountain forests of Mexico at an altitude of up to 1500 m above y. m
Pseudobulbs are oval, laterally compressed, two-leaved. The inflorescences are lateral, develop at the base of the pseudobulb, and carry 4 — 8 pinkish-white wax flowers with a diameter of 5 cm with a strong lemon scent. It blooms from March to August, the peak of flowering occurs in May — June.
It needs a cold growing mode (winter temperature during the day 25 — 28 ° С, at night — 6 — 7 ° С with a large daily difference in 17 — 18 ° С), reduction of watering during the winter rest, strong diffuse utilization (25000 — 35000 lux), shading from direct sunlight and high relative humidity.
For normal flowering, it is very important not to renew abundant after the winter rest. watering until an inflorescence begins to develop at the base of a young vegetative shoot. Otherwise, the plant may not bloom.
Speaking about what orchids are cold-loving orchids in nature, it is worth highlighting the representatives of the genus Grandifillum.
Grandiphyllum docha neto - Grandifillum
The name of the genus means "large". The genus includes 10 species from South America. These are sympodially growing epiphytic, rarely lithophytic plants with 1 — 2-leaf pseudobulbs. The leaves are simple, lanceolate or linear, sessile. Inflorescences are lateral, many-flowered, sometimes quite long (up to 1 and more), sometimes branching.
Grandiphyllum divaricatum (Lindl.) Docha Neto, Colet. - grandifilum expanded
In culture, the species is also known as the oncidium cushion-like (Oncidium pulvinatum Lindl.). The endemic of Brazil. Epiphyte, found in cool highland forests. Pseudobulbs oblong-spherical, laterally compressed, grayish-green, cm long 3 — 5, single-leaved. The leaves are hard, erect, oblong, pointed at the end, length 18 — 25, see. Peduncle is drooping, curved, long or shorter (up to 30 cm).
Numerous flowers, brownish-yellow, 2 diameter, see. Three-lobed lip is pale yellow with red spots along the edges, lateral lobes rounded with fringed edges, the front lobe expands into a fan-shaped forked blade at the end. Callus is a rounded cushion dotted with small papillae whitish in color with orange dots. In culture, it blooms in summer (June — July) or in autumn (September — October).
It requires a cold temperature mode of growing, constantly high humidity and ambient light (13000 - 25000 lx).
Miltoniopsis Godf.-Leb. - Miltoniopsis
The name of the genus means "like miltonia", because it was isolated from the genus miltonia. The homeland of all 5 species belonging to the genus is the cold highland forests of Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
Sympodically growing epiphytes of medium size with oblong-conical or obovoid single-membered two-leaved pseudobulbs, linear-oblong, pointed, folded at the base into a short scape leaves and lateral inflorescences developing at the base of pseudobulb.
Miltoniopsis phalaenopsis (Lindl. & Rchb. F.) Garay et Dunsterv. - Miltoniopsis Phalaenopsis
It grows in the cloudy mountain forests of Colombia at an altitude of 1200 — 1500 m above sea level. The pseudobulbs are ovoid, flattened laterally, 1 — 2-leaf. Inflorescences are lateral, few-flowered, develop at the base of pseudobulb.
Flowers with a diameter of 10 cm, snow-white, petals and cheshelistiki located in the same plane. Lip with purple spots and bright orange-yellow spot at the base. The flowers are fragrant, with the scent of garden roses, shaped like violets, which is why they are sometimes called "orchids - pansies." A remarkable property of these plants is a violent bloom in the spring and summer months.
In this collection of photos are varieties of orchids, a description of which you have read on this page: