Features of growing ivy in the garden or at home depend on the type of plant. Some vines prefer shady areas, strong pruning and frequent feeding. Others grow well only in sunny places and do not like being touched with shears.
In order to care for ivy in the way that proper agricultural technology implies, it is necessary to carefully study its biological characteristics and only then proceed to cultivation.
Ivy — this genus evergreen vines from the family Araliacomes from dry and humid subtropics of Europe, various regions of Asia and Africa. But, despite its southern origin, the plant is quite hardy.
How to grow ivy and use it for landscaping is described in detail in this article.
What looks like a vine ivy (with photo)
Ivy looks like a climbing liana with leathery 3-5-bladed dark green or variegated leaves with prominent veins. Evergreen leaves of exquisite shape - somewhat reminiscent of maple leaves, wedge-shaped or toothed - are capable of creating striking contrasts.
Ivy blooms in 7-year-old and older, and the more north the plant is, the later it happens.
Pay attention to the photo of ivy - the flowers of this plant are nondescript green-yellow, collected in umbrellas, which, in turn, form a brush:
Flowering - at the end of summer. Fruits in the form of black berries are poisonous for humans, but they look very impressive and persist on shoots for most of the winter.
Different types of ivy are widespread, with the exception of polar regions, deserts and alpine mountains, where climatic conditions are unfavorable for the development of long stems. However, dry and wet subtropics of Europe, Asia and Africa are the best conditions for them, from where they originated.
Ivy are classified as lanty with adventitious aerial roots. When describing an ivy plant, it is worth noting that their antennae are very sensitive. Being at the ends of the growing shoots, they make circular motions in all directions until they reach the support.
Then they pull a sprout to it, and themselves twist into a spiral, thicken, woody and fix the sprout with a “living” spring. Ivy shoots with adventitious roots can rise to a height of 30 m.
These photos show what ivy looks like in the wild:
Ivy attached to the bark of trees, damp walls aerial roots. And it allows them to create fancy walls of openwork foliage or fabulous tree trunks.
Despite its subtropical origin, ivy is a very unpretentious culture. Being light-requiring - they grow well in partial shade, do not suffer from low temperatures and tolerate heat.
Ivy variegated forms are more whimsical than with green leaves. In the heat, though they grow quickly, they lose their characteristic leaf shape.
Then you can get acquainted with the photo, names and characteristics of different types of ivy.
Types of ivy: photo, name and description
In total, 15 ivy species with huge leaves (15-20 cm) and miniature leaves, corrugated and smooth, of various colors — yellow, golden, green, creamy-white — are spread throughout Eurasia. In the western regions of Russia, in the Crimea and the Caucasus in the shady deciduous forests wild ivy grows wildly.
As can be seen in the photo, in the forests this type of ivy grows like a woody vine, the climbing of which stems climb up tall trees with the help of suckers:
In mountainous areas, the long ivy lashes stick to the smallest cracks and roughness of the rocks, sometimes covering them with a solid carpet. In central Russia, ivy maintains wintering only under snow. In culture, ordinary ivy is grown as an ornamental plant making out green hedgesand as indoor.
Common ivy has evergreen climbing stems about 3-5 m long, in favorable conditions they sometimes reach 20 m and even more. The stalk of ivy clings to a natural or artificial support (trees, grids, frames, walls) with numerous airy suckers. There are many varieties and forms of plants.
Leathery, shiny top regular leaves of various forms of ivy ordinary are whole or 3-5-lobed. Most often they are of noble dark green color with light veins. The leaves of some varieties of ivy are variegated. Of particular interest are variegated forms with large and small golden-yellow leaves.
Plain greenish flowers sit in spherical umbrellas, gathered in racemes or paniculate inflorescences. In culture, this ivy does not bloom.
The fruits are very beautiful, but inedible berries, moreover, they are poisonous. When working with ivy, it should always be remembered that the plant is poisonous, no part of it can be eaten.
The most cold-resistant forms of ivy ordinary grow in the Carpathians, they are not inferior in cold resistance to the Crimean and Caucasian wild species. However, when transplanting to regions north of their normal growing areas, they grow somewhat slower.
There are many varieties, garden forms and ivy varieties. Thus, the Canary variety, originally from the Canary Islands, has leathery heart-shaped leaves, green with white pattern.
Known variety Gluar de Marengo, very decorative and strong-growing.
The species is gray, originally from Afghanistan, has 6-7-lobed, seemingly not characteristic of ivy, leaves with a gray bloom.
But mostly in gardening there are garden forms of ordinary ivy with 3-5-lobed leaves. Description and photos of ivy varieties are given below.
Brilliant Golden - has small golden yellow leaves.
Small - leaves are small, three-bladed, strongly branched shoots.
Palmate - Five-lobed leaves, dark green, with light veins.
Crowded - the leaves are small, serrated, wavy along the edge, sitting tightly on the stem. It grows slowly.
Arrowhead - Five-lobed leaves with medium lobe length.
Triangular - small three-lobed leaves with a heart-shaped base, dark green.
Tricolor - leaves with white edges, become reddish in autumn. It also has reddish shoots.
Here you can see photos of popular ivy varieties:
Ivy of Colchis - the best in decorative effect.
However, in central Russia, this form grows even more slowly. Variegated varieties cultivated in European countries with a milder climate.
Irish ivy - a fairly fast-growing form, which is able to rise to the height of 6-20 with the help of suction-root roots.
Through 3-4, one plant can occupy an area of about 9 m 2.
Irish ivy is distinguished by large matte leaves of dark green color with light gray or light green veins and purple-green cuttings. A characteristic feature of the plant is a light bend leaves up.
It blooms in September and October with green-yellow spherical inflorescences. Small globular fruits of black and blue. Ornamental Irish ivy give green, densely pubescent gray hairs shoots with dark brown-red ends.
Garden ivy - perennial climbing plant, whose appearance varies with age.
As the name suggests, this type of ivy is only suitable for outdoor cultivation. It has many varieties that differ in shape, size (up to 20 cm) and leaf color.
The flowers can be yellow, green and cream. Flowering takes place from September to October. He climbs easily up the supports and climbs high enough, and a powerful root system helps in combating soil erosion.
Reproduction of ivy cuttings and top dressing during care
Most ivy species is propagated by cutting. Cuttings are taken from annual shoots without cutting the leaves. The best time for this is in May - June, then the plant has enough time to take root until the winter cold.
A stalk is an ivy shoot with adventitious roots about 10 cm long. If cuttings are cut without adventitious roots, they will take root a little longer.
When ivy breeding, harvested cuttings are treated with a root growth stimulator, then planted in moist sandy soil or sand. Rooting is best carried out in a shelter with high humidity.
In order to propagate ivy when caring for cuttings, it is necessary to ensure the air temperature at + 16 ° С, although later they will grow normally in other conditions.
Common ivy and garden ivy for spring planting in the open field get a cutting and 2-summer plant. When choosing seedlings of any ivy, pay attention to the appearance of seedlings.
They must be of compact size, healthy root system, fresh and shiny leaves. You can not take plants with thin and weak sprouts, drooping and yellowed leaves.
Top dressing of ordinary and garden ivy is carried out with liquid or dry fertilizers as described on the package. In April, common ivy is fed with urea, in the summer period - with organic fertilizers weekly. To do this, you can use a solution of mullein.
The variegated ivy forms are fed very carefully, because they can lose the variegated color of the leaves due to the excess amount of fertilizer. If variegated varieties appear green leaves, they are removed.
When growing ivy for the care of plants, it is recommended to carry out top dressing with full mineral fertilizer. If you need to cause a strong growth of shoots and leaves, then take on a bucket of water 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt.
Water the plants with fertilizers every two weeks on wet ground. Sometimes more frequent, in a week, but less weak top dressing works better. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that there is no nitrogen fertilizer.
With the appearance of light green tender leaves should reduce the dose of nitrogen. An overdose of nitrogen is fraught with a decrease in the immunity of plants and damage to their pests and diseases. The variegated forms are especially sensitive in this respect.
How to grow ivy and how to care for it
Ivy ordinary - unpretentious perennial plant, grows on all types of soil, drought-resistant and light-loving, well tolerated frosts. Although it can grow in deep shade, withstanding strong shading, it develops faster when direct morning or evening sunlight hits it.
An important condition for growing ivy is the presence of diffused sunlight. He needs a plant for the formation of juicy leaf color. Good lighting is required for varieties of ivy with variegated two-colored leaves.
With a lack of light, their leaves turn dull and even disappear, but they should be protected from direct sunlight. The soil for ordinary ivy fits almost any, with the exception of clay. It grows well in fertile and sandy soil, the clay mixture is best suited.
Irish ivy is more frost-resistant than ordinary ivy, but suffers from frost. It tolerates partial shade and full shadow, it can burn out in the open sun. It grows on all soils, except pure peat.
Garden ivy is unpretentious, can grow in the shade and in the lighted areas. Absolutely any soil is suitable for it, even poor, but rich in nutrients affects the appearance of the plant better. You can plant a stump on a permanent place from the end of March, if weather conditions allow. The most optimal time for landing is the middle or the end of May.
While caring for ivy in the garden when growing a hedge in advance prepare support. These can be pillars with wire stretched over them, or a wooden fence, or a metal or plastic mesh.
Light-loving plants can be recognized by the color of foliage. Usually they have light green and variegated leaves, they grow better in strong light.
For planting ivy along the supports digging pits of such a depth that the roots of the seedling fit completely into them. Planting pits are dug about 50 cm apart.
The soil at the site of the hedge is prepared in autumn by digging deep and applying organic fertilizer - humus, rotted manure or compost. Spring soil loosened. Planting pits filled with soil mixture consisting of turf land, humus, peat and sand in the ratio 2: 1: 1: 1.
Bush planted obliquely, so that, rooted, the plant could climb on the right support or stones. For each m2, at least 25 rooted cuttings are planted. After planting, seedlings must be watered.
The sprout shoots are directed to the support, which is supposed to be greened. After planting ivy with proper care for the summer, it will spread over the supports of a dense wall and will become a reliable protection from wind and dust.
Irish ivy planting begins with the purchase of acclimatized seedlings in a plastic container with fertilizers. In this case, the plant does not suffer from digging with the inevitable damage to the root system and therefore, after planting, it takes root well.
Ivy saplings with a closed root system are planted from March to November, including on hot summer days, without the purchase of additional fertilizers.
Watering ivy during the care when grown in the garden is necessary within reasonable limits, so that the plant has enough moisture and the earth does not dry out. The soil should be wet, but it should not be over-wetted.
In hot, dry weather, at temperatures above + 21 ° C, it is recommended to spray ivy leaves from above, which will allow them to keep fresh and clean. In addition, regular spraying with water will save the plant from the red spider mite.
Pruning fast-growing ivy is carried out regularly, removing excess shoots, dry and damaged. Systematic pruning and shortening of unevenly growing shoots allows you to keep ivy within the established contour of the fence.
These photos show the methods of ivy care in outdoor conditions:
To protect garden ivy in winter, the soil beneath it in the fall is mulched with a sufficient layer of peat or humus so that it does not freeze. Ivy stalks on low borders cover for the winter with dry foliage of apple, hazel or oak.
However, the shelter should not be very warm, as this can lead to vypryaniyu plants. In early spring, removing the autumn leaves, do not use a rake, as they damage the young shoots.
Ivy rarely infects pests and diseases. However, common ivy can sometimes be affected by spider mites.
Irish ivy is harmed by mites and mites. For the prevention of ivy care, plants are regularly, but reasonably sprayed with insecticide at the dose indicated on the package.
Against shchitovki, spider mites, aphids gives good results treatment karbofosom, "Aktar" and "Aktellik" (1-2 ml per 1 l of water).
If ivy has been infected with a spider mite, then silver dots will appear on the front of the leaves, and spider threads will appear on the bottom. In this case, sprayed with water and treated with a special drug against pests.
How to use ivy in gardening
Ivy is widely used in gardening interiors of residential and office buildings, gardens, parks, and garden plots. With a skillful combination of them with wood, ceramics, and other plants, excellent compositions are obtained.
The big advantage of ivy over other groups of plants is the possibility of their vertical placement, which saves a green area.
Climbing ivy plant is able to conquer the walls of the house without additional supports. It is difficult for this root-climbing plant to climb only on smooth glass and metal vertical surfaces.
White or very bright surfaces, strongly reflecting the sun's rays, can also harm it. Two or three ivy plants can in a short time create a large mass of greenery, which will protect in summer from direct sunlight and overheating, and in winter, the walls of houses - from excessive heat transfer.
When planting ivy in the country as a groundcover, it can get along with trees such as maple and birch, which have a highly developed surface root system and therefore usually have no neighbors.
If ordinary ivy is diluted in room culture, it must be transplanted once every three years, increasing the diameter of the pot by 2.
Many types of ivy are widely used for vertical gardening sites. Ivy ordinary suitable neighborhood of stones, both natural and artificial origin. However, the use of ivy in green design is somewhat different in the northern areas.
Since common ivy can winter only under a snow cover, all the shoots above it are frozen. Therefore, it is impossible to create a solid green wall or shorn figures from it. It is suitable for creating low curbs, which, if necessary, may cover for the winter.
Common ivy successfully combined with shrubs, perennials, forms a magnificent pair with standard roses. The reddish color that ivy acquires in early spring and late autumn is well set off by snowdrops and primroses.
As shown in the photo, the variegated forms of common ivy in the garden provide picturesque combinations with perennials and purple shrubs:
Irish ivy quite cold-resistant, so it is used for planting stone walls and fences, shading arched walkway structures and tunnels.
Ivy of Colchis in favorable conditions it forms decorative covers on the stone walls of city houses, walls and country villas.
Carpathian ivy quite cold-resistant, but does not form a continuous coating. It is used to decorate individual sections or gaps in the stone plates of the fence.
Garden ivy used for decoration of external hedges, dividing fences inside the plot, beautifully framed gazebo or swimming pool.
This ivy in the garden grows quickly and magnificently in a very short time, so with its help you can ennoble the old stone fence, unsightly walls or the facade of the building. Against the background of a hedge of garden ivy, brightly flowering bushes look good.
Dwarfish varieties of ivy with small leaves can be planted in boxes outside the window, where they will grow for a long time. In a large container is better to plant a large-leaf variety.