Decorating the backyard plot is a useful activity that helps to calm down after a busy day, put your thoughts in order and get positive. What could be more beautiful than creating an attractive design around you? And when beauty and practical benefits are combined, the feeling of satisfaction from their work knows no bounds. Actinidia kolomikta in the Moscow region and in some other regions of Russia can be grown without additional shelter for the winter period. This plant tolerates cold quite easily and does not suffer from an insufficient amount of heat in a cool summer. Used as a decorative vine and fruiting plant. The fruit is a berry with various flavors.
The article provides information on how to plant vines and subsequent proper care for her. You can also see the varieties of Actinidia Colomikta in the photo and select the appropriate for the site:
Brief description of the vine and its photo
Actinidia colomikta is a powerful liana that, during growth, woody and tightly braids the supporting structure counterclockwise. A brief description will not convey all the beauty of this plant, so we suggest to look at her photos presented on the page in large quantities.
The trunk of the liana is absolutely smooth to the touch, it is covered with dense bark of a rich brown shade. The height of the barrel is 5-6 meters. On the main trunk powerful side shoots develop, they can be:
- vegetative type (used for grafting and reproduction);
- fruit branches (buds and subsequently fruits are formed on them);
- mixed type, bearing the function of grafting and fruiting.
Sleeping buds on the trunk are almost invisible, since they are completely recessed in the cortex. They are located a few millimeters above the leaf of the leaf. Special attention deserves a sheet. It has an oval, slightly pointed form, the edge of the plate is notched. Coloring - from bright green to spotty variegated. The length of the plate is 12-15 cm, with a width up to 8 cm. The foliage arrangement is regular, rather thick. In late September, the color changes to yellow and purple tones.
Liana has fast growth with enough nutrients. On average over the summer months can give a gain of up to 1,5 meters. The depth of the root of the branched system is 25 cm, so regular loosening of the upper soil layer is required to ensure the flow of oxygen. On heavy loamy soils, the root system dies off and the plant dies.
The flowering period is at the end of May - mid-June, depending on the timing of the occurrence of stable positive temperatures in the spring. The structure of the bud - simple, consists of simple oval petals 5-9. Decorative terry in this plant - a rarity. During the flowering period, actinidia kolomikta exudes for several meters around itself an amazing aroma, resembling a mixture of bird cherry and lemon notes. Approximately 70% of buds later gives edible fruits in the form of berries. In appearance, it resembles the small fruit of kiwi. But before the first harvest should be at least 3-x years from the time of planting.
Landing Actinidia Colomikta: subtleties and secrets of caring for the vine on the site
The plant is suitable for cultivation in regions where the winter average daily temperatures do not fall below 20 degrees Celsius. Also, with sufficient snow cover and additional autumnal shelter, the vine can be successfully grown in most regions of the Urals and Siberia. Suitable varieties for the Moscow region can do without shelter. Planting Actinidia Colomikta requires careful approach to the place of cultivation of culture. It should be borne in mind that it is quite difficult to transfer the transplant, so it is important to provide for the possibility of long-term growth without interfering with buildings and other plants. All the subtleties and secrets of proper care for the vine at your backyard can be found later in this article, but for now some more photos:
Let's start from the moment of landing. Here there are several rules that every gardener must know:
- the distance from the building, fence or other structure must be at least 70 cm;
- Acting of Colomikt is carried out in spring, autumn plantings usually freeze or do not develop properly;
- it takes at least 70 days to form a full-fledged root system;
- Between individual plants, the distance in the 1,5 meter must be maintained;
- well depth - 50 cm;
- drainage should be at least 40 cm.
Before planting the site rolls carefully. During the preparation of the landing hole, a hole is dug out with a depth of 1 meter. Then it is filled on 30 with a broken brick or river pebbles in order to ensure drainage. Then 20 cm of fertile soil mixed with mineral fertilizers is poured. It is recommended for 1 plant to take an 1 bucket of organic compost, a 1 cup of superphosphate, 2 tablespoons of calcium chloride, 500 ml of wood sol and 50 gr of nitrogen. If the soil is clay, then 1 bucket of building sand or screenings is added to the top layer.
Subsequent care is watering and pruning to form the correct shape of the vine. Autumn pruning is the main event. At the end of September, a selective cutting of large shoots overshadowing young shoots is carried out. Spring pruning is extremely undesirable. This can lead to the complete destruction of the vine. 1 should also be rejuvenated once every 8 years. In this case, pruning is carried out very shortly in order to stimulate the growth of new shoots. With proper care, actinidia colomicta is a real long-liver. Liana can successfully develop over the course of 50 years.
Interesting facts about actinidia colomikta - you need to know!
First of all, it is necessary to tell about the stability of the vine during the winter period to the effects of negative temperatures. Interesting facts suggest that actinidium colomicta can survive even lowering the ambient temperature below 45 ºC without much damage to itself. Spring frosts do much more damage. If the leaves had time to bloom by this period, then they can survive only the temperature to minus 2 ºC. A further decrease in temperature can lead to a complete fall of the foliage and flower buds. Therefore, it is important to know - the plant can be helped, cover it with a special film in anticipation of the impending spring cold.
Another interesting fact is that this plant is dioecious, does not have the ability to pollinate independently. Although hybrid varieties exist. But in most cases, for the harvest of berries requires planting a number of male and female plants. You can distinguish them by buds. Male actinidia colomikta gives more beautiful buds, collected in inflorescences of 3-5 pieces. But female actinidia differs more modest flowering - she has every single bud.
Breeding options: cuttings and seeds
The planting of the actinidia colomikta is a very important stage and you need to do it right. But it is much more important to choose a way of plant breeding. Breeding options include seed sowing and grafting. Consider reproduction cuttings and seeds. In general, experienced gardeners also practice cultivation using leaf and cuttings (this is a certain type of shoots).
For propagation by cuttings, it is necessary to select shoots with partial lignification. They are perfectly accustomed and give strong strong shoots. Twigs are cut to lengths up to 15 cm, they should be no more than 3's leaves. Before planting into the ground leaf blades cut by half. The landing is carried out in a special school at a distance of 20 cm between the cuttings. The depth of dropping is up to 15; see Inclined location. After planting is carried out abundant watering, mulching the soil surface. A film cover and daily watering is required for the first 10 days. For the formation of the root system requires 3-4 week. After that, the cuttings are ready for transplanting to a permanent growth site.
The following scheme is practiced:
- grafting is carried out in the first half of June;
- shkolke cuttings are grown until autumn;
- in the fall they are covered with straw;
- transplantation is carried out in the spring - immediately after the disappearance of snow cover.
The vegetative breeding method is possible on those plants where cuttings are formed. To this end, the vine clings to the ground and is fixed in such a position that the layers are embedded in the ground. After 3 weeks, the cutting is trimmed from the central trunk and the vine is returned to its usual place.
Cultivation of actinidia from seeds is a process, of course, very exciting, but it has a long duration. Seeds before planting should be stratified in the refrigerator for at least 30 days. After that, they are soaked in warm water for 3 days. Then sowing is carried out in boxes with soil. Shoots appear after 20-25 days. In the summer, boxes are taken out to the garden, and in winter they are brought into a warm room. Landing on a permanent place is held after 1 a year after sowing. The first harvest can be treated later 5 years after planting in open ground.
Suitable for the Moscow region varieties of actinidia kolomikta
For gardeners currently offers many varieties of plants. Varieties of actinidia kolomikta suitable for the Moscow region should be resistant to frost and drought. Next, we analyze the most popular varieties, you can see them on the attached photo.
Variety "Holiday" is resistant to adverse growing conditions. The yield is high, up to 8 kg with 1 vines. The berries ripen in late September. The color of the fruit - dark olive, sweet pronounced taste. Similar fruits gives a variety of "Gourmet" and "Marmeladka."
"Apricot" allows you to get the berries of a rich orange color with an unusual taste of bell pepper. Pepper smell gives an unusual note of jam and compote.
For strawberry lovers, breeders have bred the variety Narodnaya and Universitetskaya. Large yellow berries have the taste and aroma of strawberries.
“Commander” is an exclusively decorative look. Its advantage is the unusual coloring of the leaf plate. Fruit does not. It is an excellent pollinator for the vast majority of species of this plant.
But for those who prefer the sour sweet taste of fruits, there are many varieties: "Stranger", "Fantasy", "Dawn" and others. The aroma and taste of pineapple can also be embodied in the berries of actinidia, if you plant on the site varieties such as "Fantasy Gardens", "Early Dawn." Primorskaya (apple) and September, (nutmeg) have unusual taste properties.
Look at the photo of some varieties of actinidia kolomikta for the climatic conditions of the Moscow region:
properties and options for processing berries
The beauty of landscape design can be useful. Adult actinidia colomikta produces a good harvest of berries with different tastes. The beneficial properties of this culture are well known. The rich chemical composition of the fruit allows you to prevent avitaminosis, treats some diseases associated with a deficiency of vitamins and minerals. For maximum benefit, the berries are harvested at the stage of technical maturity, since they are completely ripened when they are fully ripe. After harvesting, maturation is carried out for 2-3 weeks.
Ascorbic acid is found in the greatest concentration in fruits. The daily dose for an adult is only the 1 ripe berry. In addition, actinidia is rich in carotenes (important for skin vision and health), pectin (protects the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract. Pectins have detoxification properties. They remove heavy metals, toxins, poisons, and bacteria from the human body. Regular berry reliably protects the liver from toxic damage.
There are various options for processing berries for their long-term storage. It is important to know that with proper cooking, this berry retains all its beneficial properties both in compotes and jam.
The most practical option - the preparation of juice. To do this, the fruit is squeezed out with a special household appliance. The liquid is heated in an enamel pot to 80 ºC and bottled in a glass dish. Shelf life is - 1 year.
Another processing method is pureed actinidia with added sugar at the rate of 0,5 kg per 1 liter of fruits. The pulp rubbed through a sieve is altered with sugar and stored in a refrigerator for up to 1 year.
Jam and jam is prepared by the method of repeated heating. For the compote, you need three-liter jars on 1 / 3 filled with fruits and pour boiling sugar syrup (on 1 a liter of 4 water, tablespoons of sugar). Close the lids.
You can also make jelly, billet for patties, dry and freeze the fruit.