Before you grow clematis on the plot, you have to get the necessary theoretical training.
We need to learn how to prepare the planting pit and soil substrate, how to to plant correctly Treelike creepers, which fertilizers and fertilizing plants need, which growth stimulants are best used and how to cover the plants for the winter to protect them from the winter chill.
With the rules of growing flowers clematis, photos and training videos you can find on this page.
How to grow clematis in the country: preparing for planting
Before you grow clematis, you need to properly prepare the planting pit and soil substrate. For planting, prepare a pit of size 60x60x60, see. The bottom of the pit should be loosened and covered with a layer of drainage chips, for example, broken bricks, to a height of 5-10, cm, above it should be prepared using a prepared soil substrate.
It is advisable to prepare it on the basis of the "parent" soil, that is, characteristic of this area.
Depending on the structure and composition of the soil for planting and subsequent care for clematis, it can be improved: on heavy soils to make coarse sand and deoxidized peat, as well as well-smoked, sieved compost, sand, and even fine gravel. Organics structures the soil, and sand and gravel loosen it well.
When preparing for planting on excessively light soils, it is useful to introduce nutritious crushed loam, leaf humus, well-rotted (at least three years) compost or manure, pine-birch coniferous litter, wood ash or bone meal.
In the improved substrate for the cultivation of clematis before planting, you need to add granular full fertilizer with long-lasting microelements at the rate of 100 g per bucket of soil.
The soil substrate can be prepared on the day of planting, but it will be more mature and alive, and, therefore, more useful for the development of a young seedling if it is prepared two weeks before planting.
In each case, the ratio of the parts that make up the planting substrate may be different. It is determined by the initial state of the soil and the task to achieve a measure of friable, nutritious and homogeneous mass.
What kind of soil is needed for growing clematis is shown in these photos:
Growing clematis: photos and rules of planting flowers
To facilitate care when growing clematis, you need to properly plant the plants. To do this, you need to install a sapling in the middle of the pit on the mound of the soil substrate, and the roots are neatly and evenly distributed along its sides.
Fill the hole to the top with prepared soil and water. After moisture absorption, the soil will settle, so you need to fill the substrate to the level of the edges of the pit and form a small roller around the perimeter of the planting pit for ease of watering until the seedling has taken root.
Clematis treatment begins immediately after planting: The surface of the wheel should be mixed with any bulk material in 3-5 cm. It is better to use organic matter for this: sifted compost mixed with coarse sand, crushed bark or fines.
Also suitable coniferous-leaf litter (for example, spruce-birch) or decorative stone chips, small gravel and the like.
To grow clematis in the country as the correct agrotechnics suggest, they are planted with an obligatory root neck penetration not less than 5-7 cm, and better on 10-12 cm.
At the same time, not only are the buds renewed, located at the base of the shoots and on large roots, but also the lower leaf pair (the leaves, if they are, need to be cut).
Such planting prevents freezing of plants in winter, overheating of their root system in summer, contributes to better development and branching of the shoots. Landing is preferably carried out in cool and calm weather, preferably in the afternoon.
This video on growing clematis shows how to plant in a country garden:
How to grow clematis in the garden: fertilizer plants (with video)
During the care when growing clematis you need to make fertilizer and fertilizer. For the full development and abundant flowering of clematis it is absolutely necessary to take care of the plant nutrition in a timely manner. There are several fundamental approaches to this issue.
Some gardeners adhere only to traditional organic farming, when mineral fertilizers are completely excluded. For plant nutrition, manure, mullein, their fresh or fermented solutions, herb extracts (green fertilizer), for example, nettle, lupine, clover, etc., are used.
Others try to simplify the process of caring for flowers and use only ready-made mineral fertilizers for clematis.
How to grow clematis in the garden correctly, what approach to prefer? Any of these methods has both unconditional advantages and obvious disadvantages. Problems begin when flower growers, without thinking about the seasonal processes occurring in plants, thoughtlessly feed their pets from early spring to late autumn.
Overfed plants fry, refuse to bloom or do not have time to prepare for winter and die as a result. Therefore, you need to clearly imagine that the lack of nutrients, and even more so their excess, is harmful to plants.
These photos show fertilizers for the care of clematis used in growing plants in the garden plots:
The most effective for clematis use of organic and mineral fertilizers in the complex. At the same time you need to know that clematis cannot stand fresh organic matter at all - it contributes to the development of fungal diseases and putrefactive processes.
Therefore, it is most expedient in the spring to use well-rotten compost or leaf humus, which is a complete organic fertilizer. Adding even a large amount of completely rotted compost does not have a negative effect on clematis.
Other types of organic matter when growing clematis in the garden is not so safe. Therefore, infusions of mullein or fermented grass should always be diluted in water in a ratio of not less than 1: 15 and should be used only at the start of growth - in spring and early summer, and after abundant watering.
Whatever fertilizer you use in the care of clematis in the garden, it is important to clearly understand that they can only work effectively in combination when a reasonable balance of all macro and micronutrients is achieved.
It is necessary to remember the immutable rule: in the spring, mainly nitrogen fertilizers should be used, at the beginning and middle of summer - a full complex (N + P + K + microelements), and at the end of summer or early autumn (according to the weather) to use potassium phosphate fertilizers (monopotassium phosphate, potassium magnesium, “Buiskoye. Autumn ", etc.).
Effective action is provided by complex mineral fertilizers with a full set of trace elements in combination with salts of humic acids.
Currently, there are well-balanced mineral fertilizers, in which the most important and hardly digestible components are found in chemical compounds accessible to plants, such as Kemira Universal. Garden Garden "or" Kemira Flower ".
Organic and mineral fertilizers produced by the Buysky Chemical Plant (BHZ) give a good effect. In them, along with a balanced content of macro-and microelements, salts of humic acid, which activate the work of soil microflora, improving the digestibility of the nutrient complex and beneficially affecting the overall health of plants.
Soluble fertilizers "Aquaria" and "Mortar", also produced by BHZ, contain a full range of macro-and micronutrient fertilizers in different ratios. These preparations, when growing flowers of clematis, are convenient for liquid dressings, do not contain chlorine and ballast components, and have proven themselves for varieties of different groups.
Long-acting granular mineral fertilizers are best applied under the mulch, slightly buried in the soil, at the rate of 30-100 g per bush, depending on its age, which is called “salt”.
Pellets need to be evenly scattered around the bush, pre-watering clematis, carefully put them in the soil and sprinkle with mulch on top. You can use mineral fertilizers dissolved in water, at the rate of 20-30 g (1 Art. Spoon) per 10 l of water for root feeding.
For non-root dressings, fertilizer solutions are usually halved, for example, 10-15 g (1 / 2 st. Spoons). Liquid dressings are most effective if they are carried out frequently, but in low concentrations of solutions, rather than rarely, but with shock doses.
Non-root dressings are especially effective in relation to weakened plants experiencing stress from adverse environmental factors. Active ingredients, falling on the leaves, begin to be used by the plant immediately after application. They are carried out periodically, with an interval of 7-10 days.
For autumn dressings it is advisable to use complex mineral fertilizers, in which nitrogen is practically absent, and the remaining components are selected taking into account the preparation of plants for the winter, for example, Kemira Osennoye, Buyskoye. Autumn ", etc.
To grow clematis flowers as strong as possible, you can apply for fertilizing simple mineral fertilizers, focusing on the phenological phase of development. That is, in the spring and at the beginning of summer, nitrogen should prevail, in the middle of summer - potassium and phosphorus with trace elements, at the end of summer and autumn - potassium and magnesium.
Ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulfate (ammonium sulphate), and urea are used as nitrogen fertilizers (only at soil temperature not lower than + 10 ° С).
From phosphorus-containing: simple or double superphosphate, monopotassium phosphate (mixed with potassium), bone meal, horn chips; from potassium-containing - potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, monopotassium phosphate (mixed with phosphorus), potassium magnesium (mixed with magnesium).
Trace elements are usually sold in individual packages in powder form or in liquid composite compounds, for example, Uniflor-Micro, which contains a large number of trace elements, and it is convenient to use them.
Regardless, whether ready-made complete mineral fertilizers are used, or they are independently compiled from simple ones, the number of feedings and the sequence of their application will be as follows. In the spring, with the onset of heat, it is necessary to give 1-2 nitrogenous or full feed.
One of the features of making these drugs when growing clematis is the mandatory use of nitrogen fertilizers before flowering. If clematis blooms in May-June, top dressing at this time is not only unnecessary, but also harmful - when they are made, flowering will pass more transiently.
If the bloom of clematis begins in July, then during June you can conduct 1-2 full feedings with an interval of approximately two weeks.
If clematis has two flowering waves: the first - at the beginning of summer and the second - from the second half of summer to autumn, then between full blooms you can give another complete feeding.
After the end of flowering, at the end of August - September, it is useful to conduct the feeding with mono-potassium phosphate, the complex fertilizer “Autumn” or wood ash. For acidification of the soil (for example, under large-flowered hybrids, purple and whole-leaf clematis) it is useful to use colloidal sulfur.
For superficial application under one bush, one package is enough (40 g). Sulfur not only slightly acidifies the soil, but also disinfects it. It is better to use this dressing at the beginning of the season — spring, under mulch, slightly buried in the soil.
As shown in the photo, while caring for clematis, wood ash is always brought in, it has a very beneficial effect on plants:
This is an excellent potash fertilizer, besides rich in trace elements. It is an excellent antiseptic and, when regularly introduced into the soil, gently alkalizes it, which is useful for clematis of the eastern group. It is better to bring ashes before flowering and at the end of summer.
It can simply be scattered around the bush and between shoots. In spring, you can water the soil around clematis bushes, especially on sour and weakly acid loams, with milk of lime at the rate of 100-150 g of hydrated lime or chalk in 10 l of water.
The main rule of any dressings is the following: they should be carried out only on the condition of wet soil, a day or two after watering or heavy rain. In no case can not apply any dressing on dry land and in bright sun.
Details on clematis care are described in this video:
Clematis care when grown in a garden involves the use of stimulants. During stressful and abnormal weather conditions (late spring frosts, heat, strong wind) it is useful to spray the plants on the leaves or add immunomodulatory drugs such as epine, zircon, microcyteitis to the irrigation water.
Moreover, the most pronounced effect of these drugs provide a combined use, for example, epin-extra in combination with zircon, or epin-extra in combination with cytitis. Freshly prepared solution is useful to spray stunted or depressed plants or to water the soil at the base of the bush.
Such treatments can be carried out once at the beginning of the season, and if necessary, re-process weakened plants two or three times, but not more often than once in 10 days.
Another secret of growing clematis is the use of the universal stimulator of ferovite photosynthesis. It is an iron preparation in chelated, easily accessible and well-digestible form.
The use of ferovit accelerates the growth and development of clematis, is a preventive measure against chlorosis, increases the overall resistance to climatic stresses and diseases. The modern Japanese preparation HB-100 has an extremely effective effect on weakened plants.
This highly efficient vitalizer is made from natural raw materials and is an environmentally friendly compound. Its application fully heals clematis, improves their immunity, promotes intensive growth and full bloom.
The treatment of young plants and especially weakened plants with these preparations gives a quick and very good effect.
Agro-technology of clematis cultivation: plant shelter at the cottage
When growing clematis in the country, it is important to know how to cover the plants in a snowless winter.
Infrequently, but there are such weather conditions when severe frosts occur with virtually no snow cover. In this case, you really have to take care of a more serious shelter for clematis, especially those that need to preserve lignified shoots (group II pruning).
In accordance with the correct cultivation of clematis, the soil around the bushes should be covered with a layer of dry leaves (birch, linden, oak), and installed with rails, on which to lay 60 lutrasil in two or three layers or a perforated plastic film, better multilayer with an air gap.
Instead of a skeleton and a covering fabric, a clematis bush coiled up with a dry leaf can be rolled up, covered with an inverted plastic pot or a box (depending on the size of the bush).
In practice, clematis often suffer not from frostbite, but from decay as a result of improperly prepared planting pits, when water stagnates in the root zone, especially spring thawed. A frequent case of vyprevaniya - improper shelter, too warm or installed too early, long before the onset of extreme cold.
And now watch the video “Cultivate Clematis,” which shows all the details of the main agricultural activities: