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Wisteria: description, cultivation and distillation

Despite the fact that this plant comes from warm countries, the cultivation of wisteria in the middle lane is not difficult. And having such an abundantly flowering shrub in your garden plot, you can no longer take care of the solitary plantations, since this plant during the flowering period will invariably draw attention to itself, the rest of the cultures will simply fade against its background.

To express their delight in the superlatives, everyone says that this is the very thing. So, the most beautiful of all known flowering vines is wisteria. The long, lilac-pink tassels of flowers truly represent an amazing sight.

If you add the ability to bloom abundantly to the beauty of flowers, as well as unpretentiousness in the care of growing wisteria, then the admiration for this plant is fully justified and deserves the closest attention.

Planting and care for wisteria in the open field and this article is devoted.

What does wisteria look like

Wisteria is a perennial climbing bush of the legume family. A strong trunk with numerous branches, covered with beautiful leaves, and flowers - weak-lipped, purple, pink in the form of drooping brushes - this is what wisteria looks like.

Wisteria comes from East Asia and North America, where nine of its species are known. Practical use is found only three types - Chinese, lush blooming and shrub.

Wisteria Chinese - highly beautiful liana, from 4 to 20 m.

Leaves are light green, pinnate. Flowers are fragrant, in thick drooping brushes, 50-60 cm long, appear before the formation of leaves. There are garden forms with white, pink, purple flowers. Early blooms and is the most common type among wisteria. Reproduces easily - layering, undergrowth, cuttings.

Shrub wisteria - undersized vine to 3-x.

It blooms with purple flowers in short (up to 10-15 cm) tassels. Blooms late.

Wisteria is flowering - originally from Japan.

The flowers are light purple or blue in racemes up to 20-40.

These photos show different types of wisteria, which are described above:

Wisteria as a general form refers to climbing vines. The ends of the shoots grow in them, making circular movements in search of support, describing all the large circles as they grow. The speed of circular rotation is not the same for different vines.

So, for example, in hops this turnover is 2 hours 8 minutes, and in wisteria - 26 hours. Touching the support, the young shoot grows along it with a “screw”, forming a spiral.

As shown in the photo, if the wisteria vine has no support, then the growing stems can twist around each other, forming strong plexuses:

Wisteria blooms from late April to July. With prolonged fall may be the second flowering. Flower buds are laid at the ends of last year's shoots. The liana usually blooms throughout its length - from the base to the top.

Proper cultivation of wisteria

To obtain abundant flowering, i.e., bookmark flower buds, during wisteria care, when grown in open ground, annually immediately after flowering produce a strong pruning of last year's shoots.

Short cut - on 2-4 buds, depending on the strength of the shoot. During the growth of the shoots, they are pinched twice or thrice to cause lateral branching, especially at the base of the branches.

Wisteria is considered to be a low-frost resistant liana, so it is widespread in the south, where it grows as an uncovered culture in open ground. But there are cases when Chinese wisteria kept frosts at -20 ° C.

Look at the photo - when you take care of wisteria in the conditions of the steppe zone, it should be slightly covered to prevent freezing during cold winters:

But even the freezing of the shoots is completed by intensive spring growth. True, with a strong freezing flowering is not so abundant.

In the middle and northern zone, wisteria is grown as a houseplant or greenhouse plant. In the summer, wisteria can tolerate severe overheating of the soil, which, however, does not exclude the need for systematic watering. The cultivation condition is fertility and weakly acid soil reaction.

Growing wisteria, you should not neglect top dressing, since intensive growth and abundant flowering greatly deplete the plant. In addition to watering, it reacts very positively to summer spraying with water, which should be done in the evening in calm weather.

The main methods of care for growing wisteria are shown in these photos:

Reproduction of wisteria seeds, layering and cuttings

Wisteria can be propagated by seeds, layering, winter and summer cuttings.

Seeds are stored peeled in linen bags or paper bags in a well-ventilated room at + 6 ... + 10 ° C. Germination lasts three years and remains high - up to 98%.

Sow them in the spring in the ground, previously soaked in warm water for 10-15 hours. Before sowing air on the air. The earth should be loose and moist. Shoots appear after 10-12 days. The greatest need of seedlings at this time is water.

Neither overwetting nor drying out of the soil is allowed. When watering, the soil is moistened to a depth of 25, see. An annual plant at the end of summer reaches a height of 30, see. The diameter of the shoot at the root collar is approximately 1, see.

In the fall or next spring, seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place - in the open ground or flower pot. The roots are slightly shortened, and the stems do not touch. Seedlings bloom in 4-th year.

How to take care of wisteria after planting is shown in these photos:

Green cuttings are cut from annual shoots in the period of mass flowering. They are planted in the ridge under the film, which is not removed until full rooting. Plants bloom from cuttings on 2 — 3-th year.

Lignified cuttings are harvested during the winter dormancy and rooted in the greenhouse. The wisteria propagation stalk is completely immersed in the ground, leaving one bud above. Only 30-40% rooted cuttings.

The bloom begins on the 3 year, but some specimens bloom on the 2 year. The standard seedling has an 2-3 shoot to 1,5 m tall and an extensive root system.

Choose a sunny place for planting this creeper, protected from wind and heavy rain, with light permeable soil - wisteria absolutely does not tolerate heavy dense soil and moisture stagnation.

Wisteria is used to increase the green area and decorate the facades of walls, balconies, pergolas, gazebos, lanterns, etc.

The greatest effect of wisteria produces on the facade of the house, where this tall plant can manifest itself in all its glory. At some distance from the wall of the house, strong supports are attached, for example, metal rods - after all, the woody stems of wisteria are very heavy.

This is a southern plant, therefore in central Russia reproduction and further care for wisteria is carried out only in tubs. In the autumn, before the onset of frosts, containers with wisteria are placed in a cool room or in the basement.

Distilling wisteria

This liana is also used for forcing, which cannot be considered simple. First of all, plants for distillation should be grown for two years in room conditions. Planting and care for wisteria in this case is carried out, as for all potted crops.

For distillation, only the wisteria form with very long floral tassels is suitable. Her flowers are purple and blue.

Healthy and strong plants are used for the forcing. Success depends on the preparation of the plants during the growing season preceding the dormant period, i.e., these plants should receive good agrotechnical care, contributing to the formation and accumulation of a large supply of nutrients and planting flower buds.

Wisteria is usually intended for early forcing - in December - January. In the fall, potted plants are placed in cold cellars with a temperature of + 1 ... + 2 ° C.

The plants are pruned before the forcing, but given that the flower buds are formed on the annual (last year) shoots, pruning consists only in removing weak and excess shoots, but not shortening them.

Distillation begins from the end of November - the beginning of December, when the plants are brought to light in a warm room. Stimulation of the distillation is achieved using warm baths. Water for them is heated to + 30 ... + 35 ° С and the plant crown is immersed in it for 12-24 hours.

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