Before you grow tulips from bulbs in the country, a lot of preparatory work is needed. It is necessary to make the right soil mixture, neutralize the acidity of the earth, add mineral fertilizers and rotted organic matter to the soil. In the process of caring for tulips in the open field one should not forget about feeding, loosening, irrigation and decapitation.
Each gardener, guided by his taste, understanding of beauty and tasks, selects varietal range. Bulbs for planting and growing tulips should be pure-grade and not infected with viral and fungal diseases.
To obtain cut flowers, varieties are selected from groups of medium and late-flowering tulips. They will delight florist and garden and at home.
For registration of beds, paths and places of rest suitable varieties of early flowering groups. The varieties of Kaufman, Foster and Greig classes are distinguished by their special brightness and saturation of colors.
How to grow tulips in the open field is described in detail in this article.
How to grow tulips from bulbs in the country: preparing the site in the garden
To grow tulips on the site as the right technology suggests, you need to prepare the soil and think over the scheme of the floristic composition according to which you will plant the flowers.
For the cultivation of tulips, the most suitable soils are sandy loams and loams with a significant domestic layer. The cultivated layer must be at least 40-50, see. In the suburbs, as a rule, there is no such natural fertile layer of such depth, but it can be created by replacing the clayey layer with fertile soil.
The indicated depth of the fertile layer for growing tulips in the open field is necessary due to the fact that large tulip bulbs are planted to a depth of 15-18 (see extra, 1 analysis).
Tulip roots penetrate to 20 depth from the bottom of the bulb, and from the soil surface to 35-38 see. In addition, the fertile soil layer below the penetration of the root system is necessary for better nutrition, moisture and air exchange.
Before growing tulips in the country, the plot should be leveled. Do not forget that a place for planting bulbs should be sunny and protected from the cold northern winds. The presence of cavities is unacceptable. Water stagnates in them, which leads to drenching and freezing of the bulbs, they often get sick and degenerate.
The best predecessors of these plants are perennial grasses, legumes, tilled crops and vegetables.
It is impossible to plant and care for tulips after bulb flowers (daffodils, lilies, hyacinths, hazel grouses), as well as after tomatoes and asters, since they have common diseases and pests that accumulate in the soil and greatly increase the likelihood of infection.
An important condition for growing tulips is the presence of neutral or weakly alkaline soils. Sour soils are not suitable. Soil acidity is judged by pH, determined by laboratory. If the soil is neutral, then pH = 7, if alkaline, then pH> 7, and on acidic soils, pH <7.
Soil acidity can be determined by plants growing on the site. Horse sorrel grows on acidic soils, large plantain, tricolor violet, horsetail.
Alkaline soils prefer dry white, bindweed, mustard field.
Wheat grass, cuff, chamomile, odorless, white clover, coltsfoot indicate neutral and slightly alkaline soils.
Before growing tulips in the garden, the acidity of the soil must be neutralized. To do this, use hydrated lime, dolomite flour or chalk, which include calcium, and the deficit of which is acutely felt on acidic soils.
Magnesium is also present in the dolomite flour along with calcium. The simultaneous introduction of these two elements favorably affects the further development of plants. Wood ash and crushed egg shells are also used to reduce acidity.
Work on the neutralization of acidic soil is convenient to combine with the preparation of the soil, which is carried out 1-1,5 a month before planting. The soil is dug up to a depth of at least 30 cm, carefully select the rhizomes of weeds and pests: wireworms, bear cubs, slugs and larvae of the May beetle.
Organic and mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil for growing tulips from bulbs in the following quantities in terms of 1 м2: rotted manure or compost - 2 buckets, granulated chicken droppings - 200 g, wood ash - 200 g, dolomite flour or chalk - 500 g, double superphosphate - 50 g, potassium nitrate or potassium sulfate - 30 g.
Nitrogen fertilizers (carbamide or ammonium nitrate) in the amount of 25 g are applied at the time of planting.
If mineral fertilizers are applied only in pre-sowing tillage, it should be complete and the dose of application should not exceed 100 g / m2.
According to the correct technology of growing tulips, fresh or insufficiently rotted cow dung should not be added to plants of the Liliaceae family. When making cow dung for digging, it turns out to be at a depth of 15-20 cm and its decomposition takes place with a lack of oxygen, i.e. in anaerobic conditions.
A sufficient amount of oxygen for the complete decomposition of manure is only in the soil layer at a depth of 6-8, see. With a lack of oxygen and with a decrease in soil temperature in winter, the decomposition of manure slows down many times, and microorganisms begin to multiply rapidly, causing tulip diseases.
In addition, the decomposition of cow manure is accompanied by the formation of organic acids, which drastically weakens the resistance of plants to disease, and the roots of tulips, growing in the autumn, just appear in the focus of increased reproduction of pathogenic fungi and microbes, which inevitably leads to an outbreak of a whole complex of fungal diseases, the death of a significant number of bulbs and the incidence of remaining.
Replacing the planting material is inevitable.
Planting and caring for tulips in the open field of the country garden (with photo)
Before growing tulips, bulbs must be carefully inspected before planting and discarded with signs of disease.
For disinfecting the surface from spores of various pathogenic fungi, planting material is etched for 30 minutes in an 0,5% solution of manganese-acid potassium or in an 0,5% solution of captan, or in an 0,5% solution of TMTD.
The best time for planting tulips in the Moscow region is the second half of September, the time of the “Indian summer”, when warm sunny days alternate on cool nights and the soil temperature drops rapidly.
The most optimal is the temperature of the soil 7-10 ° С at a depth of 10-12, see. The bulbs of tulips before the onset of frost form a good root system. At higher, as well as at a lower soil temperature, the bulbs do not have time to root well, the process of overwintering and subsequent spring development worsens.
To root the onions, a period of 30-40 days from the moment of planting to the onset of frost is necessary.
Before planting, for simplicity, further care of tulips in open ground make ridges 1-1,2 wide meters, the length of which is determined in accordance with the conceived floristic composition.
On ridges make transverse or longitudinal grooves. The bulbs gently press into the bottom of the furrow, then the ground level. It is impossible to press on the bulb with force when planting, because rudiments of the root part of the bottom are damaged. Damaged tulip roots are not able to recover.
The depth of planting varies depending on the size of the bulb. Extra bulbs are planted to a depth of 15-18, see. On light soils - deeper, on heavy soils - smaller. The depth of planting, depending on the size of the bulb, is given in the table compiled by summarizing long-term observations.
Table "The depth of planting tulip bulbs":
Depth of landing, in cm
Category I baby (countable)
Category II babe (by weight)
As shown in the photo, when growing tulips during planting, the general rule should be followed - the layer of earth above the bulb should be two of its height:
Deep planting contributes to the development of a replacement bulb of a large size, less stolons are formed, but the intensity of vegetative reproduction decreases. The productivity of vegetative propagation is determined by indicators of biological and economic multiplication factors.
Biological reproduction rate (BKR) - is the ratio of the total number of dug bulbs and children to the number of planted. The economic multiplication factor (HCR) is the ratio of the number of dug bulbs (extra, I, II, and III analysis) to the number of planted ones.
The bulbs are planted on the ridges in rows. The distances between the rows are 20 cm. In a row, the distance between the extra bulbs and the I-th parsing is 9-10 cm. Planted up to one square meter of 50 large bulbs of the class Darwin hybrids.
Small bulbs of this class and bulbs of other classes are planted thicker. Planting density can be 80-100 pieces per square meter. For the cultivation of tulips in the dacha garden, the bulbs are planted on parses, which allows you to more clearly identify and remove diseased plants directly on the seedlings and during their growing season.
It should be planted on low ridges, because in cold winters, the edge of the ridge freezes over, the temperature can drop to -1, -2 ° С (the bulb is frozen for a long time, the cooling period is significantly reduced) and then the last peduncle is lower than the rest on 5-8, although the bulb is healthy .
Weighing babe is better to plant two-line rows with the distance between the lines 5, see and between the rows of 15, see. It is also possible to plant the counting child, except for large-leaved varieties of Darwin hybrids.
Each variety should be planted on a separate ridge. However, amateur flower growers often place several varieties on the same ridge.
In this case, planting garlic, whose germination rate is close to 100%, and the doses of dressings practically coincide with the doses, provide invaluable help for separating one variety from another and separating bulbs. dressing tulips, which does not entail the accumulation of nitrates in garlic.
The separation of a variety from a variety is obligatory. The separation of the analyzes is desirable, since it will help with digging sort the bulbs that did not give growth (or with a slight increase).
Since tulips need to be grown deliberately, in the process of planting in a workbook or a special journal a plan of sowing is made, indicating the varieties and parsing of the bulbs, as well as the numbering of the ridges.
With the onset of light frost and soil freezing to a depth of 1-2, see that in the conditions of the Moscow region correspond to the end of October - beginning of November, the ridges should be mulched with a peat layer of 3-4, see.
Winter shelter not only prevents soil cracking and damage to the tulip root system, but also contributes to the development of stronger peduncles, large flowers and increases the multiplication factor (the output of the bulbs increases by 40-50%).
In the spring peat from the ridges is not removed, because it promotes more rapid thawing of the soil, better retains soil moisture and prevents the development of weeds.
See a photo of how the planting and subsequent maintenance of tulips in the country garden are performed:
Secrets of growing tulip bulbs in the garden: features of agricultural technology
The secrets of growing tulips are the right care: regular loosening, weeding, sanitary and varietal cleaning.
In early spring, as soon as the temperature of the surface layer of the soil reaches 4-5 ° С, the tulips start to grow. On the surface of the soil, when the snow has not completely melted, sprouts appear together.
By shoots of bulbs, planted on parses, it is possible to judge the degree of overwintering and preliminary damage. diseases and pests. Not sprouting bulbs dig and destroy.
Do not throw sick bulbs and plants into the compost pit. In it, the pests and pathogens of fungal diseases persist for several years and can be spread throughout the garden plot.
In the process of growth of tulips, all patients and with an abnormal plant development are detected and removed so that infection does not occur by transferring spores by wind or sap by insects, as well as in order to reduce the accumulation of fungal pathogens and variegation virus in the soil.
To preserve healthy plants on the plantation it is necessary to systematically weed and loosen the soil. Loosening with a flat cutter or hoe is done every time after watering or heavy rain, and repeated until the leaves are completely closed.
This contributes to the preservation of moisture, better air exchange of the soil and prevent the growth of weeds. Weeding without loosening the soil is less effective. Weeds should be weeded on ridges and between rows, because insects that are carriers of tulip diseases settle on them.
In flower farms, herbicide chemicals are used to control weeds.
However, if we take into account all the peculiarities of tulip cultivation, then an amateur gardener does not need to apply herbicides in the garden plots, since they adversely affect human health and on vegetable and fruit plants. In addition, it is noted that the use of herbicides leads to a reduction in the weight of large bulbs.
Observing the proper agricultural techniques for growing tulips, during the flowering period of the plants, their variety should be checked. Impurities of other varieties are either transplanted or labeled with the name of the variety.
When flowering conduct a careful culling of plants affected by the pollen virus.
In the video “Cultivation of Tulips” all the main agrotechnical techniques are demonstrated:
How to grow tulips in the open field: watering and decapitation (with video)
Due to the specific structure of the root system of tulips, which is not capable of extracting moisture from the peripheral areas, it is important to maintain the moisture regime of the soil through irrigation. Begin watering should be a week before flowering.
The frequency of subsequent watering depends on the weather and the state of soil moisture. When caring for tulips in the garden, you must remember that not only the surface layer of the earth should be wet, but the entire layer to the depth of penetration of the roots. Each irrigation consumes from 2 to 5 buckets of water per square meter.
While maintaining the required moisture regime, the length of the flowering stem increases, the flowers form larger and their flowering period increases, and the mass of the bulbs grows faster and the accumulation of nutrients goes to them more intensively.
Stop watering after 3 weeks after flowering.
These photos show the proper care for tulips:
With a deficit of moisture, the output of large bulbs decreases and the number of small bulbs increases.
When growing tulips, flowers begin to cut at the time of dyeing buds. The cut is made early in the morning or in the evening. In no case can not use one knife in order to avoid the transfer of the pollen virus from sick plants to healthy ones.
Experienced flower growers to cut flowers have several dozen knives, sharpened on both sides. This knife cut two flowers. On each side, the knife is rounded so as not to injure the leaves when cutting flowers.
Knives are easy to make from old hacksaw blades for metal. After use, the knives are disinfected over a gas burner flame or by boiling. The flowers can also be broken off at the base, in this case the probability of transfer of viral diseases to plants is further reduced.
In any case, when cutting and breaking off, at least two leaves should be left on the plant. Leaving only one leaf dramatically reduces the weight of the replacement bulb.
Important when growing planting material is decapitation or removal of heads of blossoming flowers. The purpose of decapitation is to make the plant multiply vegetatively, i.e. increase the mass of the nest.
The best way to take care of tulips is to remove flowers through 3-4 of the day after the bud opens (at the time of anther ripening), when it is completely colored and it is possible to determine the varietal affiliation with certainty.
Decapitation of flowers is used on plants grown from small bulbs. It is advisable to apply it in the case when you need to quickly multiply the valuable variety. In this case, the weight of the socket increases by 30-40%. Removed flower heads are removed from the site or buried in a hole to a depth of at least 50 cm.
To better understand how to grow tulips, watch this video: