The genus Violet is one of the most extensive. The botanical reference books contain a description of the order of 700 species of a given plant.
It is noteworthy that the main habitat of these flowers is the temperate climatic zone of the Northern Hemisphere.
Some species of violets do not have varietal diversity, while others, on the contrary, possess not only a huge number of varieties, but also hybrid varieties.
Violets Altai and Marsh
Violet Altai (V. Altaica)
Distribution area Altai, Western Siberia, southeast of Kazakhstan, Tien-Shan, North-West China.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial with triangular stems up to 20 height. See Leaves on long petioles, leaf blade round or oblong.
The flowers of this species of violets are single, up to 3 cm in diameter, blue-violet with a yellow speck, white or cream with blue stripes on the lower petals. Spurrier invisible. Blooms profusely from the end of April 40-45 days, again from August to snow.
Growing conditions. Prefers bright places with nutritious, well-drained soil. In the middle lane winters without shelter. Using. It is cultivated in rock gardens.
Varieties. None. This species was used in crosses when creating a Vittrock violet (V. x wittrockiana).
Violet Swamp (V. Palustris)
Distribution area Europe, Asia, North America, in swamps, moors, wet, swampy meadows from lowlands to foothills.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 5-12 cm, with a thin creeping rhizome, round-kidney-shaped leaves and ovate-lanceolate, pointed stipules.
Flowers in this species of violets on long stalks, petals obovate, light purple or pink-purple, with a blunt short spur. Outwardly very similar to fragrant violet (V. odorata), but its flowers have no smell. Flowering from April to June
Growing conditions. It grows in bright places, on wet, sour, poor in nutrients, more often - peat soils. Using. Cultivation is possible in gardens of natural style, on wet soils or low banks of reservoirs.
Williams' ampelnye varieties
Violet Williams (V. x williamsii)
Distribution area In culture everywhere.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial hybrid origin, similar to Vittrock violet (U. x wittrockiana). It differs from the latter by stronger branching, a greater abundance of flowering, but smaller flowers (diameter, depending on the variety, from 2 to 5 cm).
The colors of the flower, like those of Vittrock, are the most diverse, with stains and shading of other colors. The flowering of this variety of violets begins in late April and continues throughout the warm season.
Growing conditions. Prefers nutritious, moist and loose soil, sunny or semi-shady places. Very cold resistant, neutral to day length.
Using. A great plant for pots and hanging baskets in which flowering ampelous cascades can form, these varieties of violets can also be widely used as bedding plants.
Varieties. F1 Angel Series (F1 Angel) - height of plants 12-15 cm, diameter of flowers 3-4 cm. Consists of 16 varieties with different colors of flowers, including 'F1 Angel Tiger Eye' ('F1 Angel Tiger Eye') - with orange-yellow color of flowers with brightly - brown venation. Used for registration of containers.
Cottage Series (Cottage) - height of plants 10-12 cm, diameter of flowers 2 cm. Consists of 4 varieties of violets with yellow-blue, purple-white, red-yellow, violet-cream color of flowers. Used for processing containers.
F1 Series Sparkler (F1 Sparkler) - height of plants 7-10 cm, diameter of flowers 4-5 cm. Consists of 4 varieties with bright, two- and three-color flowers colors. Ideal group for hanging pots and baskets.
Violets Hairy and Two-flowered
Violet Hairy (V. Hirta)
Synonyms. Violet hairy, short-haired violet.
Distribution area In nature, the hairy violet is found quite widely - from Europe to the Caucasus, Central Asia, Western Siberia and Altai, in sparse coniferous and mixed forests on forest edges, clearings, slopes, among bushes, on clearings and stony outcrops.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial stemless plant height 5-15 cm, with a short thick rhizome and rosettes of leaves, rather large, heart-shaped at the base, on long petioles.
As seen in the photo, the leaves of this type of violets are densely pubescent on both sides with delicate white hairs:
In May, numerous small-sized (10-12 mm long), odorless lilac-purple flowers appear from the leaf axils. However, the bloom of this violet is short - by June the flowers disappear, being replaced by unobtrusive fruits - three-leaved round fluffy boxes.
But for a long time we will enjoy the curtain of soft, soft to the touch light green leaves.
Growing conditions. He likes friable humus, mainly calcareous soils. It grows in partial shade and in open areas. Propagated for the most part by seed.
Using. In culture, it can be cultivated in rockeries, rock gardens, low mixborders, and also used for registration of forest areas.
Violet Two Flowers (V. Biflora)
Distribution area In subalpine-arctic and suboceanic climatic zones, in the highlands of Europe, Asia and North America. It grows in rocky cracks, on damp scree, in mountain forests, on wet meadows, near water bodies.
Botanical characteristics. Plant height 8-20 cm, stem rising, ascending, leaves serrate, heart-shaped or shrubopochidovidnye, dlinnochereshkovye, stipules small, lanceolate.
Peduncles erect, with 1 — 3 drooping dark yellow flowers with small red strokes on the bottom petal, about 1,5 cm in diameter, with a small spur. Blossoms in May.
Growing conditions. Loves sour, humus-rich, moist soil. Shy of love Propagated by seed or rhizome division. Using. Along with various other types of violets, V. Biflora can be cultivated in rock gardens, shady, wet gardens and on the low banks of water bodies.
Violets Planiform and Dubravnaya
Lilac Violet (V. Palmata)
Distribution area North America.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial perennial height 10 — 15, see. Deep-dissected sheet plates. Flowers on short stems, flat, pale lilac. Bloom in late spring.
Growing conditions. Requires dry, well-drained soil, light areas. Hardy. Easily propagated by self seeding.
Using. Kind of violets called Planiform is cultivated in rockeries.
Violet Dubravnaya (V. Nemoralis)
Synonyms. Violet mountain.
Distribution area In the temperate zones of Europe and Asia. In Russia - throughout the European part, as well as in Ciscaucasia and in the south of Eastern Siberia.
Botanical characteristics. Shoots are single or small, height up to 25 cm, do not form sod. The leaves are large, heart-shaped. The flowers are light blue, with a spur, like the flowers of a dog violet.
Growing conditions. In nature, it grows in forests, thickets, glades and forest edges.
Using. In culture, almost not cultivated.
These photos show species of violets, the names of which are presented above:
The most beautiful varieties of violets Fragrant (with photos)
Violet Scented (V. Odorata)
Synonyms. Violet is fragrant. Distribution area Broad-leaved forests of Western Europe, Crimea, the Caucasus, the Balkans, Asia Minor and Western Asia, and northern Africa. In culture, everywhere.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial height up to 15 cm, with a short and thick underground stem, and shoots that bloom in the second year. Leaves with long petioles, round or ovate, with a finely toothed margin, up to 6 cm.
Flowers with a diameter of about 2 cm, on long, thin pedicels, fragrant, blue, purple, purple, white, non-double or double. Blossoming is very abundant, twice a year - at the end of May and at the end of summer.
Growing conditions. It grows well in moderately moist fertile soils in the sun and in partial shade. Propagated by seed, dividing the bush and grafting. Young plants begin to bloom in the second year of life. In severe winters with little snow can be damaged and badly bloom next season. Poor drought tolerance. May produce abundant self-seeding.
Using. This view can be used for the design of light and half-shaded areas, edges near trees and shrubs, rock gardens, where plants form wide curtains with a continuous cover, as well as for potting in spring and autumn.
- 'Bechtles Ideal' ('Bechtles Ideal') - large-flowered, vygonochny grade.
- 'Queen Charlotte' ('Queen Charlotte') - flowers lilac-blue, large, variety suitable for forcing.
- 'Ker d'Elsace' ('Coeur d'alsace') - pink flowers.
- 'Christmas' ('Christmas'),' Alba '('Alba') - white flowers.
- 'Red Charm' ('Red charme'),' Rubra '('Rubra') - flowers red-purple.
- 'Triumph' ('Triumph') - one of the most beautiful varieties of fragrant violet with very large flowers.
- 'King' ('The czar') - purple flowers, very fragrant.
Variety. Violet fragrant Parma, or Parma violet (U. odorata var. Parmensis). It is cultivated in some areas of France, mainly in the south, around Nice, and also in Northern Italy, near Parma.
It differs from the main species by large, double, very fragrant flowers. It is widely used in the perfume industry, in particular to create extracts for perfumes.
On these photos you can see the varieties of fragrant violet, the description of which is given above:
Violets Yellow and Langsdorf
Violet Yellow (V. Lutea)
Distribution area Mountains of Central Europe and the Balkans.
Botanical characteristics. Plant height 10-20 cm, has upright or ascending, often - unbranched stems. Leaves are yellow-green, rarely crenate along the edge, lanceolate or oblong-ovate.
Stipules palmate-or pinnacular, with 2-4 pairs of segments. The flowers are bright yellow, with a violet shading on the lower petal, fragrant, with a diameter of 2,5 — see 4.
As shown in the photo, this species of violet has a spur violet, long:
Flowering in June - July, plentiful.
Growing conditions. Grows on fertile, wet, calcareous soils.
Using. In the rock garden.
Violet Langsdorf (V. Langsdorffii)
Distribution area East Siberia, Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka, Alaska, Japan. In nature, it grows on grassy meadows.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial or young herbaceous plant 20-30 cm tall (in culture - up to 40 cm), with a creeping rhizome. Leaves broadly ovate or reniform, on long petioles.
The flowers are purple, large, with a diameter of 2,8-4, see. It blooms in May - June, for 3-4 weeks. The name of this variety of violets is given in honor of the naturalist Georg Heinrich von Langsdorf.
Growing conditions. Photophilous, cold-resistant. It grows well on moderately wet or marshy soils. Propagated by seed, when sown in spring or before winter - in September - October. Gives abundant self-seeding, can mate.
Plants live for 3-4 years, then die, replaced by new ones grown from seeds. Using. It can be used for registration of open places in gardens and parks, on lawns.
What are the varieties of violets species Klobuchkova and Grace
Violet Klobuchkovaya (V. Cucullata)
Synonyms. Violet oblique (U. obliqua).
Distribution area East North America, from Newfoundland to Ontario and Minnesota in the west and to Georgia in the south. Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 5— 15 cm.
Leaves are heart-shaped or reniform, crenate, on long petioles, pubescent. The flowers are relatively large, petals are dark blue, purple, white. Blossoms in May.
Growing conditions. Light or weakly shaded place, nutritious, moderately wet, well-drained, loose soil.
Using. Rockeries, rock gardens. It can be very weary.
The following describes what varieties are in the violet species Kdobuchkovaya.
- Varieties. 'Alba' ('Alba') - white flowers.
- 'Bicolor' ('Bicolor') - flowers of this varieties of violets by description similar to Alba flowers, but have purple veins on the petals.
- 'Gloria' ('Glory') - A hybrid with glossy leaves and white flowers with blue touches.
- 'Rubra' ('Rubra') - purple flowers.
Synonyms. Violet grigorogaya (U. gry grew eras).
Violet Graceful (V. Gracilis)
Synonyms. Violet graceful, violet thin.
Distribution area Balkans, Pyrenees, Asia Minor. Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 10-20 cm with ascending stems.
Coarse toothed leaves. Flowers up to 4 cm, bluish-purple or yellow. It blooms from spring to autumn.
Growing conditions. It grows in the sun or in partial shade, on structural, well-drained, moderately moist, nutritious soils.
Using. Used for registration of rock gardens.
- 'Lord Nelson' ('Lord Nelson') - flowers are dark purple, almost black.
- 'Moonlight' ('Moonlight') - The variety of violets with this name has yellow flowers.
- 'Major' ('Major') - the flowers are large, purple with a yellow eye.
Korean and Labrador varietal violets: photo, name and description
Korean Violet (V. Cogeapa)
Distribution area Forests of the Far East.
Botanical characteristics. A perennial plant that forms at the beginning of the growing season a rosette of basal leaves of the heart-shaped form, and then - leafing leafy shoots with deltoid leaves.
Growing conditions. Loves moderately shady places, moist, nutritious soil. Using. In shady gardens, under a canopy of trees and shrubs.
- Varieties. 'Mapc' ('Mars') - forms a large sheet rosette up to 20 height, see. The leaves are variegated, dark purple rays diverge from the midrib. The flowers of this variety of violets purple color, fragrant, are mainly under the foliage.
Violet Labrador (V. Labradorica)
Distribution area North America, Canada, including the arctic regions.
Botanical characteristics. Compact, low (5-10 cm) bushes with rounded heart-shaped leaves and delicate medium-sized flowers, rising above the foliage.
Leaves are bronze or dark purple, especially bright in spring and early summer. The color of the flowers is pink-carmine. Flowering - at the end of May - June.
Growing conditions. It grows well in the sun, but can tolerate partial shade. Very cold resistant. Loves a fertile, moderately moist soil.
Breeds only seeds that are sown in the fall in the ground or from March to May in boxes for seedlings. Seeds can germinate for quite a long time - for 1-15 months. In favorable conditions, plants can produce self-seeding.
Using. In rockeries, in the foreground of mixborders, under sparse bushes, in tree trunks.
Varieties. 'Purpurea' ('Purpurea') - flowers are dark purple.
See how the varietal violets look in the photo, which are described above:
Violets Forest and Notched
Violet Forest (V. sylvatica)
Distribution area Temperate and suboceanic climatic zones of Europe and Asia. It is found in forest glades, in the thickets of shrubs. This is one of those types of violets that can grow in deciduous and coniferous forests.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial with ascending, branched at the base of shoots height 5-15, see. Radical leaves on long petioles, rounded-heart-shaped, pointed, with sparse short hairs on the upper side.
Stipules are narrow-lanceolate. The flowers are light purple, with a dark purple spur. Flowering in April - May.
Growing conditions. It grows in light and semi-shady places, on moderately humid, nutrient-rich humus soils. Propagated only by seeds.
Using. It can be used in the design of shadow areas, as well as in naturgardinas and mixborders.
Violet Incised (V. Incise)
Area of distribution. Rare, endemic Siberian species.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial stemless plant with a short unbranched rhizome, turning into a taproot.
Forms neat shrubs 6-15 height cm from oval leaves, cut to about half of the leaf plate on the 5-7 oblong blades. In this species, violet flowers are bright purple, of rather elegant form, a bit like a cyclamen flower, raised above the leaves.
Growing conditions. In nature, violet, incised is found on the sandy shores of rivers and lakes, rocky slopes, saline meadows and pine forest edges. This species reproduces beautifully with seeds that germinate in the light at a temperature 22-30 ° С. Flowering begins in the year of sowing, on 40-60-th day after seed germination.
Excellent winter hardiness of this plant, resistance to diseases and pests, uncomplicated seed reproduction, longevity (up to 9 years), the ability to support the population by self-sowing and, of course, high ornamentation make it very promising for widespread cultivation in culture.
Using. Rock gardens, rockeries, mixborders.
Beautiful varieties of violets Manchzhurskaya and Moth
Violet Manchu (V. Mandshurica)
Distribution area In nature, it grows on reed grass and grassy meadows of the Far East, Kuriles, Japan, Korea, and China.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial herbaceous plant with a height from 6 to 20 cm, with a short rhizome and ovoid-lanceolate leaves on long winged petioles.
As can be seen in the photo, this beautiful sort of violet flowers are dark purple, diameter 2,5-2,6 cm, rising above the leaves on long pedicels:
On a single plant, 8 to 14 flowers are simultaneously revealed. It blooms in May -June, blooms profusely, lasts for a month. Growing conditions. Photophilous, cold-resistant. Prefers friable, nutritious, moderately wet soils. Propagated by seed and division curtain. May produce abundant self-seeding.
Using. It can be grown in rockeries, mixborders, as well as in gardens and parks on the edges of shrubs and in open places, where it forms beautiful curtains.
Varieties. There are many varieties with different colors and size of flowers, as well as double or variegated (with shading) flowers.
- 'Myo-Jin' ('Myojin') - with purple flowers.
- 'Fuji Don' ('Fuji dawn') - with white and variegated leaves.
- 'Abish' ('Ebiche') - with pink flowers.
Violet Moth (V. Papilionacea)
Synonyms. Violet sister, violet sororia (U. sororia).
Distribution area Eastern North America.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 15-20, see. Leaves are heart-shaped or budlike, crenate, on long petioles, pubescent.
The flowers are relatively large, the petals are dark blue, purple, blue, pink, white with a violet stripe or speckles, the center of the flower is greenish cream or white. Spur is creamy white. Blossoms in May.
Growing conditions. Light or weakly shaded place, nutritious, moderately wet, well-drained, loose soil.
Using. Rockeries, rock gardens. It can be very weary.
The following describes what varieties Moth violets.
- 'Gloriole' ('Gloriole') - white flowers with a blue eye.
- 'Red Giant' ('Red giant ') - flowers pinkish, large.
- 'Speckles' ('Speckles') - petals purple with white specks. '
- White Ladies '('White ladies') - flowers are large, pure white.
- 'Frekles' ('Freckles') - white flowers with purple specks.
- 'Alice Vitter' ('Alice witter') - The flowers are pure white with a pink center and veins.
Violets Patren and Persikolistnaya
Violet Patren (V. Patrinii)
Synonyms. Violet primulolistnaya (U. primulifolia).
Distribution area Sakhalin, Kuriles, Eastern Siberia, Japan, Korea, Northeast China. In nature, it grows on grasslands, damp meadows.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial herb to 15 cm tall, with a short rhizome. Leaves are oblong, on long petioles.
The flowers are white, 2-2,2 cm diameter. It blooms in the first half of June around 2 — 3 weeks.
Growing conditions. Loves fertile soil, open wet places. Propagated by seeds. May produce abundant self-seeding. Using. Forms beautiful snow-white curtains on a lawn in parks.
Violet Persikolistnaya (V. Persicifolia)
Synonyms. Violet pond (P. stagnina).
Distribution area Occasionally found in all European regions of Russia, except the south-east, as well as in some areas of Siberia.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant forming loose bushes of erect or ascending shoots with alternate leaves of elongated-oval or triangular-elongated-lanceolate form, on long petioles.
In the axils of the upper leaves in May - June are formed long flower stalks with single, small (diameter up to 1,5 cm) milky-white flowers with a faint violet tint. Propagated by seeds.
Growing conditions. Under natural conditions, it grows on damp meadows, on the outskirts of marshes, on forest edges.
Using. In the culture is not cultivated.
Popular varieties of violet Motley and Cloak
Violet Motley (V. Variegate)
Distribution area East Asia, Transbaikalia.
Botanical characteristics. Forms a rosette of leaves up to 15 height cm, without shoots. Leaves are dense, bud-shaped, 2,5 long — 5 cm, pubescent, dark green above with silvery veins, purple below.
Growing conditions. In nature, it grows on dry slopes, steep cliffs, in dry steppes. In the culture requires light, dry places, good drainage of fine gravel.
Using. Rockeries, alpine slides.
- 'Siletta' ('Syletta') - Often sold under the name "Cyclamene Violet", has bright veins on leaf plates.
- 'Sylvia Hart' ('Sylvia hart') - variety of violets of motley appearance with bright silvery veins on the leaves.
Violet Cloak (V. Hederacea)
Synonyms. Ivy violet; renal violet (U. reniforme).
Distribution area Australia.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 2,5— 5 cm with long, thin, creeping, intertwining shoots, with numerous small rounded leaves, creating a continuous wide carpet.
Above the leaves on long stalks, medium-sized rounded flowers open, the central part of which is colored purple and the tips of the petals white. Growing conditions. The plant is thermophilic, does not tolerate frost and does not hibernate in a temperate climate.
Loves wet, wetlands. In the summer, the plants are taken out to the garden, placed in a cool, bright room for the winter, reducing or temporarily stopping watering and feeding. Propagated by dividing curtain in the spring.
Using. It is cultivated as a container ground cover or carpet plant, most often in association with other tall ornamental cultures. Prefers penumbra.
- The most popular variety of this type of violets is' Blue Forms' ('Blue form') with lilac-blue flowers.
Violets Field and Purple
Violet Field (V. Arvensis)
Distribution area Occurs throughout Europe, in the south of Siberia; as an alien - in North America.
Botanical characteristics. Annual or biennial with ascending or erect, sometimes branching shoots 5 — 30 height, see. Leaves - from rounded oval to oblong-lanceolate, crenate, sessile or with short petioles, stipules deeply pinnately-separate.
The flowers are located in the axils of the leaves, alternately, on long peduncles. The rim is 6-16 mm in diameter, concave, the petals are light yellow, the upper petals can be almost white or with a lilac shade. Flowering from May to late autumn. Propagated by seeds.
Growing conditions. In nature, it grows in open places along roads, in fields, kitchen gardens, fallow lands as a weed plant. Using. In the culture is not cultivated. In folk medicine, it is used as an anti-inflammatory and disinfectant in the treatment of dermatitis, eczema, diathesis, and colds.
Violet Purple (V. Purpurea)
Distribution area Caucasus.
Botanical characteristics. Abundantly flowering perennial plant height 5-6, see. Leaves at the base are deeply folded.
On the bush simultaneously blooms to 20 flowers with a faint smell. Blooming twice a year - in spring and autumn, a total of up to 65 days per year.
Growing conditions. Propagated by seeds, blooms in the year of sowing.
Using. For beds, borders, rock gardens, lawns.
Violets Dissected and Reichenbach
Violet Dissected (V. Dissecta)
Synonyms. Cirrus feathers (U. pinnata).
Distribution area Typically Asian species growing in the steppes, on stony slopes, scree, rocks, and also on forest edges in some regions of Siberia, Altai, Central Asia, China, Mongolia, the Far East.
Botanical characteristics. Looking at this plant is not at the time of flowering, it is difficult to imagine that in front of you is a violet. In fact, the numerous long-leafed leaves of this perennial stemless plant resemble the Chinese delphinium, geranium or buttercup on the 8-9 with lobes of the perennial stemless plant.
And only medium-sized light-violet flowers with a small spur give out his belonging to viols. And even in the period of mass flowering, in June, the flowers are not above the leaves, like many other species of violets, but modestly look out from the depths of the bush.
Growing conditions. Moderately fertile, well-drained soil, sun or partial shade.
Using. This plant can be an excellent addition to the assortment of alpine and decorative-leaf plants cultivated in the backyards of the middle zone of Russia.
Violet Reichenbach (V. Reichenbachiana)
Distribution area Deciduous forests of the Caucasus, Carpathians, Crimea.
Botanical characteristics. Korotkokornevischny perennial, forming compact shrubs up to 35 cm with wintering leaves. It blooms throughout May, very abundant.
Growing conditions. Propagated only by seeds, can give a massive self-seeding. It grows well on alkaline drained soils, is not damaged by diseases, and may suffer from strong spring frosts.
Using. Very promising plant for shady rokariyev. Sorts. None.
Violets of Rivinus and Rock
Violet of Rivinus (V. Riviniana)
Distribution area Forests of the Nonchernozem Zone of Russia.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height from 10 to 45 cm, with a powerful branched rhizome and erect or ascending shoots. The leaves are rather large, round or reniform, heart-shaped at the base. The leaf plate has a crenate edge and is covered with sparse, short hairs.
The flowers are located in the axils of the upper leaves and have a long, straight or slightly curved spur. The diameter of the corolla to 25 mm, the color is light purple with a white throat. Flowering from April to June. It is propagated by seeds, which in natural conditions spread ants.
Growing conditions. In nature, it grows in shady, moist forests, and is found on forest edges and clearings.
Using. It can be used to decorate shady areas under a canopy of trees and shrubs.
Violet Rocky (V. Rupestris)
Synonyms. Violet sandy (V. arenaria).
Distribution area Europe - everywhere, Siberia, the Caucasus, the Far East.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial, forming a loose bush up to 10 cm from recumbent or ascending shoots. The leaves are small, rounded, heart-shaped at the base and obtuse-angled at the top, hard, with long petioles, arranged alternately on the shoots.
Long peduncles with medium-sized (12-17 mm length) flowers with a small spur emerge from the leaf sinuses. Flowers and spur painted in purple or purple, do not smell.
The whole plant is pubescent with numerous, very short hairs. Blossoms in April - June. The fruit is an egg-shaped box, the seeds ripen in July.
Growing conditions. Under natural conditions, it grows on dry slopes, fields, wastelands, and in light pine forests. Prefers sandy, stony or calcareous soil.
Using. It is rarely used in culture. You can cultivate in gardens of natural style, planting curtains under a sparse canopy of trees, on dry edges, lawns and in rockeries.
Horned violet varieties
Violet Horned (V. Cornuta)
Distribution area Highlands of southern France, Spain, Italy.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial with creeping, strongly branchy root and numerous ascending stems 15-25 height, see. Forms cushion-shaped, dense bushes. The leaves are ovate-oblong, dentate 5, up to 6 cm long.
Flowers elongated, 3-5 long cm, odorless, from purple to dark purple with a small yellow "eye". Flowering from May to September, but in the first half of summer - more abundant.
Growing conditions. Requires a dry location, breeds like fragrant violet (U. odorata). Unlike violet Wittrock (V. x wittrockiana) does not degenerate for a long time. It prefers a sunny location, moderately fertile soil.
Using. The horned violet is planted mainly in rock gardens, but in areas with moderately cold winters it can be planted in flower beds - on flowerbeds, curbs and lawns.
Varieties. There are many beautiful varieties of violet horned, among them:
- 'Bot Blue' ('Boston blue') - with blue flowers.
- 'Foxbrook Cream' ('Foxbrook Cream") - with creamy white flowers.
- 'Gazelle' ('Gazelle'),' Little David '('Little david') - with yellow flowers.
- 'Gustav Wernig' ('Gustave wernig'),' Helen Mount '('Helen mount') - flowers pale blue.
- 'Milkmade' ('Milkmaid') - cream flowers with a light blue tint.
- 'Molly Sanderson' ('Molly sanderson') - with purple-black flowers.
- 'Netty Britton' ('Netty britton') - with lilac-blue flowers.
- 'Penny Black' ('Penny Black') - flowers are almost black.
- 'Talita' ('Talitha') - flowers bluish-purple with white center.
- 'Victoria Kautorn' ('Victoria cowthorne') - flowers lilac-pink.
- 'White Superior' ('White superior') - large white flowers.
- Group 'Sorbet F1 ′ ('Sorbet F1') consists of 10 varieties with different colors of flowers.
The flowers of violets growing in nature are most often colored purple or bluish, less often white or yellow.
Violet Selkirk and Dog
Violet Selkirk (V. Selkirkii)
Synonyms. Shadow violet (V. umbrosa).
Distribution area Taiga zone of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia - in the Nonchernozem belt, Siberia and the Far East.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial 10-15 tall, see Stemless plant with thin short rhizomes and dense rosette of numerous, ovate or heart-shaped, rather large leaves on long petioles.
The flowers are small, up to 18 mm long, lifted on the same level with the leaves on the peduncles strongly curved in the upper part. Corolla pale purple color. Flowering in April - May.
Growing conditions. It prefers shady, birch-spruce forests, peaty soils. Well propagated by self-seeding. Using. It can be cultivated on shaded wooded areas where it forms wide curtains under the canopy of trees.
Violet Canine (V. Canina)
Distribution area It grows throughout the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus, in Siberia and the Far East, on low-grass meadows, under a canopy of sparse small-leaved forests, among bushes, on forest edges. Botanical characteristics.
Perennial plant 5-15 cm tall, bare or short-pubescent, with a small rhizome, single or numerous round erect stems. The leaves are ovate or oblong-ovate, heart-shaped at base, up to 7 cm long, on long petioles.
The flowers are small, axillary, up to 2,5 cm in diameter, bluish, whitish in the throat, purple, sometimes white, with a spur, odorless. It blooms in May - June, sometimes again at the end of summer. Fruit - oblong-ovate box. Forms derninki. Propagated by seed and division of ferns.
Growing conditions. It grows in the sun and in partial shade on moderately wet soils.
Using. Used in rock gardens and for registration of semi-shady areas.
Violets Stropovidnaya and Taradakskaya variegated
Stop Violet (V. Pedata)
Synonyms. Violet bird-legged.
Distribution area North America.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial 5-8 height cm, with thick rhizomes and leaves, cut into 5-7 narrow lobes. Flowers solitary, velvety lilac, lilac, blue or two-tone. Flowering in late spring - early summer.
Growing conditions. Difficult in cultivation. Requires sunny areas with good drainage, but at the same time does not tolerate drying. The soil is acidic, a mixture of peat and sand.
Using. It is cultivated in greenhouses for alpine plants. Varieties. None.
Violet Taradaksky variegated (V. x taradakensis f. Variegate)
Distribution area Japan.
Botanical characteristics. Hybrid obtained from the crossing of two types: Eisan violet (V. eizanensis), having palmate leaves with 3 — 5 lobes, up to 10 cm in length and white or pink flowers, and violet variegated violet (U. Violacea f. Variegate), with narrow , lanceolate leaves, covered with silvery veins on top, and beetroot colored from below, dark pink-purple flowers.
Growing conditions. Natural species originate from mountain forests, the hybrid species is cultivated in culture. Requires nutrient, relatively wet soils, relatively thermophilic.
Using. Different varieties of these violets in Japan are used as pot plants.
'Dancing Geisha' ('Dancing geisha') - height 20 cm. Leaves complex cut, with a silver pattern on the veins. The flowers are raised above the leaves, fragrant, white or lilac.
'Silver Samurai' ('Silver samurai') - plant height up to 35 cm. Leaves strongly dissected, with a silvery shade and a wavy edge, lilac flowers.
Flowers of violet of these varieties are shown in the photo:
Violets Topyanaya and Amazing
Violet Topyanaya (V. Uliginosa)
Distribution area North European view. In Russia it grows in forest zones of the Nonchernozem belt.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial height from 7 to 20 cm. At the ends of thin creeping rhizomes are rosettes of leaves with long (up to 15 cm) petioles and wide heart-shaped or reniform leaf plates.
The flowers are dark purple, long 20-30 mm, raised above the leaves on long peduncles. The color of the flowers is dark purple. Flowering in April - May, seeds ripen in June.
Growing conditions. It prefers wetlands, marshy meadows, the edges of raw forests, peatlands.
Using. In culture, almost never used. Can be used to design low wet shores of water bodies and wet areas.
Violet Amazing (V. mirabilis)
Distribution area Central and North-Western Europe.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 10-30, see the spring forms a rosette of rounded heart-shaped or reniform leaves with numerous axillary infertile scented honey-bearing light purple flowers.
In late spring - early summer, trihedral stems are formed with 2-3 leaves on top and 1 — 2 non-expanding (glucostogamic) prolific flowers. Flowering - April - May.
Growing conditions. Shade-tolerant plant growing under the canopy of deciduous or spruce forests. Needs moderately moist, loose, slightly acidic soils.
Using. In the shadow areas, under the canopy of shrubs and trees, including conifers.
In America, in the city of Portland (Oregon), at the end of the 19th century, varieties of violets with flower diameters up to 10-12 cm were created, but all large-colored plants were painted in different shades of red, while yellow and white varieties remained small.
The best grades of violet Tricolor
Violet Tricolor (V. tricolor)
Synonyms. Pansies, Ivan-da-Marya, tricolor, brothers.
Distribution area Occurs on forest edges, glades, meadows among shrubs, on the outskirts of fields in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Eurasia.
Botanical characteristics. Annual herbaceous plant height 10-40 cm with a thin stem weakly branching root. Stem simple or branched, ascending, hollow. Leaves alternate, naked, simple; stem - sessile, lower - petiolate.
Flowers solitary, irregular, on long peduncles, at the top of dark purple, at the bottom - yellow. Fruits - elongated ovate tricuspid boxes. It blooms in July - August.
Growing conditions. Unpretentious, but prefers loose fertile soil.
Using. Can be used for registration of forest areas and rock gardens. Popular medicinal plant in folk medicine.
Varieties. The species was introduced into culture a long time ago, more than 2000 years ago, and during this time many varieties were created, both directly using this species and by crossing it with other species.
The last hybrids in floriculture can be attributed to the synthetic species - Vittrock violet (V. x wittrockiana).
And what are the varieties of tricolor violets?
At present, it is difficult to determine which species specifically refers to a particular variety, since it is impossible to trace the origin of many of them, therefore, this species is usually attributed to small-flowered varieties that are externally similar to the wild tricolor violet.
- 'Hortensis' ('Hortensis') - Flowers are numerous, medium-sized, purple with an orange peephole, sprawling bush.
- 'E.A. Baule '('E.A. Bowles'), or' Baule Black '('Bowles black'), - one of the best varieties of tricolor violets with black and purple flowers.
Violet tricolor is the official symbol of the city of Athens and the emperor Napoleon.
Violets Kholmovye and Aetoli
Violet Holmovaya (V. collina)
Distribution area In most areas of temperate climate in Eurasia - from Central Europe to China and Japan. It grows in light forests, under a canopy of shrubs, as well as on open slopes and limestone outcrops.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial plant height 5-15 cm, forming a branched rhizome with rosettes of leaves at the ends. The leaf blades are heart-shaped, slightly pubescent with light hairs.
The flowers are quite large, with a pleasant aroma, bluish or light purple, rising above the rosette of leaves on long pubescent peduncles. Flowering in April - May. In June, fruits are formed - velvety pubescent globose boxes.
Growing conditions. Grows on light or in semi-shady places, on nutritious, structural non-acidic soil. Propagated by seed, cutting and dividing clumps.
Using. It can be used in rock gardens, mixborders, as well as in the design of gardens of natural style - near shrubs and under the canopy of trees.
Violet Aetoli (V. aetolica)
Botanical characteristics. Perennial, forming clumps height 5-10 (rarely - to 15), see Leaves small, oval. The flowers are yellow, lower petal with an orange tinge. It blooms in May and can bloom throughout most of the summer.
Growing conditions. Sunny location, loose, stony, moderately nutritious soil. Hardy.
Using. Rock gardens, rockeries.
You can get detailed information about the types and varieties of violets in this video: