In order to grow peonies correctly, as practice shows, it is not enough to focus on general recommendations regarding the care of flowering plants in general. These cultures require a special approach depending on the season. Therefore, the agricultural technology of growing peonies in spring will differ from the care of cultivars in summer and autumn. In addition, when caring for grassy peonies, it is imperative to take into account the age of the plants. It is especially important to surround the cultures with careful care in the first three years after landing in the ground. If you correctly carry out all the recommended aroporia, your bush will be able to bloom for many decades.
Care of grassy peonies in the spring at the cottage (with video)
The care of grassy peonies in the spring begins with the fact that at the end of March, at the end of the snowmelt, temporary drainage grooves are erected towards the external drainage channels to drain spring water. Landing withstand flooding no more than 4-5 days.
In the first decade of April, after the gathering of water and the drying of the soil, plantings are cleared. When taking care of peonies in the spring, take care not to damage the awakening peony shoots. The middle of April is the mass appearance of peony shoots. For the first time in a season, with a cultivator or a flat cutter, they loosen the soil to a depth of 3-5 cm around the shoots of the bush, departing from them by 5 see. Remember! We must work carefully so as not to catch the peony shoots that appear. At the same time, if possible, combining with loosening, they are engaged in soil deoxidation with the help of ash, dolomite and limestone flour (100 g / m2). Evenly powder the surface, and then buried in the ground with a rake. This operation for the care of peonies in the spring in the open field is best carried out in dry and calm weather, so that the drugs do not fall into the face and other open areas of the body.
The third decade of April - the beginning of active growth of pions. They carry out prophylaxis against the damage by gray rot - botrytis (1-i treatment). Fungicidal preparations are used: copper chloroxide (HOM), blue vitriol, Bordeaux mixture (0,5%), phytophtorine. Spray the soil and plants. They work in dry and windless weather. Follow the instructions for use of the drug.
Beginning of May is the time of active growth of pions. Plants begin to water constantly: from May and the whole season, when the weather is dry and the soil is dry, the bushes are watered regularly, preferably with warm water. Especially important for irrigation annual plantings.
At this time, in the care of peonies in the spring at the dacha spend the first top dressing full soluble fertilizer. Norm - 50 g on 1 adult plant. The solution is poured into a ditch dug around the bush. Establish support around the bushes with large double flowers. Annual plantings do not feed.
The middle of May is the leaf opening period. At this time, conduct prevention against lesions with gray rot - botrytis. They work in dry and windless weather. Follow the instructions for use of the drug.
After 10-15 days, the treatment is again carried out against damage by gray rot - with the help of fungicidal preparations: copper oxychloride (HOM), copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture (0,5%), phytophtorine. As always in this case, the soil and plants are sprayed. They work in dry and windless weather. Follow the instructions for use of the drug.
At the beginning of budding spend the second loosening and the first weeding (in early flowering peonies - in the middle of May, in the dairy flowers - the end of May). Cultivator or ploskorezom loosen the soil to a depth of 3-5 see around the shoots of the bush, departing from them on 5 see
The video "Care for peonies in spring" shows how to prepare plants for flowering:
Next, you will learn how to care for peonies in the summer.
Agricultural cultivation of grassy peonies in summer
In the first decade of June, the plants reach full height and form buds. At this time, the side and excess buds on the bushes are removed (plucked when they reach the size of a pea). For early-flowering species and varieties, removal begins earlier - from mid-May, as the buds form.
In the beginning - the middle of June, just before the peonies bloom, prevention against rust is needed. For this, plants are sprayed with fungicides (the same as against gray rot). When growing grassy peonies, the plants necessarily treat the reverse side of the leaves. Affected leaves are harvested and burned.
Immediately before the flowering of the bush, a second dressing and watering with full soluble fertilizer are carried out (50 g per 1 adult plant). The solution is poured into the annular groove, not soaking the leaves.
And the process of how to grow peonies in the country in the summer, during the flowering period, check the quality of flowers and compliance sort in its logbook, catalogs and books. Make a log entry.
The end of May is the first decade of July. Cutting is carried out in the morning or in the evening. Use for this sharply ground pruner. The flowers of simple, semi-double and Japanese forms are cut off in the stage of colored buds, terry - in the stage of semi-release. During June-July faded flowers are removed.
Immediately after the peonies bloom, the plants are sprayed with one of the fungicides.
In order to care for peonies correctly, as experienced gardeners advise, in July - early August you need to carry out the third dressing and watering. Use full chemical fertilizer - for the fall, with a predominance in the content of potassium and phosphorus. 40-60 g in a dry form fall asleep in a shallow annular groove, dug around the bush.
In early August, the third loosening and weeding is carried out with a cultivator or a flat cutter to a depth of 3-5 cm around the shoots, departing from them by 5 cm.
The following describes how to care for peonies in the autumn garden.
Care for grassy peonies in autumn after flowering
Mid-August - September. When caring for peonies in the fall, in dry weather, they dig breeding. When dividing pions, it is necessary to focus on the sequence of flowering periods, starting with the most early-flowering species, hybrids Г2 and ГЗ, then of the type Х1 and later dairy-flowering by origin.
The end of August - the first half of September - the best time to purchase new pions. It is very important to imagine a pedigree of a variety, the viability of a plant, the abundance of flowering, longevity, and especially agrotechnics depend on it. (In foreign varieties, flowering periods will change, height, perhaps - the shape and color of flowers.)
The third decade of August - the first decade of October - is the time for planting new peonies. Careful site preparation is important. The depth of the pit depends on several reasons. The distance from the kidneys to the soil surface should be 5, see. Non-standard small delenki better first planted in plastic pots. For details on this, see p. 154.
September - the beginning of November. Later, in summer and early autumn, downward flow of sugars formed during photosynthesis prevails.
This must be considered when searching for the answer to the question: “When to start pruning leaves? Should I wait for late autumn and frost? ”
It is obvious that with a decrease in temperature, a change in the green color of the leaves to yellow or purple-brown and their drying (browning), the process of photosynthesis stops. During this period, the flow of nutrients from the leaves down almost stopped. This means that you can do pruning. The best time to trim the stems is dry weather in the second half of September.
When caring for peonies after flowering in dry weather pruning shears are pruned with shears. Pruning is done at ground level. Need to powder the place landing peony one of fungicides or ashes. Late pruning increases the likelihood of damage to pions by botrytis.
November - the beginning of frosts, the transition of daily temperatures through 0 ° C. Peonies are prepared for winter - check how deeply rhizome is buried. From year to year the rhizome of the peony grows upwards, so it can even bare. In such cases, sprinkle the soil over the bush and around it. This should be done very carefully so as not to damage the kidneys.
The following sections of the article are devoted to how to grow peonies in the garden, depending on age.
How to grow peonies in the country after planting (with video)
The shoots of peonies appear in the spring from the ground in the form of a germ, covered with a renal leaf - a protective cap (cataphyll). It protects the germ from mechanical damage during germination. All other parts of the shoot, including the flower, later develop from the shoot. Caps and shoots growing from them are initially bright red.
Sprouts in different varieties do not appear simultaneously: in species and hybrid - immediately after thawing of the soil, together with the descent of snow, in varieties Lact. - later.
In the first year of peony life after planting, waiting for shoots to appear on the surface, take your time, do not pick the soil around the peony, look for sprouts, and very carefully remove the winter shelter. Sprouts at this time are very fragile and easily break off. When growing and caring for peonies in the open field, remember that in the first year, the sprouts of new plantings usually germinate later than the old ones, and under a warming shelter the soil in spring remains frozen. Sprouts may appear a month after the old plantings.
If there are no germs in a month, it is worth waiting for another, until the beginning of June. After this time, you can very gently, with a thin wooden stick (pencil) to feel the landing site. If the day tree exists, leave it until next spring: sprouts from spare buds may appear in the summer or next spring.
In the first year, the stem grows 1-2. This is normal even with the 5-7 kidneys. As a rule, in the first year, the stems reach a height of approximately 40% of the size of an adult plant.
To grow peonies as much as possible Strong, basic care in the first year is frequent watering. Ideal if the soil is constantly moderately moist. Control the depth of irrigation. The soil during watering should be wetted to the depth of the root system, in the first year it is just 15-20, see.
In the hot dry period, especially if you can not always stay on the site, it is very effective to mulch around the landings. Mulching reduces the frequency of irrigation and prevents overheating of the soil. For mulch, you can use most weeds from weeding, grass from lawn mowers, shredded branches and bark from trees.
Root top dressings are not obligatory, and if they are applied, then - in the second half of the season and only in dissolved form. Total application rates should be small: approximately 1 / 4 from normal for an adult plant (30-40 g of full fertilizer).
The most effective foliar feeding, that is, when caring for and growing grassy peonies, it is necessary to spray the leaves. Concentration should be half as much as for adult plants. For spraying use fertilizer Kemira and urea.
Kemira combi fertilizer contains a number of trace elements such as sulfur, chromium, iodine, magnesium. Kemira Kombi is produced in the most chelated form for plants.
Kemira Lux fertilizer contains a large amount of water-soluble phosphorus and a small amount of trace elements.
Foliar nutrition can be alternated with spraying with phytosporin solution. It has a double effect: it protects against fungal diseases and stimulates the growth of young shoots.
The greatest danger for young landings is gray rot - botrytis (Botrytis paeoniae Oud.).
This fungal disease affects shoots in the spring in damp, cool weather. At this time, the tissue of the stems is soft and easily affected by the spores of the fungus carried by the wind.
Symptoms: blackening of the stem near the ground, its thinning and fall.
The affected stem should be cut out, powdered the landing site with a foundation or ashes, let it dry, change the top layer of earth around the shoot. As a preventive measure, spraying of the shoots is used with one of the fungicides, for example, 0,3% copper oxychloride solution (or the above-mentioned phytosporin). Spraying should be done in the morning and in dry weather, repeating twice with an interval of a week.
If all shoots are affected, then after removing them, carefully expose the delicate and check whether it is intact or severely affected. In the first case, it is powdered with basement, changing the ground around it and waiting for the next year. If the delenka has rotted badly, it is removed from the ground, the affected parts are cleaned and, after drying and dusting, they are again planted in clean ground.
In the first year it is important not to allow flowering: it is necessary to remove flower buds that appear. They are removed just before flowering, when the diameter of the bud becomes 1-1,5 cm, and the stem reaches its maximum height.
In the autumn, the stems are cut to the ground and the landing site is powdered with ashes. Pruning is carried out in dry weather.
This video demonstrates how to grow peonies in the first year after planting:
How to care for two-year peonies in the garden at the cottage
In the second year, the shoots of a newly planted plant should appear at about the same time as other pion shoots belonging to the same group. It is important to assess the dynamics of growth compared with the previous, first, year. The number of stems should be 3-5, and the height 70-85% of the adult plant. And if, moreover, the stems are thicker, then everything is in order.
It should be noted that, as a rule, hybrids of medicinal peonies develop faster than that of flowers, and many of them may already have buds. In the second year, with optimal development of the plant, one control flowering stem can be left to verify compliance with the acquired variety, although the flower may be weaker than normal and should be removed immediately after flowering. The remaining buds should be cut before flowering.
Transplantation of two-year-old peonies to another place should be carried out in the spring, before the active growth of the plant. In the middle lane, the optimum time is until the end of April. The main thing with this is to transplant the plant without breaking the earth’s lump or damaging the fragile suction roots that surround this lump.
As shown in the photo, irrigation remains the basis of peony care in the open field:
Watering depth is at least the depth of the plant’s root system, and it can reach 30-40. See Watering frequency once a week during the dry season, and if possible, 2-3 times. Mulching in the hot period remains an effective tool, but it is important not to forget to remove it with the onset of rain and autumn.
If you apply top dressing, they are about the same as in the first year. But the total annual rate per plant is increased to 1 / 2 from the norm of an adult plant (by weight 60-80 g for most fertilizers). It is advisable to apply them in dissolved form with subsequent spilling with clean water so that all fertilizers accumulate in the lower feeding layer of the pit. Liquid sprays with full fertilizer are useful in the first half of the season before flowering.
In order to grow peony flowers in the way that proper agricultural technology implies, you can use any of the produced complex fertilizers, in particular fertilizer and Kemira, for fertilizing.
The main danger remains botrytis. Fighting it is the most important preventive task of spring care when growing peonies. From the end of April - the beginning of May, with the beginning of the rapid growth of the stems, I recommend to spend 2 spraying fungicides with an interval of 10-12 days. But, if signs appear disease wet cold weather continues in the second half of May, and additional, third treatment is necessary. It is possible to irrigate the bushes under the root with a solution of fungicides.
Frequently observed phenomenon: all stems, which are very lagging behind in growth, rot and fall in the second half of May. The affected stems should be removed and the plant at the base of the stems with ash or foundation.
Sometimes it is tempting to divide the plant you like, which has already flourished and looks quite adult. But the division of pions in the second year of life is unacceptable. The two-year root system has not developed enough, and full-fledged delenok fails.
But the most important thing is that there is a danger of “covering up”, as experienced flower growers call this effect among themselves. Such a delenka, even looking normal, often then slowly develops for many years and does not bloom.
Probably, young roots have not yet formed substances that contribute to the normal development of the plant.
In the autumn, pruning to the base of the stems, and if possible, by plunging into the ground. On the time of removal of the stems, there are different opinions. It is better to carry it out in advance, before the onset of severe frosts and in dry weather, in the second half of September. In this case, the cuts on the stems have time to dry and wind, and the threat of damage to the rhizome rot through the stems is reduced. The base of the plant can be sprinkled with ash, dolomite or limestone flour. If botrytis was marked on the plants, the surface under the plant is treated with one of the fungicides listed by us.
How to grow flowers peonies in the garden for the third year after planting
In the third year, the plant looks like this: it has at least 5-7 stems; the height of the stems reaches the standard value for the variety: almost all hybrids and most lactic-flowering peonies form buds and flowers.
Some varieties of peonies may not bloom. Some of the “persistent” lacticolours include some red, terry, and Japanese, and some others, most often of the late flowering.
The main preventive measure remains spraying against botrytis or watering with a strong defeat of the plant. They are carried out in the calendar terms specified above or according to recommendations for leaving.
If the plant is planted for a period of up to 7-8 years and the pit is fully filled when planted, you can not feed them. Some of our experienced flower growers exclude the use of chemical fertilizers, limiting themselves to refueling organic planting pits.
If you do feed, dissolve them in water, combining with subsequent irrigation, so that all fertilizers pass and accumulate in the lower supply layer, and the top remains clean from fertilizers. The number of dressings per season depends on your abilities. Complete fertilizers are usually applied (such as Kemira), in the second half of the season it is desirable to increase the potassium content (Kemira autumn).
In the third year of feeding, 75% of the norm for an adult plant is applied (on average, 80-100 g of complex fertilizer). Usually in two steps: the first - 60-70% of the seasonal norm before flowering, the rest - in July and the first half of August.
The number of waterings is reduced to 3-4 per season in our zone in the normal (not dry) season, and their abundance increases to 10-12 liters per 1 plant. During the hot period or dry season, watering should be weekly, if not more often. Mulching continues to be an effective technique.
In the fall of the third year, a peony can be divided, if there is a need and conditions for it: well-developed ground part with 6-7 and more stems, and already had full bloom. Most often, this phase of development reaches a variety of hybrid origin. Dairy flowers reach such indicators at 4-5 year after planting.
How to care for peonies: the secrets of growing adult plants
It is necessary to continue to monitor the development of the plant on 4-5-th year: the bush should increase in size, the number of stems grow to 8-15 and more. Most of them will be decorated with flowers.
With few exceptions, all varieties should appear in all its glory. At this time, finally check the compliance of the appearance of the plant description of the variety. All that looks non-standard, do not regret: delete this fall, then it will be even harder to leave.
The main secrets of growing adult peonies are the same as for three-year-old plants: spraying is always in dry weather and in the morning; and also top dressing - according to norms of an adult plant, at the rate of 100-120 g per season. For shrubs of 6-7 age and more, the amount of fertilizer can be increased by about 20 g. Top-dressing with predominantly complete (complex) fertilizers in the second half of the season with an increased potassium rate.
For bushes with large, densely-double flowers, in advance, from the spring, set the supports, inside which let the growing stems.
For larger flowers, pull the side buds when they reach the size of a pea. If you need to get flowering a few days later, before starting flowering, one side bud is left on the stem.
How much to leave flowering stems on the plant? It is not uncommon for an adult plant, with proper care, to form 40-60 buds, sometimes up to 100, ready to bloom. If the goal is not to cut flowers for realization, then I recommend for the maximum effect to leave no more than 20-25 buds on a bush. This technique is favorable for the further development of peony, since excessive flowering severely depletes the bush and will affect its flowering in the following years.
A full cut of all flowers with stems, if all the stalks of a bush are flowering, weakly weakens the peony bush. In the following years, this will reduce the number of flowers or the peony will simply cease to bloom. Therefore, even with the implementation of flowers should be left on the bush at least 40% of flowering stems. When cutting a flower with a part of the stem, you need to leave it on the bottom of the stem of the 2-3 leaf. In general, no less than 2 / 3 leaves should remain on the bush after pruning.
Cut flowers on a sunny day in the morning or in the evening, on a cloudy day during the day. Peonies with simple, semi-double, Japanese flowers are cut in buds or in half release, most terry - in half release. Only late-flowering terry peonies should be almost or completely bloomed.
To save the cut (up to a week), the flowers are cut in the morning, the leaves, except for the top two, are removed on the stem and placed in cold water. Then wrapped in newspapers and stored in the refrigerator or in the cellar.
More carefully carried out the autumn work. I believe that the stems must be cut to the ground and in dry weather. Late pruning in November, and especially the stalks left for the winter, increase the risk of damage to the plant by botrytis. After pruning it is useful to powder the place with one of fungicides or ashes.
When pruning stems should check how deeply rhizome. Over time, the rhizome grows slowly upwards and may even be exposed. In such cases, sprinkle the soil over the bush and around it.
A more difficult case, if the rhizome is buried significantly more than the norm. In this case, the peonies, especially the lactiflora peonies, cease to bloom. If it is impossible to remove the excess layer, you will have to dig up the plant and, dividing, transplant in compliance with the rules of planting.
Cut stems are recommended to burn. It is possible to do otherwise: chop them and compost them into a separate compost pile, use compost from it for adding under fruit bushes.
The video “Growing and caring for peonies” shows how to care for adult bushes:
Peculiarities of growing old peonies
Older plants include peonies that are older than 8-10 years. Most of them are varieties of peony, which can live in one place along 30-50 and more than years. The main feature of the cultivation of old peonies - enhanced feeding. For such a long period, the land in the planting pit is completely depleted, and additional fertilizers are needed. The plant itself grows in width and in depth, the old storage roots begin to die. Most of the suction roots and young storing roots are located on the periphery of the plant.
For organic dressings, an infusion of cow manure is prepared in a barrel at a concentration of 1 with a manure bucket on 10 buckets of water and allowed to ferment 5-7 for days. For chicken manure, the concentration in 2 is less than the times - 1: 20. Instead of manure, you can use green biomass of weeds: nettle and other plants from weeding or grass from a lawn mower. They are also fermented on 5-7 days in a barrel. In addition, before feeding in the bucket of hot water dissolve the full fertilizer, at the rate of about 500 g per 100 l infusion and pour into the infusion.
In order to care for old peonies at the country house as gently as possible, around the plant, retreating from the stalks on 10-15 cm, they dig out an annular groove, see 5-7 depth (it is important not to damage the roots!) And pour 1-2 infusion into it. Then the 2-3 groove is poured with clean water buckets so that fertilizer penetrates into the lower part of the planting pits.
When fertilizing with mineral fertilizers, the annual rate of full fertilizer increases to 150-200 g. It is advisable to fertilize in two steps: in early June, before flowering, and in the second half of July. The application scheme - as for organic feeding. It is dissolved in hot water, poured into the annular groove and then shed with clean water.
As shown in the photo, when caring for old peonies, deep top dressing through drainage wells is effective:
These wells can be arranged in advance (immediately when a pion is planted) or later. 3-4 at a distance 30-40 cm from the center of the bush and see a depth of 50-60 see such wells. They are 5,0-7,5 cm in diameter and they have a slope to the center in 10-15 °. Pipes from any material, except for metal, with openings in the lower part, can be installed in wells, or they can be filled with well-conducting materials. It is rational to use as a stand pipe drainage pipes to support a flowering plant.
It is necessary to monitor the position of the plant in the ground. The rhizome of the old plant over the years of life gradually grows up. In the autumn when harvesting the stems should check the depth of its occurrence. To maintain penetration, see the 4-5 cm pouring fertile soil over the entire area of the planting.