Of all the types of ornamental grapes, the most popular are the maiden trio, coastal and vineyard. All these vines are very spectacular and serve as excellent plants for vertical gardening.
Varieties of ornamental grapes can be grown near the walls of buildings, twine or arches, pergolas and gazebos. If you strengthen these cultures on the trellis, they will make a beautiful hedge.
How to propagate and care for ornamental grapes of different species is described in detail in this article.
Girlish triosthenous ornamental grapes
Have you ever seen the walls of houses, buildings, monumental fences or summer houses, clad as a shell, a green carpet of lianas, literally biting into the surface of the support and not reacting to rain or wind.
Its autumn coloring is absolutely amazing, and only beginning frosts are able to put out the fire of colors and shades, so that next spring they can be returned to the greenery of emerald.
This is a decorative girlish grape triostrenny varieties "Vici", known since ancient times, adorning the buildings and pillars of Rome, Greece and Egypt.
The grapes "Vici" deserves the closest attention, because, despite its undeniable merits, not widespread.
Vertical gardening with vines, to which the “Vichy” grape belongs, has a number of advantages in comparison with other plant species.
As practice shows, if you plant this decorative grapes near the wall of the building, you get excellent protection from wind and rain. It closes the house from the adverse effects of the environment, reflects dust and noise.
The decorativeness and aesthetic impression of such landscaping are absolutely amazing both in terms of texture and shade of seasonal leaf coloring.
There is no doubt that creepers are the only living material for decorating high walls.
However, along with the laudatory characteristics of vertical walling of the walls with Vichi grapes, there are very cautious and even negative statements that warn against such landscaping of wall surfaces, dampness in the room and premature destruction of buildings.
The falsity and unfoundedness of the version about the dangers of using these grapes in vertical gardening is refuted by many years of experience of European countries and, above all, of England.
It would seem that in its foggy, damp climate, vertical gardening should cause irreparable damage to houses. But lianas so organically fit into the architecture of this country, that they became an integral part of the national landscape.
On the contrary, it is proved that the grapes protect the buildings from dampness at the basement, acting as a pump at the blind areas and “taking over” sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity. And it’s not for nothing that ancient villas, and perennial European buildings, such as the State Library in Berlin, are entwined with the Wichi ornamental grape.
The maiden grape triostrenum belongs to the extensive family of Vinogradovs. It naturally grows in Primorsky Krai, Japan.
There, on the coastal cliffs, forms a dense tiling.
The creeper height is up to 30 m. One shrub of the decorative wichi grape provides 15-20 m2 green area. Recommended mainly for landscaping walls of buildings. Climbs them with clinging tendrils with suction cups, even on smooth surfaces.
Antennae short, branched, at the end they have swellings. In contact with a solid surface, a sticky substance is released from blistering. It is so high quality that it is possible to separate the antennae from the wall only if they are broken. Antennae with swellings appear 60-75 days after seeding.
As seen in the photo, the stem of this decorative grape is flexible, but very strong, which is due to its anatomical structure:
Stem wood consists of a group of vascular fibrous bundles surrounded by soft parenchymal tissue.
The leaves are leathery, small, dark green in the summer and orange-red in the fall, form a dense mosaic carpet. Vegetation and the greatest decoration - from May to October.
The root system is fibrous, less deep than in other species, which allows its planting in containers.
When describing this plant, it is worth noting that the ornamental grapevine is resistant to smoke and gases, disease and pest damage, which makes it particularly valuable for vertical gardening in urban environments.
When planting decorative grapes in the southern areas, it blooms and produces seeds. Another valuable quality of grapes is shade-tolerant and relatively cold-resistant. But in severe snowy winters it can freeze slightly, but it recovers well in spring.
It is undemanding to the soil, but on fertile, loose and well-drained soils it is notable for its special pomp and rapid growth.
The reproduction of this ornamental grape is produced by seeds, which is the main way, although it is possible that the cuttings are woody and green in conditions of artificial fog.
Seeds can be sown before winter, but it is better to grow seedlings and plant them in the fall of the second year or in the spring - the third.
After planting this ornamental grape, care is reduced to weeding and loosening. At first, water, during spring planting, during the month 2-3 once a week. The next year, when the grapes begin to grow, that is, in May, it must be fed.
Based on one bush 10 l of solution from 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 60 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt.
At the end of the summer, one more feeding of the following components is carried out: superphosphate - 80 g, potassium salt - 20 g and 10 g ammonium nitrate. Caring for these decorative grapes during the growing season also includes pruning dry doses and cleaning fallen leaves.
For decorative purposes, grapes in summer can be sprayed with 0,2% urea solution. It does not burn the leaves, at the same time being a foliar top dressing, provides the brightness of the color.
After watering, it is good to mulch the soil with dry humus, peat chips, dry grass, or just dry soil.
In winter, young planting should be warmed with dry foliage, burlap, matting.
The main agricultural methods of planting and caring for these decorative grapes are shown in the photo:
Decorative coastal grapes
Coastal grapes - native to North America
Powerful vine with 3-5-lobed, serrate-toothed, bright green shiny leaves. Dicate flowers. Small globular berries are purple-black, with a thick bluish waxy bloom, with colored juice, but sour and having a grassy taste, which explains their lack of demand for food.
The main purpose of this type is decorative design, in combination with its unpretentiousness is of particular interest.
Coastal grapes - powerful high-climbing liana. Antennae faltering. Large leaves are broadly ovate (8-18 cm), usually three-lobed.
This grape is distinguished by a bright green color of shiny leaves and very fragrant flowers.
Due to the scent of flowers, the Germans call it "grapes-reseda." Dim flowers are collected in inflorescences long 8-18, see.
It grows along the banks of rivers of North America.
A distinctive feature of coastal grapes - significant frost and heat resistance. It tolerates a decrease in temperature to -30 ° C and an increase in temperature to + 40 ° C.
In addition, the grape is resistant against phylloxera, it grows well when grafted, and it is easy to graft. If you use it as a stock, it must be remembered that the grapes on it earlier and more abundant fruits when grown on good nutrient soil.
When hybridizing and breeding in order to obtain new grape varieties, this species is indispensable for advancing viticulture to the north and east. I.V. Michurin obtained by pollinating grapes of coastal pollen from Amur grape obtained excellent frost-resistant variety "Buytur".
From coastal grapes originate varieties:
"Taiga emerald" ("Seedling Minnesota")
This species has been introduced into culture since 1656.
In conditions of central Russia, it freezes, but recovers well; in Primorsky Krai also freezes, but bears fruit.
Berries ripen every year, contain little sugar and have high acidity. Seeds at full maturity of berries do not lose germination. This type of grape loves wet soils, so it grows poorly in dry years and its shoots do not mature well.
North American view. Reaches 25 meters in height. The leaves are bright green, shiny, glabrous, broadly ovoid or ovate, 8-18 cm long, more often than three, less often five-lobed with large stipules. It blooms in May very fragrant flowers.
The berries are purple-black with a thick waxy bloom, dyed juice and grassy taste.
In Moscow conditions, annual shoots freeze slightly, but they quickly grow. Light-requiring In order to care for ornamental grapes as the technology suggests, it is necessary to ensure the fertility of the soil. Does not tolerate lime in the soil. Relatively drought-resistant. Tolerates urban air pollution. Propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering.
Coastal grapes have a great decorative value. In the fall, his foliage is painted bright red and adorns the arbors, walls, fences. And during the flowering period it fills the air with a special aroma.
The name of this plant has received for the similarity with the grapes. There are about 20 species growing in Central and East Asia, North America. Deciduous woody vines, climbing on a support with the help of twisting tendrils. Shoots with lumpy bark.
Inflorescences are corymbose, properly forked and branched. Leaves without opposite antennae, less often with terminal ones. The flowers are functionally dioecious, sometimes bisexual. The fruit is a small inedible berry. They are completely not damaged by phylloxera, but they cannot be grafted and crossed with grapes.
Liana light-requiring, but can put up with penumbra. It is moisture-loving and loves nutritious soil. For the winter do not cover. Valuable as an ornamental plant.
- Short Color
- Diverse leaf
A small graceful ligneous liana (up to 3 m) with deeply dissected, palmate-lobed leaves on long petioles, green, shiny, naked on top, hairy on the bottom along reddish veins, with rare large teeth along the edges.
Young leaves are very colorful - bright purple or reddish olive green, shiny. Small greenish flowers in loose inflorescences. The duration of flowering of this ornamental grape is up to 70 days.
Berries up to 0,6 cm in diameter, initially yellow or orange, ripe - blue, sugary-sweet. Without loss of viability, seeds can be stored in sealed 3-4 vessels of the year.
The plant grows from early May to early October. The growth rate is fast. Flowering and fruiting with 5 years. It blooms in late August.
The fruits ripen only in years with a long warm autumn, in October. Winter hardiness is average. Propagated by summer cuttings that rooted well.
In the first years of life it grows slowly, then very quickly, giving growth for the season to 3,5. Winter-hardy. Appreciated for the openwork mosaic of leaves. Let's apply to decoration of low constructions, trellis, canopies. It has many decorative forms.
Liana to 6 m tall. The plant grows from May to early October. The growth rate is fast. Does not bloom. Pretty hardy.
Vineyard short-cutted, or Ussuri
In nature, it grows in Primorsky Krai, China, Korea. Woody creeper to 5-7 m long. Stems covered with light gray or slightly brownish bark; young shoots are yellowish red; rigid-hairy, three-five-lobed leaves are large (up to 13 cm), dense, leathery, with sharp notches between the lobes, dark green above, slightly wrinkled, lighter below.
Diseased, monoecious flowers are collected in broad corymboid panicles. It blooms later Amur grapes, for 60 days. Fruits - berries, bright blue, sometimes white, ripen earlier.
Suffering from heat and dry air. Medium frost resistant, suitable only for indoor and container gardening. Propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering. Grown in containers, hanging baskets, decorated with low walls, trellis in the summer. It is recommended to use where no continuous wall covering is required.
In autumn, the leaves get a golden hue. Fruits are pale lilac, become fully turquoise when fully ripe.
Grows in river valleys. Interesting beautifully dissected leaves and light blue berries. It is very similar in appearance to the short-stem vineyard, from which it is distinguished by rounded grooves between the lobes and the presence of leaves of various shapes in one plant.
It is a powerful vine up to 8-9 m long. Used in vertical gardening.
Small, often lying than climbing creeper, with thin, flexible shoots, clinging with simple, few antennae. Its leaves are very interesting and decorative, long, leathery, shiny on top, bluish below.
The lamina is a complex of five, rarely three leaflets, of which the outer three-lobed or wedge-notched, and the median and apical pinna-dissected into three-lobed segments, in addition, the middle leaflet with a discontinuous-winged axis.
Such a variety of foliage forms makes this plant very elegant. The flowers are green, about 0,6 cm in diameter, in their inflorescence to 50. Duration of flowering up to 40 days.
Looks good and in the period of ripening pale bluish-purple, with black dots of berries. Very bright in the autumn when the foliage becomes reddish. Used as a ground cover and climbing plant.