Distillation of tulips and other flowers is a purposeful complex of agro-events with the aim of achieving flowering in a season that is not typical for these crops. Moreover, the technology of distillation of tulips is used not only by 8 March, but also by the New Year holidays, and by May Day.
After the March forcing, it is possible to plant the bulbs on the bed in the usual terms, and after January growing it is impractical to produce.
The desire to have tulips in earlier periods than they bloom in nature, prompts many lovers to devote their time to forcing. The company is actively developing this technology and small business, since by March 8 tulips are in great demand, “private traders” successfully compete with large domestic and foreign flower companies.
Step-by-step instructions for distilling tulips on various dates are presented in this article.
Distillation of tulips for the New Year: the best varieties and technology
In nature, tulips bloom only after passing through the winter cooling. Low temperature contributes to the formation of physiologically active substances in the bulb, affecting the whole further process of development and flowering.
A necessary condition for the forcing of tulips is also the impact on the bulb lower temperatures during 16-22 weeks, depending on the variety.
For distillation by the New Year, varieties with a short cooling period are suitable - no more than 16 weeks: Abra, Gander, Dix Fayvorod, Corona, Christmas Marvel, Lustig Vitwe, Erikot Beauty and others.
The table below lists the specifications. varieties of tulips for forcing the New Year by 9-degree technology.
Table "The best varieties of tulips for forcing the New Year":
Cooling period, weeks
Plant height, see
Time spent in the greenhouse, days
% of flowering plants
|Abra||Triumph||Mahogany with yellow border||16||35||22||97|
|Gander||Triumph||Bright fuchsin red||14||46||29||95|
|Red with cream border||14||25||21||100|
|Triumph||Claret red with white border||16||40||22||90|
The complexity of the tulip distillation technology for the New Year lies in the fact that by the time cooling begins (15 August) all parts of the flower must have fully formed, including the pistil (the so-called Stage G).
In the middle lane, the completion of this stage is in the middle of August, and in case of cool and rainy weather, it can move aside by the end of the month. To avoid errors, the start of cooling is determined by the completion of stage G with a longitudinal section of the control bulbs and their visual examination under a microscope or binocular magnifier (magnification 30-40 times).
There are two ways to speed up the preparation of the bulbs for cooling: agrotechnical and physic-thermal. In the first method, tulips are grown under the film. Flowers are not cut, and produce decapitation.
The specified agrotechnical method accelerates the process of formation of all the flower organs on the 2-3 week and allows cooling to begin as scheduled without the risk of receiving a bouquet of “blind” buds by the New Year.
In the second method of preparing the bulbs for flowering by the New Year, they are dug out earlier, as soon as the leaves begin to turn yellow, and the covering scales of the young bulb are juicy and white with the appearance of yellow spots.
Before you distill the tulips for the New Year in this way, the bulbs are stored for a week at + 34 ° C. The meaning of this temperature effect is to accelerate the beginning of the formation of the bud of a flower.
Prepared bulbs from August 15 and before planting are stored dry in the lower compartment of the domestic refrigerator. Landing is made no earlier than September 20, when the temperature in the cellar or basement drops to + 9 ° C.
Popular varieties of tulips for forcing to March 8: photos, names and specifications
For distillation, most varieties of Darwinian hybrids are suitable for Martha 8: Hell Rem, Ivory Floradale, Apeldoorn, Apeldoorn Elite, Beat Chif, Vivex, Golden Apeldoorn, Diplomat, London, Oxford, Oxford Elite, Parade, Scarborough, Forgotten Dreams, Eric Hofsju and a number of others.
From the class Triumph also most varieties give good results. Especially easy to drive out: Abra, Abu Hassan, Atraytnes Dele, Barcelona, Gavotte, Guus Papendrecht, Cantor, Kees Nellis, Leo Visser, Lustig Vitwe, WhiteDrim and many others.
From other classes for forcing tulips to 8 March fit: Aladdin, Angelica, Aristocrat, Hamilton, Davenport, Dallas, Carmine Perrot, Liene, Marjolein, Monte Carlo, Picché, Purissima, Stockholm, Fabio, Fensi Frills, Frigit Elegans, Etna and others.
The table below lists the characteristics of the varieties for forcing to March 8 using 9-degree technology.
Table "The best varieties of tulips for forcing to March 8":
Cooling period, weeks
Plant height, see
Time spent in the greenhouse, days
% of flowering plants
|Abra||Triumph||Mahogany with yellow border||17||40||21||95|
|Triumph||Brown-red with golden yellow border||17||50||23||98|
|Carmine with golden border||20||54||21||99|
|Triumph||Red with white border||17||43||23||93|
|Lynwan der Mark||Triumph||Red with|
creamy white border
These photos show the varieties of distillation tulips, the names of which are given in the table:
Effective technology forcing tulips to 8 March (with video)
For the forcing of tulips to 8 March planting bulbs in boxes produce October 1-5. In this case, before transferring the 5-7 boxes of February to the warm room, the bulbs are cooled for 18 weeks, which is quite enough for Darwin hybrids having the specified cooling period, as well as varieties of other classes.
Darwin hybrids with a longer cooling time and late varieties of other classes are exposed to lower temperatures earlier, placing them on September 1-10 in the lower compartment of the domestic refrigerator and planting them within the specified time limits.
It is possible to dispense with a refrigerator for efficient forcing out tulips to 8 March by planting October 1 bulbs and freezing them for several days at a low negative temperature, after which the boxes are removed to a permanent rooting place.
This technique shortens the cooling time on the week 1,5-2. Even on 1,5-2 weeks, you can shorten the cooling time by soaking the bulbs in 0,5% gibberellin solution before planting for 24 hours.
A similar effect is obtained by triple watering of tulip seedlings with gibberellin solution in 0,1% concentration. Watering with gibberellin solution not only accelerates flowering time (shortens the cooling period), but also increases the height of the peduncle by 5-7, see.
The gradual technology of forcing tulips for 8 March is demonstrated in this video:
Which tulips are suitable for forcing to April 1 and May 1
You can get beautiful flowers to other, unusual for these cultures terms.
For forcing to 1 April, the bulbs are not pre-cooled and planted in boxes in mid-October. Also not pre-cooled and bulbs for forcing to 1 May. Landing is made in early November.
Which tulip varieties are suitable for forcing for April 1 and May 1?
For forcing to 1 April use the following varieties: Abra, Hell Rem, Apeldoorn, Apeldoorn Elite, Aristocrat, Burgundy Leys, Vivex, Gordon Cooper, Daydream, Diplomat, Cantor, Keys Nelis, Lin van der Marc, London, Oxford, Oxford Elite, Parade, Fridgit Elegans, Eric Hofs.
Popular varieties of tulips for forcing to 1 May are: Aristocrat, Diplomat, Zombies, London, Negrita, Oxford, Parade, Temple of Beauty.
See photos of tulip varieties for forcing to April 1 and May 1:
How to kick tulips: basic ways
There are two main methods of forcing. The so-called classic, when the bulbs are cooled at a temperature of + 9 ° C and the method that is widely used in Holland, and more recently in other countries, when the bulbs are cooled at a temperature of + 5 ° С.
When forcing tulips using the 5-degree technology, the temperature is maintained with an accuracy of up to 0,5 ° C, which is easily achieved in large flower farms with the necessary equipment.
Among fans, the most common method is forcing by 9-degree technology. With this method, tulips can be planted in boxes, pots or directly into the ground. Planting bulbs produced in early October.
Landing density in 2,5-3 is higher than normal growing tulips in the ground, i.e. 250-300 bulbs on 1 m2. With the onset of frost, the ridge is mulched with peat. From mid-January, a polyethylene film is stretched onto a previously prepared frame, and the greenhouse begins to heat up.
Snow is not removed, and it melts in the process of increasing the temperature. Melt water is a good stimulant for tulip growth.
A notable feature of this method is the freezing of the bulbs at temperatures close to zero or even below 0 ° C, and such freezing does not have a negative effect on the forcing process, but on the contrary, has a beneficial effect and tulips together bloom.
With all the simplicity, this method can hardly be considered rational, since It requires a lot of heat. It is acceptable in regions with a mild climate.
For an amateur grower, of course, the method of forcing in boxes is more accessible and acceptable, since in such a case it is easier to choose a room for rooting and for later forcing. For rooting, you can use the basement, cellar or any other room.
You can drive out in a room, a warm barn, a warmed attic or a garage, and even in a cellar with artificial light. With sufficient illumination and duration, the color saturation of the flower does not decrease, and in the variety Erik Hofsju even increases.
Composition of soil for forcing tulips on 5- and 9-degree technology
Before you kick out the tulips, you need to prepare the right ground. As a substrate, you can use clean river sand, peat, sawdust, earth, perlite, but each of them has its drawbacks.
Sawdust does not hold water well and requires frequent watering during rooting and subsequent cooling. In addition, sawdust, like peat, must necessarily lime. The land from the site is compacted during irrigation.
The most optimal is the following soil composition for distillation of tulips: 2 part of sod or garden land + 1 part of river sand + 1 part of completely decomposed manure or compost. The substrate is mixed and wood ash is added to it at the rate of an 1 cup on a standard dispenser box.
A mandatory requirement for any substrate for the proper forcing of tulips is its breathability and sterility. You can not take the land from greenhouses, compost heaps, from the garden, especially where the tulips grew. When the infected substrate does not help any pickling bulbs, and much of the color will be destroyed.
Preparation of high-grade substrate and application dressing in the process of forcing, undoubtedly, increases the percentage of flowering plants and enhances the decorative qualities of flowers. However, it should be remembered that the availability of valuable planting material is still crucial for successful forcing.
As a planting material, bulbs of “extra” or 1 distribution are used weighing at least 30g for varieties of class Darwin hybrids and at least 25g for varieties of other classes.
You can only use individual varieties of 2 bulbs, and 3 bulbs cannot be used at all. Decorative qualities of flowers and flowering productivity are sharply reduced.
Before planting the bulbs should be clear of covering scales for two reasons:
- At first, roots penetrate the substrate more easily, and the bulb roots faster, while with dense covering scales, they begin to grow along the bulb, pushing it up, which leads to deterioration of the decorative qualities of the flower.
- Secondly, removal of scales allows you to identify subtle signs of disease. Such bulbs should be pickled, after which they are planted on the forcing. Planting material with strong signs of damage is rejected.
Step-by-step instruction on forcing tulips: bulb storage mode
In accordance with the step-by-step instructions, the cycle of work on forcing tulips is divided into three stages:
- Storage of bulbs after digging and before cooling.
- Rooting (at + 9 ° C)
- Distillation (growing in a heated room).
The following is a phased description of tulip forcing.
The mode of storage of bulbs intended for distillation is somewhat different from the mode of storage of planting material intended for planting directly into open ground. This is due to the need for preliminary preparation of the bulbs.
Significant differences exist only in bulbs intended for early and late forcing. The bulbs selected for forcing to the beginning of March, the storage mode does not undergo significant changes.
After digging, produced in normal terms, the bulbs are stored at 21-23 ° С for a month (July), then the August impulse is maintained at 20 ° С, and in September it drops to 17 ° С.
Small fluctuations in temperature have no significant effect. The indicated storage temperatures approximate the average natural temperatures, i.e. planting material is allowed to be stored in an unheated room without special devices to maintain and regulate a given mode.
However, with significant fluctuations in temperature product quality will decline.
If the distillation is carried out with pre-cooling, the storage temperature from the beginning of September is reduced to + 9 ° C, placing the bulbs in the lower compartment of the refrigerator. There they are located until the beginning of October, after which both cooled and uncooled bulbs are planted in boxes with the substrate. Further, the technology of distillation in both cases has no differences.
How to distill tulips: a description of planting in boxes and rooting
Boxes for the forcing of tulips is convenient to use wooden or plastic. Size can be any. Depth is at least 10; see, a little better is better (12-14 cm.). An essential requirement for wooden boxes is the presence of slots of size 4-5mm.
These gaps are needed both to drain excess water and to improve aeration (air access) of the root system. When the distance between the 1-2mm planks they swell, the drainage deteriorates dramatically and due to prolonged waterlogging during flowering, there is a wilting of peduncles (topping).
The support stands of the boxes in height must be at least 20cm. For the period of cooling and rooting, the boxes are placed in piles, and high support posts protect the shoots from damage.
To obtain high-quality cutting when applying the above substrates, it is necessary to have ideally prepared planting material grown in open ground on neutral soils with sufficient saturation with their nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements.
With a lack of calcium in the soil, the plants can lay down and are more susceptible to topping when distilled. Removal of the flower head is necessary. Bulb analysis should be determined by the smallest diameter.
Often, growers-amateur bulb analysis is determined by the largest diameter. In this case, the preparation of a high-grade substrate is of great importance for all subsequent forcing.
As shown by studies conducted in the USSR, USA, Japan, England, Poland, tulip bulbs already in the process of rooting, even before the emergence of sprouts, they begin to intensively absorb nutrients from the substrate and above all nitrogen.
The intensity of nitrogen absorption in the rooting period is even higher than during the growing season. With a lack of nitrogen in the uterine bulb and the impossibility of obtaining it in the required quantity during the rooting and growing season, the peduncles bend and lie.
Before planting tulips for distillation, the prepared mixture is poured into boxes with a layer of 5cm, slightly compacted and the bulbs are laid out at a distance 0,5cm from each other. Then the bulbs are covered with substrate or clean sand to the edge of the box. When the planting is complete, the substrate is poured abundantly with 0,2% calcium nitrate solution (20g per 10 liters of water).
After watering, the substrate should be filled and the exposed tops of the bulbs closed. A small layer of substrate over the bulbs is absolutely necessary, because at shallow planting, bulging of the bulbs during rooting is inevitable, and with proper planting this can be avoided.
After watering, the boxes are transferred to the basement or cellar and placed in piles. Until mid-December, weekly watering and additional moisture to the walls and the floor are mandatory. At a temperature of + 1 ... + 9 ° C, the bulbs take root and white roots appear through the gaps at the bottom of the boxes.
In the cooling process, the temperature gradually decreases to + 2 ... + 4 ° С (at the end of December) and is maintained at this level until the boxes are transferred to a warm room.
Even a slight increase in temperature (at 3-4 ° C) leads to a deterioration in the decorative qualities of the flowers: they become smaller, the peduncle is shorter (the flower seems to be hidden in the leaves), the greenhouse period becomes longer, the tips of the petals become discolored.
The longer or longer the increase, the greater the negative impact is observed in the greenhouse period. Similar defects are observed with an insufficient cooling period.
By the time the boxes are transferred to a warm room, the tulip sprouts reach 5-8. At the final stage, maintaining the correct temperature and light modes, as well as the mandatory watering of 0,2% calcium nitrate solution in the initial period of active growing season (7-10 days after the boxes are transferred to a heated room)
Distillation of tulips: temperature and watering
When transferring boxes to a warm room, the temperature should be within 12 ° С, the lighting will not turn on. Liquid fertilization is made with full mineral fertilizer with microelements and addition of calcium nitrate, especially if the quality of the material used is insufficient.
A second liquid fertilizer of the same composition is made in 7-10 days. The use of dressings is necessary if the flowers are cut above the bottom sheet in order to get bulbs and large children for subsequent growing in the ground. If the shoots are small (3-4cm), then they are shaded with a dark material, without touching the shoots.
Daily on 1-1,5 hours of shadowing are removed, and the room is aired. For 2-3 of the day, sprouts grow to 6-8 cm and the shading is removed. After 3 of the day after the transfer of the boxes, the temperature is increased to 18 ° С during the day and 14-15 ° С at night, full lighting is given.
Assume a short-term rise in temperature to 20 °. A further increase accelerates the flowering of tulips, but can lead to wilting of peduncles and the appearance of “blind” buds.
In the domestic literature there are indications that tulips are not demanding of coverage. This is true only in the case when the distillation is carried out in a glass greenhouse. If the distillation is carried out indoors (house, basement, attic, garage, etc.), then the lighting is required and not less than 80 watts per square meter when using fluorescent lamps.
The use of these lamps for fans is preferable, because they consume less energy and provide more uniform lighting. The lighting duration is gradually adjusted to 15-17 hours per day. With sufficient brightness, the leaves acquire a rich green or bluish-green color, and the peduncles do not bend or lay down.
When the buds begin to stain, the temperature should be lowered to 14-15 ° C. At the same time, the flowering period increases, the flower becomes large, and the flowering stem is strong and high. By lowering the temperature during the dyeing period of the buds or even somewhat earlier, it is possible to bring the plants to bloom by the target date.
Distillation at a temperature of 15-16 ° C slightly postpones the flowering period (a decrease in temperature by 1 ° C lengthens the greenhouse period by 1-1,5 of the day), but there are practically no cases of drooping peduncles.
Watering tulips during distillation is produced daily with cold water (8-12 ° C), better thawed, because it contains the minimum amount of salts and acids. Mandatory use when watering calcium nitrate contributes to the formation of durable peduncles, highly decorative flowers and increases flowering productivity.
Cutting and storing tulips after distillation (with photo and video)
The flowers are cut at the base of the stem in the morning before watering or in the evening and wrapped in paper so that when they are immersed in water, it does not get wet. In cold water, cut flowers are kept for a day at + 8 ° C. It is even better to use 0,1% calcium nitrate solution. Then the stems gain strength, and cut flowers last longer.
These photos demonstrate the stages of forcing tulips:
However, it may happen that the flowers bloom earlier than planned. In this case, there are several ways to save them. As soon as the bud is colored, but the flower does not open, they are cut. Cut flowers are placed in water with snow and stored in the dark at + 2 ° C. Flowers with this method can be stored 1,5-2 week.
Detailed instructions for forcing tulips presented in this video:
With a dry storage method, cut flowers, pre-wrapped in paper and placed in a refrigerator at + 2 ... + 3 ° С, can last for up to two weeks. Before implementation, update the cut on 1cm, and put flowers in the water.
After 30 minutes, the turgor of the flower and the whole plant is restored. It is unacceptable to keep flowers in the refrigerator with vegetables and fruits. They produce ethylene, which accelerates the aging of flowers.
In the final section of the article you will learn what to do with tulip bulbs after forcing.
Planting tulip bulbs after forcing rearing
Tulip bulbs remaining after the forcing can be grown. If the cut was made at the base of the flowering stem, then watering is stopped, and after 3 weeks the bulbs are dug out of the substrate. During this period, all the nutrients of the parent bulb will be consumed, and the replacement bulb will be fully formed.
If the cut was left one leaf, which is possible when forcing tall varieties of class Darwin hybrids (Ivory Floradale, Vivex, Forgotten Dreams, Eric Hofsju), then watering is continued until the leaves turn yellow.
The duration of the lighting is left at the maximum level. In this case, for individual varieties, you can get replacement paring bulbs and a rather large baby.
Dug onions dried 2 week at 24 ° C, then stored for a month at a temperature of 17-20 ° C and further until planting at 14-15 ° C.
In this mode of storage, after forcing, the tulip bulbs do not dry out and do not move prematurely into growth despite the fact that all the stages of the formation of the organs of the future flower in such bulbs are completed on 2-2,5 a month earlier than in the bulbs grown in the soil.
The moisture content during storage of tulip bulbs after forcing is maintained within 60-70% with adequate ventilation.
After forcing, the bulbs are planted in the ground at the usual time, i.e. in mid-September. Care is similar to the care of bulbs grown in the soil. True, it is blooming on the first day 7-10 days earlier.
Growing bulbs January forcing is impractical. They do not form 1-2 replacement bulbs and very little 3 analysis and large children.
Good results are obtained by growing the bulbs of the March forcing the following varieties: Abu Hassan, Ad Rem, Ivory Florodale, Hamilton, Guus Papendrecht, Davenport, Leo Visser, London, Oxford, Oxford Elite, Parade, Eric Hofs and some others.
The following year, about 80% of the bulbs of the 3-th analysis reach the value of the 1-th analysis, and some even “extra” and can be used again for forcing.