Of course, in order to have on your site beautiful peony bushes, you can buy planting material in flower shops or at exhibitions. But it is much easier to breed peonies on their own - as practice shows, this is not difficult.
There are several ways of breeding pions: root cuttings, pruning, vertical or partial layering, dividing the bush, as well as by forming a young rhizome directly above the old. This material is dedicated to how to propagate peonies in spring and in other periods.
How and when to divide a peony bush?
Getting to the breeding of bushes, you need to decide on the timing when to divide the peonies: The best time for this procedure in central Russia is the period from 10 to 30 in August.
After reducing the soil temperature to 12-15 ° С peonies begin to grow suction roots, and at later periods of digging, they will die during division. In these optimal terms it is recommended to divide the peonies, even if you plan to plant them in late September and later. Better to plant (even a month or more) to keep the delicate in moss or sand in a cool place, protected from rain. The division can be started even earlier, in the first decade of August, and then withstand the division as much as necessary. In the south, the division of pions shifts to a later time, and in the northern regions, to an earlier one, in accordance with the allowable landing periods.
To divide the bush peony, as practice shows, the plant must reach a certain age and grow enough in the ground. Delenki from the 3-year-old rhizome of the pion and delenka from the 4-year-old rhizome of the pion are distinguished by more developed storage roots.
For the division of the most suitable young plants 3-5-year-old, flourished 2 times. Peonies at this age have accumulated in their roots a sufficient supply of nutrients that contribute to the normal development of the delenka in a new place. Young plants are still easy to dig, easy to divide, and at the same time the delenki look the most attractive. This job is as good as every gardener; 5-7-year-old bushes, although they will give more planting material, but will require considerable physical effort to dig.
Before you divide the peony, count the number of stems: there must be at least 8-9. And the circle occupied by the stems on the ground should exceed 8-9. If the stems are closer to each other in a circle less than 6-7, such a rhizome can often not be divided into several parts, and it is better to wait another year.
The following describes the technology in detail how to divide the 3-5 age peony.
For digging you need two shovels: one bayonet, and the second with a curved blade, pruner, a sharp large knife and two buckets. You should also prepare labels with the name of the variety in advance. Digging is carried out on a dry day and, if possible, after a dry period when the earth crumbles easily.
Stems at a height of approximately 10 cm above ground level are pruned with shears, crushed, placed in the first bucket, the second is collected trimming the roots. Departing 25 cm from the stems, the plant is dug around with a bayonet spade to a depth of 35-50 cm, depending on the size of the root system. The long roots that come across are carefully cut with a knife (shears): they easily break off.
A spade with a curved blade is broken into the peony from the bottom, cutting down the remaining roots. Carefully remove the plant from the ground and, laying on its side, gently with a sharp rod free from excess soil. Then, too, carefully, cut the roots immediately to 10-15 cm. Length. If possible, rhizomes are washed with a stream from a hose or a watering can.
Then bind the label and carry until the evening in a shady and well-ventilated place. In the absence of water for washing, you can leave the plant to dry in a cool, shed protected from precipitation, going directly to the pre-drying.
In the evening for pre-drying peonies transferred to a closed cool room and stored in it 2-3 of the day, laying them on film or cardboard. If the air temperature is high, dug plants can be covered with burlap or similar woven material. For longer periods of time before dividing the plant, the covering fabric should be periodically sprayed with a spraying solution with a weak light pink solution of potassium permanganate or periodically moisten the fabric in this solution, squeezing out excess moisture.
To divide the peony bush, you will need a table covered with a film, a planed wooden bar 8X50X4. See the graft-type knives, a knife with a thick and sharpened blade, a scalpel, chisels, a hammer, brushes moss
Actually the division process is the most difficult and crucial moment. And it is learned and improved with personal experience. Nevertheless, some rules help him quickly and successfully master it.
Completely to the base remove the remnants of the stems. First of all, cut the remaining long storage roots to 8-12 cm, remove intertwining roots, and to 3-5 cm shorten thin roots that are 1 cm thick and less. To divide the peony bush as I advise experienced growers, you need to completely remove most of the old root with which the plant was planted. It is usually different in thickness and color (darker). Carefully inspect the peony from all sides. They pretend how many delenok it can be divided and where the cut lines will be. Taking it with both hands, try to bend it in different directions without much effort: sometimes you can feel that it can easily be divided into 2 parts with a single notch. After this, further division becomes uncomplicated.
The general rule of breeding pions by dividing the bush: first, separate what is clear and simple, then you will understand the order of further division.
Often it is easy to separate the delenka attached to the side or top of the rest of the rhizome: start with it. Separating it, you will see what can be separated further. If the initial choice is difficult (it often happens with a large rhizome), you have to cut the rhizome in half through the center using chisels and a hammer.
Then clean the delenki from the rotten parts, sprinkle all the places of cuts with ashes (it is convenient to use a toothbrush for this) and tie the labels with the name of the variety. Lay out delenki in a box with moistened moss and store in it before landing at least 2-3 days. Under such conditions, dekens can be stored for 2 months or more, and in well-packed mail they carry long journeys throughout the country (and even abroad) for more than a month.
Watch the video “Reproduction of pions by dividing the bush” to better understand how this procedure is performed:
Propagation of pions by trimming
Sometimes the trimming method is called the Kestner method. This method was actively studied in 1970-1980-ies. in the GBS of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is suitable for milky-flowering peonies over the age of 6-7 with the number of stems per bush at least 30.
Conducted in the usual terms for the division of peonies, in the second half of August, in dry weather. Act in the following sequence.
Before propagating peonies by pruning, the stems are cut at a height of 10 cm above the ground. Uterine plant digging in a circle, slightly receding from the stems. They dig a groove so deep that the top of the rhizome is visible with a part of the bud renewal above the outcropping on 2-3. Usually, the depth of the 6-8 groove is sufficient for this. Use a spade with a sharp sharpened blade, better curved shape. The shovel is slid into the extended part of the groove and horizontally cut off the entire exposed part of the rhizome. The cut-off part breaks up into small non-standard delenki with renewal kidneys with 1-2. Cuts on the delenki are rubbed with ashes and placed on the 2-3 of the day in a box with moss, like normal delenki.
Then the delenki are planted in a well-filled ground, tightly, according to the scheme 20X30, see. After re-growing through 2, they are transplanted with a clod of earth to a permanent place. All cuts on the uterine plant are covered with ashes and covered with rains on the 2-3 of the day. After that, fill the ground over the uterine plant to its previous level. The following year, with the normal regrowth of the stems, they dig out the whole plant. Usually it easily breaks up into separate delenki. But often after the first sweep, due to multiple wounds, the plant can rot and die.
A modification of this method can be considered the method of "partial trimming." He invented and applied it to A.K. Kolpakov. Sideways bare part of the rhizome to the depth of the usual hooking - 6-8 cm and cut off the 2-3 small non-standard stalk with buds. Places of cuts on the mother liquor are sprinkled with ashes, and then, after drying, with earth.
Reproduction and care of peonies: how to dissolve the bushes root cuttings
The method of reproduction of pions by root cuttings without buds is based on the ability of some varieties, hybrids from medicinal peony (and from foreign peonya) form buds right on the root segments. When pions are divided to produce buds, root cuttings from storing roots are harvested in the fall from root varieties capable of forming such buds. Or cut off part of the roots from the acquired delenok (also in the autumn or early spring), which had an excess mass of storage roots. Many are laying buds in the fall when stored in a plastic bag with moss under the shelter. They can be planted in the ridges in the first autumn. Sometimes the cuttings are stored in a package with moss winter in a subfield.
The best parts of summer age 3-4 storing roots are at least 18-20 mm thick and 6-7 length up to 15 cm.
Roots cut into pieces 7 cm and a little more. Rub cuts with ashes and place on grades in plastic bags with moss, mark packages. Store month and more in the same conditions as delenki.
Place for landing, it is better to choose half-shaded, especially during daytime hours. Prepare nutrient soil and lay it to a depth of 30, see. Roots for varieties horizontally placed on a thin sand pillow, powdered with ashes and covered with light loose soil, 3-4 thick, see Marked planting. Pre-planting wetting of 1 root segments with one of the preparations that promote rooting is useful. Concentrations and methods of use are indicated in the attached instructions. During autumn planting for the first winter, an additional shelter of non-decaying materials is installed, see 10 height. From the cuttings with awakened buds shoots appear in the first spring or summer. From cuttings with undetected buds, shoots may appear on 2 and even 3 a year after planting.
For valuable varieties use this method: cuttings with unbeaten buds are not planted in the ground in autumn, and placed in a cold but not freezing underground in the winter period: root cuttings of some varieties formed buds in the winter, in the spring they can be planted in the ground according to the described method. Shoots from them appear in the same year in the summer.
During the reproduction of peonies, care takes place in hot watering, mulching plantings, and, most importantly, preventive measures against botrytis.
There were cases when the kidneys appeared on the roots in the fall, when storing the blanks in bags.
To propagate peonies by root cuttings, as practice shows, it is better to use varieties:
Variety "Red Grace"
Variety "Ellen Cowley"
Variety "Cameo Lallabay"
Good Cheer variety or coral hybrids.
This video shows the reproduction of pions by root cuttings:
Propagation of pions by stem cuttings
The method of vertical stem cuttings is based on stimulating the growth of rhizomes upwards and the formation of new buds on the tops of new buds. Applicable for varieties p. Lacticolor age over 6-7 years, the same as for the method of pruning.
In the described breeding method peonies in spring, after the appearance of sprouts, a solid fence (box without bottom) is installed around the mother plant; height 20- 25 cm, which is filled with light earth as the shoots grow. The soil is periodically moistened. Buds must be removed. In early September, the fence is removed, cleaned up the ground and carefully expose the plant to the upper buds. Cuttings - the newly formed upper parts of the rhizome with the kidney at the base cut off from the plant at the place of their connection with the old part of the rhizome. The resulting cuttings are planted for rearing in the garden in the same way as in the trimming method. The operation should be carried out in dry time, cuts sprinkled with ash and protected on the 2-3 of the day from precipitation.
The most important advantage of the method of reproduction of peonies by stem cuttings is the production of healthy plants with a completely renewed rhizome and root system without old tissues, that is, a complete renewal of the peony.
But there is another side to the medal: the cuttings are very weak, in the first winter there is a noticeable drop out of some of them; It takes a long time to grow. The uterine plant disrupts the normal physiological cycle (it has not blossomed), and in the future it may stop blooming due to the effects of burial. Numerous "wounds" will long affect the development of the plant, its health and flowering in subsequent years.
Reproduction of pions with partial layings
To reduce the negative effects of the method of vertical cuttings, you can use a modification of this method. The method of partial cuttings is most suitable for obtaining delenok from an old plant without digging it up and with a minimum of damage for it. The essence of the changes is as follows: fencing, height in 30-35 cm, set only over part of the mother plant, taking into account the planned number of cleats, better from the south side.
The fence is left above the plant for two years. For the first year I fill the fenced part with earth on 10-15, see. I remove the buds only from the stems that have fallen into the fence. The rest of the plant blooms as usual.
In the autumn of the first year, I leave the fence in place, and raise the level of the ground inside it to full height. In the second year, the care is the same as in the first. In the fall of the second year, I remove the fence and carefully release the shoots from the ground. From the outside of the fence, the plant is laid out below the soil level on 5-10, see. I cut off the newly formed young parts of the rhizome with a knife and grow them in ridges, as described above.
The advantages of the method of reproduction of pions by layering are obvious: the flowering of the mother liquor is not interrupted, because of the small number of cuts, the negative consequences for the uterine bush are significantly reduced.
The cuttings obtained in the fall of the second year are close in size to small cuttings, and some of them can be immediately planted in a permanent place without rearing. I add to this that such cuttings have great growth energy and by the autumn of the first year after planting they catch up with the growth of normal standard delenki of the same age.
Reproduction of pions by the Shlomin method
Another variant of the modification of the method of vertical cuttings was developed and used by G. K. Shlomin.
The author began to conduct his experiment in the spring of 1982 with two-year bushes of varieties Evening Moscow and the Cruiser Aurora. He put on the shoots high cans, open on both sides. As the shoots grew, he poured nutrient soil into banks, consisting of rotted manure, river sand and black soil, periodically watered it with water. During the growing season, 2 times watered young plants with a weak solution of heteroauxin (1 tablet per 2 liter of water).
To prevent the banks from overheating, I wrapped them in cardboard and on top with plastic wrap (on the sides, on the principle of a thermos, I left the top open). In the fall, shoots formed a good root system. In September, cut them under the banks, at the base of the mother plants.
Cuttings with an earthy lump landed on a permanent place in the soil, watered well with water and mumbled with rotted manure (cm 5-7). With the onset of frost, he warmed with peat-powder (see 10 cm).
In early spring, he took shelter, gently and gently loosened the ground around the bushes, and under each bush he brought half a bucket of raw manure mixed with 100 of wood ash, 100 of superphosphate and 10 of potassium nitrate.
Bushes have developed well. In the summer of next year, some even had flower buds, but they were removed.
This method allows you to quickly multiply valuable varieties.
All varieties of the method of vertical otvodki applicable only for peonies dairy flowers!
Cutting off part of the rhizome, without digging out the mother plant. This method is used in cases when it is necessary to obtain a small number of delenok from a large bush, 2-3 pieces, and it is impractical to dig out the whole bush for their sake.
Carry out in terms, usual for division of grades. For the operation choose a dry day. Carefully dig up and expose part of the rhizome (to the depth of the roots), designed to separate from the mother plant. Sharpen the bayonet with a sharply sharpened spade and detach it from the ground. The analogy with how a piece is cut from a round cake is appropriate here. The cuts on the uterine plant are covered with ashes, the damaged part is covered for several days from the rain. Then the empty space formed is covered with fertile soil with chemical fertilizers.
This method is used only as a last resort. It is ineffective: planting material turns out a little, and the waste is large. The rest of the bush is sick and long restores its decorative effect.
How to split an old peony bush
Dividing old plants without digging. It is used in a situation when it is physically impossible to dig out and completely remove the peony from the ground or it will require huge labor costs. In this case, the extraction of the underground part is carried out sequentially in parts. The beginning of the reproduction operation of old pions by division completely coincides with the previous case: by cutting off a part of the bush without digging out the mother plant. After separating the first part from the ground, you continue to cut your “round cake”. But the work is easier: an additional side surface is exposed, and it will be easier and more efficient to separate the next piece. And so, in turn, they cut and remove all the pieces of the "cake".
The method of forming a young rhizome over the old. When digging out an old peony, it most often happens that you can’t get normal, standard delocings. Their appearance is completely unsightly, there are no young storing roots, and their quality raises doubts, which is then often confirmed during cultivation.
Given the ability of accelerated growth of rhizomes up, when he was asleep with earth, a method was tested to form the young part of the rhizome above the old, in the new bulk upper layer of the earth. This method was tested on the varieties of peony milophaceous.
An old and already badly flowering plant is usually chosen. Above and around for 4-5 for years in a row, 3-5 is poured over cm of fertile soil with ashes. As a result, the rhizome accelerates upwards, and its upper part acquires a characteristic multi-vertex shape, similar to mountain peaks, on which most of the kidney renewal is laid.
To consolidate the knowledge gained, watch the video “How to propagate peonies”: