It depends on how well the peonies are planted, how quickly the bush will take root, and how long it will delight you with lush flowering. If you are unable to inspect the delenki during the purchase (in stores, they are usually packed in tight bags), be sure to do it at home. Before you plant peonies in the country, you need to make sure that the acquired rhizomes are healthy, otherwise you risk infecting the entire garden. Also, before planting peonies, you need to check the usefulness of delenok, so as not to wait in vain for seedlings from obviously unsuitable planting material.
Before you decide where to plant the peonies, you need to remember - at the time of flowering, these plants overshadow all other flowers, so this luxury should be planted where the bushes will be visible from different points of the garden. Also a landing place peonies must be selected given the prospect of a long stay peony. It can be decades. Unfortunately, flower growers often do not think about it.
Where it is better to plant peonies on the site: the choice of landing site
When planting pions in the ground, choose the places where virgin soil used to be.
It is important to avoid adverse precursors: trees, shrubs, large perennials, greatly depleting the soil. You can not plant a peony immediately on the same place where another peony has just grown. In such cases, the soil should be allowed to rest at least 2 of the year or completely change the soil at the landing site. Where you want to plant peonies, the site should not be the roots of trees, shrubs and large perennials. And do not forget that the bushes will grow over time. Landing in the lowlands for a long time flooded with spring waters and torrential rains is unacceptable. In order to plant peonies correctly, as practice shows, it is necessary to ensure the flow of water from the garden.
Peonies can endure a period of heat in the spring of no more than 4-5 days. When choosing a landing site, remember that the groundwater level must be below the surface level by at least 70-80 cm. For pions designed for a long landing, more than 6-7 years, this standard should be 100 cm.
The optimum acidity of the soil is close to neutral. Peonies can grow and on slightly acidic soils (lactating peonies), but preferred (especially for hybrids all types and species) - neutral and slightly alkaline soils with pH of 6-7,5.
In order to plant peonies in the way that proper agricultural technology implies, the place must be sunny or partially shaded, before the 5-6 hours in the summer. Preferably shading in the midday, especially hot hours. For dark-colored such shading, even desirable, flowers do not fade. It is important that the place is protected from the winds. It is better to plant peonies where the distance from the walls of the house and solid fences to the bed is at least 1-1,5 m.
Inspection Delenki before planting grassy peonies in the garden
Before planting peonies, delenki need to inspect. It should pay attention to its appearance and shape, parameters, freshness, the number of buds and the volume (weight) of the root mass. Also, before planting grassy peonies, it is necessary to compare delenki with optimal sizes (from maximum to minimum) according to the number of buds and weight for different origin varieties.
What should be the size of the pion delenka for planting in open ground? Do not use too large delenki with a large volume of roots, especially to transplant whole adult plants. Here is a complete analogy with failures when planting mature trees and bushes: the development of young roots and shoots is not stimulated, and the existing roots are not able to provide good nutrition of the seedling.
Dimensions should be sufficient to:
- to guarantee a successful start of the plant in a new place, providing an initial stock of substances for rooting;
- to stimulate the primary intensive growth of young shoots and the new young root system, the fastest possible transition to the consumption of useful substances from the outside;
- promote the formation of a completely new plant, ready to bloom in a new and long-term fruitful way.
How many kidneys should there be? It is not so important how much kidney renewal is: 2, 5 or more. More important is the balance between the number of buds and the mass of storing roots. Even if in the normal size of the delinka there will be 10 buds, next year the 1-3 shoots usually grow (more often 1-2), and this is quite enough for the further successful development of the plant.
How much should be storing roots? Ideal delenka has 3 root sticking out in different directions, and rhizome with 3-5 buds. But this may look like only separately grown young plant. Practically, when dividing an adult plant into several parts, this does not work.
Most often, the delenka roots look in one direction and the kidneys are placed not in the center of the delenka, but closer to the edge. It does not matter much for the subsequent development of the plant after planting.
Before you plant the peony delenka, you should pay attention to some points.
The thickness of the storing roots must be at least 18-20 mm. Such roots are formed in sufficiently mature, already flowering plants and are able to stimulate the development of a young plant in a new place. Too thick, more than 30-40 mm, the roots are also undesirable, since the old roots have already significantly exhausted their resources and are not able to provide a supply of nutrients for a long period.
The total length of the storing roots for the varieties of the p. Lacticulum should be at least 12-15 cm, and for the hybrid varieties - 15-20 cm. These dimensions are for the split, which has one root, with two roots the values for each of the roots can be twice as small.
In other words, it is not the length of the roots and their quantity that is important, but the magnitude of the total mass of the nutrients of these roots.
Next, you will learn how to prepare peonies for planting, depending on the quality of delenok.
How healthy delenki look for planting peonies is shown in these photos:
How to prepare flowers for planting peonies
Attach a label with the name of the variety to the purchased delenka. Conveniently cut labels, for example, from metal coffee or beer cans. The name of a grade is squeezed out with a pencil with firm slate or a ballpoint pen. Such a label can be stored in the ground for several years and when digging it will help to identify the variety.
Before planting grassy peonies, carefully inspect the rhizome. Delenka has sticking out the remnants of the stems, on these stems is attached a label with the name of the variety. The case is common for domestic delenok. When planting such a delenka, the remnants of the stems will rot, and through them rot and infection will penetrate into the plant. Stems should be cut to the base of the root collar. Place the slices to grind the ashes. The label is securely fastened on the delenka.
Very faded delenka. If the delenka faded away, it is recommended to place it on a few days in slightly moistened moss or in wet sand moistened with a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Delenka has a mass over 250-300 g. The roots are very long: more than 15-20, see. Such large delenki are often in overseas deliveries. When planting entirely, such a plant outwardly develops faster in the first year after planting and often blooms in the second year. But this rapid external effect is achieved due to the reserves in the root system of the delenka, and new roots develop less and no full renewal takes place. In the future, such a plant may develop more slowly than from the delenka of normal size. In the long run, it is better to divide this division into 2 parts (this sometimes succeeds) or shorten the roots.
The exception to this rule are plants with a closed root system: such plants are carefully removed from the pot and transplanted whole with a clod of earth into the landing pit.
Delenka with a very thick and old root. Such delenki are often obtained by dividing perennials. In this case, the root should be shortened to 5-7 cm and dried cuts 2-3 of the day as stated above. If you leave it entirely - this is an option with overweight delenki. In addition, in this case, often the majority of new adventitious and storing roots appear at the end of the old root or in its middle part. The plant develops one-sided, one-sided.
Over time, the old root will wither away, and new roots will lose touch with the rest of the plant. Shortened roots are preferable because the development of accessory and storing roots is stimulated directly at the root collar and more symmetrical relative to the root collar. And it is favorable for the further development of the plant.
On the root neck or roots there are places affected by rot. Cut lesions and cuts with ashes, stand for a couple of days before planting in moss or in a cool dry place so that the wound surface can dry out.
This video shows the preparation of pions for planting:
When you can plant peonies in open ground: planting time in spring and autumn
The best time to plant pions in central Russia: the period from late August to the first decade of October. In the third decade of August, after the temperature of the soil has decreased to 12-15 ° С, pions begin to grow at the pions, which promote rooting of the planted delenka. Sufficient regrowth of roots requires 30-35 days and ends with the onset of soil freezing.
In Moscow, the beginning of the freezing of the soil falls on the 10-e of November, which means that the best time for planting pions is the time to October 5-10. As a result, in the middle of the peonies can be planted for 35-40 days starting around August 20-25. Accordingly, in the south, the end of the pion planting is shifted to a later time, and in more northern regions - to an earlier one. These periods are considered classic for pion planting.
However, there are cases when the pions are planted in the Moscow region at another time. And there are some peculiarities.
Late autumn landing. If you have to plant later than normal periods, then after planting the pions should be covered with a warming layer made of non-decaying materials. Usually, when planting peonies in late autumn, oak leaves and spruce branches are used for shelter.
In our conditions, a layer of 12-15 cm is sufficient, protected from rain and moisture from the top with roofing material or film, but always open laterally for ventilation. It is advisable to install a waterproof visor on the shelter.
For very late plantings of pions in the fall in the ground, a shelter over the prepared site should be built in advance, it should be thicker - to 20-25 cm, and immediately after landing again to be restored.
There is one more way to plant ponies in late autumn: you can plant delenki in a large-sized pot of a 7-10-liter container. The pots are placed in a non-frozen basement (underground) or stored in a shelter covered with a thick layer of peat or sand. Early in spring, after thawing of the ground and gathering of spring water, peonies and pots are transplanted to a permanent place in the garden. Perhaps keeping them in pots in a shady place of the garden until the autumn, and then transplanting to a permanent place.
Delenki acquired spring. In recent years, more and more delenki peonies sold in spring, primarily from overseas shipments. Peonies can be sold in two versions: with a closed root system - sprouted in a pot and with an open root system (delenki without land).
Under the closed root system means that the delenki are not just placed on the eve of the sale in the pot, but have already managed to take root and grow roots. In this case, the peony with a lump of earth roll over to the prepared place in the garden. The planting of peonies in the spring in the ground can begin after the snow melt and melt water melt away and continue until the end of May (in the middle lane), or at least the whole season. After planting requires abundant watering. The first 2 weeks it is advisable to cover the plant with a cap of white material during the daytime hot hours. Usually such an operation is successful, although the plant will lag a little in development.
A more difficult case is planting a delenka with an open root system. It should have a standard look: with ordinary kidneys, maybe very swollen, but by no means overgrown. For a successful landing in this version, I recommend to follow some rules.
Acquire and plant only in the first half of spring, before the onset of warm weather. In our lane until about April 20. In this case, the delenka has time for at least partial rooting in a sufficiently cold soil before the beginning of the regrowth of the stems. For later planting periods, in order to protect the soil from heating, try covering the peony with a protective layer of covering materials.
The method of planting peonies in the spring as the main flower growers used in Finland. Rationale: to avoid wetting and planting decay before rooting plants.
If, however, the delenka was purchased very early, it can be stored in the store packaging or earth mixture in the refrigerator before planting. At. Cultivation in pots does not awaken all delenki buds, and in the future not all shoots from the awakened ones will grow and develop.
Try not to acquire open delenki with sprouted stems and leaves. They take root very badly and can die.
If there is a need to divide the pion in your own area in the spring (due to urgent redevelopment of the site or transfer of plants to another place), you should start as soon as possible, immediately after the soil thaws. Sharing bush as usual. Delenki dried 1-2 a day and planted in the ground. The development of plants and flowering in this case is usually delayed for a year.
Delenku did not have time to plant in the fall and placed in storage in the underground. When can you plant peonies in this case? If there was not enough time and a place for planting in the fall was not prepared, during a rainy autumn or late receipt of planting material, many growers began to practice spring planting.
Before planting peonies in spring, delenki are placed in moistened moss or in pots and stored in a subfield. In the spring when thawing soil immediately planted into the ground.
Peony divided too early. The buds are not fully formed. With early pion division, earlier August 10, especially in late-flowering varieties, the regeneration buds are small, and the immediate planting will take place in adverse conditions at high soil and air temperatures that do not contribute to plant rooting. In this case, delenki are placed for ripening in wet moss or in a prikop in the sand in a cool place, protected from the sun, for ripening and planting in place in the usual periods: the beginning of September is the first decade of October .. By this time the kidneys will be completely formed in the stored delens resumption of shoots next year. And, moreover, after the temperature of the soil has decreased to 12-15 ° С, the growth of suction roots will begin, contributing to the rooting of the tree.
Small delenki. Delenki small size, low weight and 1-2 kidneys, grow up in shkolke - ridge with nutrient soil. Then, after 1-2, I transplant them in the fall with a clod of earth to a permanent place in the landing pit.
Another method used by experienced growers in recent years is to grow small delenok, especially valuable varieties, in pots. Pots for the winter are left in the ground or stored in the first winter in cold, but not freezing rooms. After growing in a pot, in the fall of the first, sometimes second year, the plant is carefully removed from the pot with a clod of earth and transplanted to a permanent place in the planting pit.
Transplanting plants. The best time to transplant young 1-2-summer plants is spring or early autumn. In order to plant peonies in the spring correctly, as advised flower growers advise, they must first be moistened, and in the fall they should also be cut off the stems and then transferred to a prepared pit in a new place with a clod of earth. When transplanting in the summer it is better to wait for rainy time. After the transplant, cover for a while (up to a week) with a plastic bag or lutrasil.
Transplant adult plants. The case is extraordinary and extremely undesirable. The plant pruned all the stems. Then they dig up the rhizome from all sides and, carefully wrapping an earthen layer with a layer of gauze, transfer it to a new place.
How best to plant peonies in the country: the depth of landing delenok (with video)
The size of the pit and the depth of pioning depend on your capabilities and goals, that is, on how long you plan to plant the peony at the place you choose, how close other plants are and from the water table.
Landing for a short time. Sometimes, acquiring peonies, you still do not exactly imagine their decorative possibilities or have not yet prepared (freed) a place for their permanent landing. In such cases, the peonies are planted in a temporary place tightly, it is possible on the ridge, for the term 2-3 of the year. Dimensions for fit can be within 30X30X30.
If you want to plant a peony for a short time, for 5-7 years, 45XXNNXXX 45 pits are sufficient. See About the same pit sizes or slightly larger ones are sufficient for planting varieties of hybrid origin, since their lifespan is limited.
Landing for a long time. When planting milky-blooming peonies designed for several decades, the pit is increased to 80X80X50 cm or even 100X100X60 cm. Increasing the landing area compared to the depth stimulates the development of the root system to the sides, not to depth. This simplifies further irrigation (reduces water consumption and irrigation time) and top dressing. In addition, the shallow location of the root system makes it easier to dig out a pion before dividing.
Often in the literature can be found recommended sizes 80X80X80 cm and even wider and deeper. Of course, such a pit is not bad at all, but estimate your strength and capabilities. Will you be able to shovel more than half a cubic meter of dense earth? And will you be able to enrich it enough with organic fertilizers and improve its structure? On such a volume of land will require no less than 10 buckets of organic matter, not counting everything else, often no less in volume.
Landing in the pits on the ridges. When groundwater is located close to the surface, it is necessary to build high-lying ridges of such height that the distance from their surface to the groundwater level is at least 70 cm. In this case, the depth of the pit is limited to 40-45 cm, and the area can be expanded to 80X80 cm.
Watch a video on how to plant peonies:
Drainage in the landing pit for peonies
Many beginning flower growers, concerned with the question of how to plant peonies in the garden, are interested in - is drainage necessary at the bottom of the pit? Quite often in the literature for drainage it is recommended to put a layer of rubble, stones and broken bricks on the bottom of the pit. But such a recommendation cannot be universal and it is not entirely clear when it will be useful. If the soil around the pit, especially from the bottom, is clay, there is no benefit from drainage, like shards on the bottom of a pot without holes - there is no place for water to go. And if the soil around the pit is sandy, you need not drainage, but, on the contrary, clay in the lower layer of the pit to keep moisture there longer.
Local drainage in the landing pit when planting peonies will not protect the flowers from nearby groundwater. In this case, it is necessary to install a common drainage system at the landing site, which is capable of lowering the level of standing of groundwater. Or drainage grooves, if the landing area is reduced. For the latter case, bulk raised ridges have already been recommended.
How to plant peonies in spring and autumn: soil preparation
In the landing pit for pions there should be two layers of earth for different purposes. Soil mixtures for the lower and upper parts of the pit play a different role in the life of the plant. Accordingly, they must be different in physical and chemical composition. It is important to take into account the fact that in most cases we have to partially use the land extracted from the pit. Its composition is usually far from desired. Therefore, it is supplemented with organic and mineral fertilizers and deoxidizers. Exception: in the area - black soil, then it may be useful only to add ash. The border of the upper and lower layers passes at the level of a delenka planted in a hole.
The lower layer of soil for peonies, located below the delenka, is the main food storeroom. For peonies, they prepare a nutritional mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers with the soil you have. Additives:
- well-rotted 2-3-year manure or compost. It must be at least 20-25% of the volume of the lower layer;
- clay (for sandy soils);
- 1-2 cup double superphosphate;
- 1-2 glass ash wood;
- 1-2 glass dolomite flour (limestone, bone).
This mixture is needed in order to reduce the acidity of the soil. In conditions of central Russia, soils have a constant tendency to acidification and their use is necessary.
The top layer is used to secure the plant in the ground, protection from direct atmospheric influence (from frost in winter and daytime overheating in summer). According to its composition, it should be well breathable and permeable, freely pass moisture and dissolved fertilizers into the lower supply layer and ensure the protection of rhizomes from fungal diseases. No fertilizer should accumulate in it: all pion suction roots are below in the feed layer.
The composition of the upper layer: light sandy soils without fertilizers, ash and a small amount of limestone (dolomite) flour.
How to plant grassy peonies (with video)
So, everything is prepared for planting: a place is chosen, a pit has been dug, and mixtures for the upper and lower layers have been prepared separately. A label with the name of the variety is attached to the delenka. For planting pions in the fall or spring in open ground when laying the bottom layer should be sealed it (just feet). It is necessary that the delenka remain in place after landing and does not fall deeper. In the compacted state, the lower layer should be located below the upper edge of the pit approximately 10-12 cm.
Then, the delenka is placed in the center of the lower layer, trying to position it up with the buds, and store the storage roots horizontally or obliquely. Thus, the whole area is located in the upper layer of the earth. Its thickness is 10-12, see. The buds of the deenki should be buried in the ground on 3-5, see. This norm is especially important to withstand for peony varieties of flowers. If you break it, peonies can not bloom for a very long time. They will tend to build up the rhizome upwards, creating peak peaks around some stems. Having finally reached the optimal variant of burial, the shoots will begin to bloom. And hybrids bloom and when buried above the norm.
To plant grassy peonies properly, it is useful to put a little sand around the delenka and under it. To do this, put a thin sand lining under the delenka, and above the installed delenka sometimes put a cylinder with a diameter of 8-10 cm, in which sand is poured to the level of the soil.
After filling the pit cylinder removed. This will prevent the delenium from direct contact with organic and chemical fertilizers and remove excess moisture from the delenka. You can sprinkle delenku wood ash.
The rest of the pit is carefully filled with earth prepared for the upper layer, trying not to dislodge the division from the spot. Slightly condense and sprinkle with a layer of 1-2 cm of loose earth above the level of the surrounding soil.
You can powder the top with dolomite (limestone) flour or ash on the landing site: this makes it noticeable until spring and additionally deoxidizes the soil, preventing the occurrence of fungal diseases.
So, you planted a delenka with a certain number of buds. And expect that they all germinate next year. However, according to years of observation, this does not happen. All buds never germinate.
To better understand how to plant peonies, watch this video: