Cross-sectional hybrids of pions or Ito-hybrids appeared as a result of the desire of breeders to obtain grass cultivars with flowers, the petals of which are colored yellow. When breeding varieties of Ito-hybrids, lacticulum and species tree peonies (P. Lutea) were crossed. The breeder Toichi Ito (Japan) became a pioneer in this area, these beautiful plants with delicate flowers were named after him. Ito began his painstaking work more than half a century ago (in 1948), since then his students have continued to work as a teacher, receiving new, more advanced forms.
The results of modern breeders have significantly exceeded the original goals, as a result, a separate section of garden peonies was created, which differs to a large extent from grassy forms.
Description of peonies Itoh hybrids
Ito-hybrids are perennial plants with annually completely (or mostly) dying off ground stalks. Bushes X 50-90 high cm, wide, growing to the side, densely leafy. Stems - often deviating or curving. Leaves similar to leaves of tree peoniesIn the fall they do not fade for a long time - before the onset of severe frosts, some change their color in the fall. Information on the longevity of intersectional pions has not yet been accumulated, but, in my own experience and given the longevity of the parental pair, I can expect a long-term and fruitful life for varieties of this group of pions.
Flowering in varieties derived from hybrids p. Yellow (LH) - in the middle and late periods, simultaneously with the varieties p. Lactiferous. In varieties obtained from P. suffructicosa, - in earlier periods. In many varieties, flowering is relatively long, up to 2-3 weeks due to the gradual dissolution of the apical buds and then the lateral flowering. The buds are shaped like fruits of chestnut and are often brown colored.
Peony flowers According to the description, Ito-hybrids are similar to tree-like hybrids, but have spots in the center. Often fragrant. In cutting short-lived, but more resistant than tree.
There is an instability of the shape and color of flowers, depending on the age of the plant, external conditions, the instability of hereditary traits. As a result of the mutation, the Ito-pion varieties Lemon Dream and White Emperor are obtained. Still attractive varieties with yellow stains. As for the other colors, the bushes of Ito-hybrids at the peak of flowering are inferior to the varieties of tree peonies, but differ from the latter by later flowering periods and the possibility of reproduction by dividing the rhizome.
These photos show Ito-peonies of some varieties:
Peony Varieties of Ito Hybrids of Yellow Flowers
Barcella Peony (Bartzella) - R. Anderson, 1986, USA. (Lact. - Terry, white x LH).
Terry shape. Diameter 15-20 see. Flower saturated lemon-yellow color with red flashes in the center. Decorative bush. The smell is pleasant. Average. Gold Medal of the American Society of Pionovods 2006
Peony "Border Charm" (Border charm) - D. Holingsworth, 1984, USA. (Lact. X LH, grade Alice Harding).
Semi-double shape. Diameter xnumx see
Pay attention to the photo - this Ito-hybrid has a yellow flower, to the outer edges is lighter, in the center there is a large bright red spot:
Height of a bush of 60 see. Large dark green leaves. Medium late.
Peony "Viking Full Moon" (Viking Full Moon) - R. Person, 1989, USA. (Lact. X LH).
The shape is simple, 10 wide overlapping petals. Diameter 15 see. The flower is light greenish yellow, with a spot of red. Perhaps the appearance of lilac stripes. The height of the 85 shrub, see. Stems are strong, erect, the outer stems of the bush are deflected to the sides. The leaves are medium width, dark green. Average. Shrub blooms for a long time due to alternately opening buds.
Peony "Garden Treasure" (Garden treasure) - D. Holingsworth, 1984, USA. (Lact. X LH, grade Alice Harding).
The shape is semi-double, 20-50 petals. The flower is yellow, the color of bright egg yolk, in the center with a spot of red. The height of the 70-80 shrub, see. Stems are firm, deflected to the sides, with leaves touching the ground. Has up to 3 side buds. The leaves are large, shiny, dark green. Medium late. This sort of yellow peonies of Ito-hybrids was awarded the Gold Medal of the American Society of Peonodorists in 1996. Champion of the National Exhibition of Peonies USA 2001 and 2004.
Peak "Dark Aes" (Dark Eyes) - K. Lenning, 1996, USA. (Lact., Grade Mikado x P. delavayi).
The shape of the flower is simple. Dark purple, almost black, with bright yellow stamens.
Peony "Julia Rose" (Julia Rose) - R. Anderson, 1991, USA.
The shape is semi-double. Diameter 18, see Flower pink, with a dark red spot in the center, and later becomes yellow. Average. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Yellow Crown Peony (Yellow crown) - T. Ito, 1974, Japan. (Lact. X LH, grade Alice Harding).
The shape of the flower varies from semi-double to terry. Saturated yellow-lemon, with a slight red spot in the center. 17 diameter, see the height of the bush of this variety of yellow Ito-peonies 60, see Shrub wide semi-sprawling. Medium late.
Iellow Haven Peony (Yellow heaven) - T. Ito, 1974, Japan. (Lact. X LH, grade Alice Harding).
Form semi-double - terry, with 5-7 rows of petals. Diameter 17 see. The flower is a bright yellow-lemon, with a contrasting red spot in the center. The height of the bush 60, see. The bush is wide, semi-sprawling. Medium late.
Iellow Emperor Peony (Yellow emperor) - T. Ito, 1974, Japan. (Lact. X LH, grade Alice Harding).
Form semi-double - terry, with a high center. Diameter 17 see. The flower is bright yellow, with a slight red spot in the center. The height of the bush 70, see. The bush is wide, semi-sprawling. Medium late.
Peony "Canary Diamond" (Canary brilliants) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Variety Martha W x LH).
Flower shape semi-double - terry. Some of the petals remain light yellow, others become flashing yellow. The height of the 70 shrub, see. The stalks of this peony variety are Ito-hybrids strong. Dark green foliage. Average.
Peony "Kellys Memory" (Callie's memory) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Variety Martha W x LH).
The shape is semi-double. See 20 diameter. Creamy-yellow flower, with a mahogany shade in the center, and a salmon-colored edge of the petals. 75 bush height, see Medium.
Pepper "Kopper Ketle" (Kopper kettle) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Grade Martha W x LH, grade Golden Era).
The shape is semi-double-double. The combination of red, yellow and orange colors gives the flower a copper tint. Height of a bush of 70 see. Leaves are dark green. The bush is attractive. Average. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Peony "Lollipop" (Lollipop) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact. X LH).
The shape is semi-double-double. Diameter 17, see Flower yellow with frequent red stripes (strips).
Pay attention to the photo - this peony Ito-hybrid sometimes appears purple flowers:
72 bush height, see Medium. Abundant flowering.
Peony "Lemon Dream" (Lemon dream) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Grade Martha W x LH, grade Golden Era).
The form is simple - semi-double. The flower is light yellow, sometimes flowers appear half yellow, half purple. Often there are purple stripes (strips). 80 bush height, see Medium.
Peony "Morning Laylek" (Morning lilac) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Grade Martha W x LH, grade Golden Era).
Peony "Old Rose Dandy" (Old rose dandy) - X. Laning, 1993, USA.
The shape is semi-double. Diameter 12, see. Flower yellow-beige, with a crimson blush, later fading. The height of the bush 50 cm. Leaves are not large. Average. The smell is pleasant, weak. Blooms profusely.
Peony "Prairie Charm" (Prairie charm) - D. Holingsworth, 1992, USA. (Lact., Grade Miss America x LH, grade Alice Harding).
The shape is semi-double, 20-30 petals. Diameter 16 see. The flower is light greenish yellow, with a red-purple spot. Perhaps the appearance on one bush flowers with lilac half. The height of the bush 65-75, see Stems strong. The leaves are light green. Medium late. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Sequestred Sunshine Peony (Sequestered sunshinh) R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Grade Miss America x LH).
The form is simple - semi-double. Diameter 17, see. Bright yellow, base petals with a pink tinge. Stamens with short filaments and large anthers. Light green pistils, red stigmas. The height of the 80 shrub, see Medium early. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Peony "Sing in the Rhine" (Singing in the rain) - D. Smith, 2002, USA. (Lact., Variety Martha W x LH, Golden Era).
The shape is semi-double. Diameter 15 cm. Before opening the buds are pink. Immediately after disclosure, the petals are light orange, later saturated yellow. Dark pink stripes on some petals are possible. Yellow stamens and greenish pistils with yellow stigmas. This is one of the best varieties of Ito-peonies. The height of the bush 100 cm. Stems strong, lateral buds. Abundantly blooming. The leaves are dark green. Average. The smell is pleasant.
Peony "Sonoma Eprikot" (Sonoma apricot) - I. Tolomeo, 1999, USA. (Lact. X LH, variety Golden Era).
The shape is simple with 16 smooth petals. Apricot flower, later turning yellow, in the center of a bright red heart.
The form is simple - terry. The flower is yellow with a soft red spot. Flowers hiding in the leaves. Height 50, see Stems strong. Average.
Peony "Hillary" (The documentary Hillary) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Hybrid 2-th generation: Bartzella x St. pollination P. suffr.).
The shape is semi-double. For diameter 16, see Mixture of red and yellow, backlighting from internal red petals. Later, the outer petals brighten, the backlight is preserved. The color varies depending on the weather conditions of the summer: from reddish to yellow-brown. The height of the bush 65, see. Early. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Here are photos of Ito-pion varieties, which are listed on this page:
Peonies Ito hybrids of other colors: photos, names and descriptions
Peony "Cora Louise" (Cora louise) - R. Anderson, 1986, USA.
Form semi-double - terry. Diameter 16 cm, flat flower. White, with a purple tint and a lavender spot in the center. 60 bush height, see
The leaves are dark green. Average. The smell is pleasant.
Peony "Lafayette Squadron" (Lafayette Escadrille) - R. Person, 1989, USA. (Lact. X LH, grade Thuderbolt)
The shape is simple, 10 petals. Diameter xnumx see
As seen in the photo, this variety of Ito hybrids has black and red flowers:
The height of the 75 shrub, see. Foliage is dense, young leaves are dark red, then turn dark green.
Peony "Impossible Dream" (Impossible dream) - D. Smith, 2004, USA. (Reverse: LH, variety Stollen Heaven x Lact., Grade Martha W).
Form semi-double - terry, 45-50 petals. The flower is a bright pink-lilac, with bright edges, then brightens outside. Diameter 22-25 cm. Height 85-90 cm. Stems erect, red. Petals are dark green. Early. The smell is pleasant, weak.
The form is simple - semi-double. Diameter 16 see. The flower is lilac, with spreading dark purple and white stripes. Height of a bush of 70 see. Leaves dark green. Early.
Peony "Norvigien Blush" (Norwegian Blush) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA.
Form semi-double - terry. Diameter 17 see. The flower is pink-white, with a dark pink spot in the center. The height of the bush 85, see. Leaves dense, dark green. Average. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Peony "Pastel Splendor" (Pastel splendor) - R. Anderson, 1996, USA. (Lact., Variety Martha W x LH).
The form is simple, a flower two-row. See 16 diameter. Pale lilac, sometimes cream or pink with a dark purple spot in the center. Ring of thin stamens. The height of the bush 75, see. Widely growing. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Peony "Reverse Magic" (Reverse magik) - D. Smith, 2002, USA. Reverse: (LH, grade Age Gold x Lact., Grade Martha W).
Form semi-double - terry. Diameter xnumx see
Look at the photo - this Ito-peony variety has cream flowers with pink flashes, dark red spots:
The height of the bush 75, see Stems strong. Average. The smell is pleasant.
Rose Fantasy Peony (Rose fantasy) - B. Seidl, 1989, USA. (Lact. X P. suffr., Variety Chinese Dragon).
The form is simple. Pink-lilac with silver edges and dark center. The height of the bush 75-90 cm. Stems bend. Average.
Scarlet Heven Peony (Scarlet heaven) - R. Anderson, 1999, USA. (Lact., Grade Martha W x LH, grade Thunderbolt).
The form is simple. The flower is bright red. In the center is a ring of short stamens. Pistils with red stigmas. Height 70 cm. Leaves are dark green. Average. The smell is pleasant, weak.
Peony "White Emperor" (White emperor) - B. Seidl, 1989, USA.
Mutation from the Yellow Emperor variety. The shape is semi-double. The flower is white, with light purple flashes in the center. The height of the bush 75, see. Stalks are strong. Medium late.
Peony "Fest Arrival" (First Arrival) - R. Anderson, 1986, USA. (Lact., Variety Martha W x LH).
The shape is semi-double. See 12 diameter. Flower pink-lilac, with a purple-red center, then brightens. 60 bush height, see Medium.
Next, you will learn how to plant Ito-peonies and how to care for them.
How to plant peonies Ito hybrids in spring and autumn
The accumulated experience in the care of Ito-peonies suggests that our growers can successfully grow Ito-hybrids. However, Ito is a complex hybrids obtained from species pions from different climatic zones: from the steppes of our Transbaikalia to the highland meadows of Tibet, therefore some of the varieties may require an individual approach. The varieties described above are fairly resistant to the cold weather of the Moscow region. Have suffered many winters with frost, including the anomalous winter of 2002-2003, heat and drought of 2010-2011. without loss. Shelter for the winter is optional, although sometimes you can cover (with a layer of oak leaves or spruce leaves) some new delenki, especially during late planting.
Before planting Ito-peonies, you need to choose the right area. Requirements for the landing site coincide with the requirements for herbaceous pions. But when determining the size of the pit, it should be borne in mind that many Ito varieties develop their underground part more to the sides than to the depth. For example, the dimensions of the pit for long-term cultivation should be 100X100X60 cm, and for the content in the collection 75X75X45 cm. From my experience I’ll add that Ito responds well to shading at noontime.
Ito-hybrids are best planted where previously grew garden crops or was virgin. Avoid places former landings of peonies or large trees and shrubs. The groundwater level must be below the surface by at least 100 cm.
In order to plant Itopions in the spring or autumn, as required by the proper farming practices, the soil must be neutral or slightly alkaline in acidity. In central Russia, it is necessary to maintain the level of acidity pH = 6,5-7,5, introducing periodically deoxidizing additives to the soil around the landings (bone meal, dolomite powder or limestone powder).
The landing times are the same as for other peonies: preferably in the fall, starting from the end of August to the beginning of October (in the middle lane). When planting peonies in Ito hybrids in the spring, strive to do this as early as possible, until mid-May. It is recommended to place the division at an angle to the surface so that all renewal buds on it are located at a depth of 3-5, see.
In general, peony care Ito-hybrids after planting is similar to caring for grassy peonies. Most Ito bushes do not need support (holds flowers). Pruning stems when caring for Ito-peonies after planting do not. The branches should be completely cut off after severe frosts, much later than those of grassy peonies: in the Moscow region in the middle of November.
Breeding prospects for Ito hybrids pions
The spread of Ito hybrids in gardens is still hampered by high prices for planting material. But as these peonies multiply, prices will most likely decline. Already there is information about the successful results of accelerated reproduction in vitro in Germany and vaccines in Italy.
What can be expected from the breeding work on the reproduction of Ito-pions in the future? It is quite possible to assume that attempts will be undertaken in two directions: the creation of forms of Ito-hybrids, close to grassy and to tree-like peonies.
The first direction in the future will enrich the range of grassy varieties: yellow, orange, lilac, purple, greenish colors, with contrasting spots in the center. And it will help to create new forms of bushes that keep flowers in weight.
The second direction of selection will allow you to get varieties of tree peonies with all their excellent qualities, to which increased cold resistance, reproduction ability by dividing rhizome and color and form of grassy peonies will be added.
In addition, breeders can try to bring remontant sorts of peonies, re-blooming in the second half of summer.