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Tulip plant: botanical characteristics and structure

With a description of the appearance of the tulip is familiar to novice florist, and about the features of its structure is known only to professionals or true fans of their work. But for the cultivation of these bulbous plants, it is important to have at least a basic understanding of the frequency of development of the bulbs and how the leaf buds are laid. After reading the brief flower characteristic tulip, you can create decent conditions for these plants in the garden.

Tulip - herbaceous bulbous plant with a pronounced summer period of rest, belongs to the family Lilein. In nature, tulip grows in countries with a temperate climate.

Of the more than 140 species of wild tulips in the USSR, 83 species grew, of which 63 species are found only in the mountainous regions of Central Asia, including Kauffman, Foster and Greig tulips. The listed wild tulips served as the basis for creating three classes of tulips of the same name.

This page presents the botanical characteristics and description of the tulip, as well as the structure of this plant.

Tulip Bulb Structure

The bulb of a tulip consists of a bottom (a very shortened stem) and storing fleshy scales in the amount from 1 to 6. The bulb is covered with a covering scale of light brown or dark brown color depending on the variety, sometimes with a reddish tinge.

Covering scales protects the bulb from mechanical damage and adverse environmental conditions. The structure of a tulip plant is such that the buds of the daughter bulbs are laid in the axils of the scales of the mother bulb.

The foundation goes from the edge to the center, but the largest kidney is located in the center, in the sinus of the inner storage scales. From it, a replacement bulb is then formed.

One of the features of the structure of the maternal tulip bulb is that in the fall, at the time of planting, it has the buds of the daughter bulbs that accumulate and cover the scales in all the axils, and since February of next year the next generation is laid inside the daughter bulbs (the so-called granddaughters).

Tulip Bulb Generations

Speaking about the structure and characteristics of a tulip, it is important to note that at a certain period of life (February-May) the tulip bulb has 3 generations:

  • 1 generation - maternal bulb
  • 2 generation - daughter bulbs
  • 3 generation - the rudiments of daughter bulbs (granddaughters) inside the daughter bulbs of the 2 generation

By the time of digging, the mother bulb dies, and the daughter bulbs (2 generation) are separated. The central daughter bulb turns into the mother (replacing), and the rest into smaller bulbs (babe). The rudiments of daughter bulbs — granddaughters (3 generation) are transformed into daughter bulbs, and when the bulbs are planted, the cycle repeats.

Thus, the life expectancy of the bulb from its inception is about 2,5 of the year, of which 1,5 of the year it exists inside the mother bulb, evolving from the rudiment (granddaughter) to the replacement bulb and the last year exists independently as the mother bulb.

Despite the fact that the aerial part and the root system of the tulip are updated annually, the bulb with the germs of all organs lives on 2,5, so that the tulip is a perennial plant. But among wild tulip bulbs, the characteristics are more resistant - in nature they live up to 50 years.

On the edge of the bottom there is a root roller, from which several dozen smooth, unbranched roots develop. Even under favorable conditions, their length does not exceed 50 cm.

In non-flowering (juvenile) bulbs, the replacement bulb is formed on the stolon and buried, although the bottom of the parent bulb with the root system is at the planting level. The formation of stolons is also observed in wild-growing species, which mainly reproduce by seed.

Seeds of wild tulips fall to the ground and the onion being formed, being shallow from the surface, is exposed to adverse climatic influences.

In order to weaken them, the onion deepens annually (during 5-7 years) and, only after reaching the flowering period, the formation of stolons and the further deepening of the replacement bulb stops. In blooming tulips, the replacement bulb and children are usually located at the planting level.

Further you can familiarize with a photo and the description of leaves and flowers of a tulip.

Description of leaves and flower tulip

The leaves are smooth on the edge or wavy, with a slight waxy coating. Coloring from bright green to gray. Some wild tulips (for example, Greig) and their garden forms on the upper side of the leaves have purple-brown spots and stripes, which makes them particularly attractive.

In an adult plant, the 2-4 leaf is most often the leaf, with the bottom leaf being the largest. The only leaf is only in young juvenile bulbs (before the first flowering).

Leaf buds are laid in the replacement bulb during the growing season. Their growth begins in the autumn after planting the bulbs in the ground and ends in the spring of next year.

Of course, a tulip flower deserves a special description: this plant usually has one, in some species and their varieties the number of flowers on the peduncle reaches 5 and more.

A tulip flower (perianth) usually consists of 6 leaflets arranged in two circles. The color is the most diverse, from white to black. The stamens (with anthers) are 6 and they are also arranged in two circles. Pestle with three-blade stigma and three-cephalic ovary.

Flower shape is the most diverse: goblet, lily, cup-shaped, stellate, oval, peony.

Here you can see photos showing the structure of the tulip:

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