Today, indoor flowers are amazingly diverse. Some of them are bright representatives of tropical flora and require close attention to the rules of planting and care at home. The bougainvillea room flower is an angiosperm plant of the nyctagin family of the Bougainville genus. The natural growth area is the expanses of South America and Brazil, in the west - from Peru to Argentina in the south. Different researchers distinguish between four and eighteen species in the genus.
For the first time, the flower was described by the French botanist Phylliber Commerce, who at this time accompanied the fleet of French admiral and explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville while traveling around the world. It is possible that this plant was mentioned earlier by two well-known Europeans - Jean Bara and Antoine Laurent de Jusye (it was he who, according to some scholars, published the first information).
After a while, several more publications about the flower appeared, and later the genus was constantly divided and each time in different ways. The name of the flower was also constantly changing, until in 1930 the year was finally fixed on “Bougainville”. He first appeared in the European gardens of France and England at the beginning of the 19 century, and it is worth noting that they were among the first. After a while, the sale of bougainvillea turned into a thriving commercial enterprise and in a short time it became already known all over the world.
As soon as the flower began to spread, the first hybrid species immediately appeared on the territory of East Africa, India, Australia, the Philippines, the Canary Islands and North America.
Gardeners recommend using a hanging flower as the main decoration on the bars of windows or large bushes. Also, it is quite used when creating rock gardens and artificial barriers in the garden.
Bougainvillea flower description and photo
Choose the appropriate "inhabitants" for your home is not very easy. It is necessary to take into account the existing conditions of growth and the rules of the necessary care for the various representatives of tropical flora. Next, we offer a description of the bougainvillea flower and its photos, which demonstrate the bright color of the petals and the variety of forms of growth. The plant is a woody vine, which, under all conditions of growth can grow up to twelve meters in height. On the trunks there are thorny thorns, from which a black waxy substance is obtained.
Depending on the habitat, the bougainvillea flower may be evergreen (where there is constantly high humidity and high rainfall) and deciduous (in dry habitats or in hot weather).
Pointed leaves have a length of not more than 13 centimeters and 6 centimeters - width. On the reverse side there are spines. The bush itself is small, but each cluster on it consists of three flowers, surrounded by 3 or 6 bracts with picturesque flowers, from which one volumetric bush of pink, violet, red, orange, yellow or white shades is obtained. A bare bougainvillea flower is sometimes called a “paper flower”, as its thin bracts very much resemble a thin sheet of paper.
The fruit of a plant is a narrow achene consisting of five blades of approximately the same size. Since the root system is rather weak, a good and stable root coma does not work. Look at the photo of bougainvillea in different versions of the landing and layout:
Rules for the care of bougainvillea at home
In nature, bougainvillea grows best in regions with warm climates, although some varieties planted in the northern regions of the region can bloom at low temperatures. The flower loves the climate of the tropics and subtropical climate, grows in dense gardens where it can grasp and cling to other plants to get to the sun. Rules for the care of bougainvillea at home are quite simple, but require their absolute compliance.
In room conditions, the flower is most often planted in a pot or placed in a hanging basket. Survival and existence at low temperatures in our region seem to be an exception rather than the rule for bougainvillea - in most cases it dies at the first signs of frost. Therefore, if you decide to grow it at home, you should make sure that the temperature in the room is not lower than 22 degrees in the summer and 12 - in the winter. With the same goal in the summer, the plant is placed on the south side of the window so that it receives as much light and heat as possible in the process of growth. Flowers of a plant change in the course of growth and development. Caring for bougainvillea begins with the laying of planting material.
The soil in which the young process is going to be planted should be as close as possible to the soil in its natural habitat. Perfect rocky soil with good drainage under the open sun, so that the flower is always warm and can fully develop. He does not tolerate swampy terrain, as he can live in peace only with a small amount of water (and not for long).
Bougainvillea will grow well in any soil, but still if you prepare a substrate of peat, quartz, and turf and leafy soil, then the chances of getting a bright, fully bloomed flower will be much higher. When planting a pot in the pot around the flower is recommended to sprinkle with sand.
When caring for bougainvillea at home, you need to pay close attention to the quality and quantity of watering. The flower needs constant watering, but it is worth knowing the measure - the bottom of it is equally badly affected by the drying out of coma and the stagnation of moisture at the rhizome. The ideal option is watering immediately after the earth begins to dry. In summer it is very hot, so bougainvillea needs an additional source of moisture - you can spray it a couple of times a week through a spray bottle.
During the growing season, feed the plant about once a week with mineral fertilizers, and larger ones twice. In winter, it does not need an additional power source.
Reproduction and planting bougainvillea
The main method of reproduction is cuttings of pristeble processes and aerial green layers. The best time for the procedure is the end of spring - the middle of summer. They are pruned directly under the bud, cut off the lower leaves and immediately planted into the root-forming mixture. The soil for the new process should consist of equal proportions of peat and sand.
With the help of seeds, reproduction of bougainvillea is not as smooth as cuttings, so this method is used very rarely.
It is necessary to regularly carry out the procedure for pruning bougainvillea - first of all, the dead branches are removed, and the full procedure is carried out only in the autumn.
These are relatively pest-free plants, but may suffer from worms, snails and aphids. Larvae of some species of Lepidoptera also use them as food plants, for example the giant Leopard Moth (Hypercompe scribonia).
Planting bougainvilleas is broadly described above. But we recall the basic rules of this procedure. First you need to prepare planting material - cuttings. They take root in water at room temperature. Before the start of this procedure, it is possible to carry out the treatment with a means that enhances the formation of the root system (for example, “root”). After the appearance of the roots, bougainvillea is planted in the soil prepared in advance with the installation of a sufficient drainage layer of curzamzite at the bottom of the pot (the layer must be at least 5 cm).
Bougainvillea varieties and their photos
There are a variety of varieties that have been bred by breeding. Every year breeders at exhibitions show all new colors and decorative forms. Then you can read the descriptions and look at the photos of bougainvillea varieties for indoor floriculture.
Bougainvillea buttiana is an artificially created hybrid of naked bougainvillea and Peruviana bougainvillea. Evergreen vine with thorny stems and tiny, tubular white flowers. As a rule, they consist of clusters surrounded by three spectacular, but thin bracts of bright purple-pink shade. Dark green leaves have an ovoid shape.
Bougainvillea naked - is one of the most common types of bougainvillea, which is used for bonsai. This is an evergreen shrub with thorny stems up to four meters in height (and sometimes they can reach nine meters). Small white flowers appear, as a rule, in groups surrounded by bright bracts. Leaves of dark green color can reach 10 centimeters in length.
It is resistant to frost and cold, and also tolerates drought. The method of distribution is grafting. For good growth needs full sun, a warm room and well-drained soil.
Look at the photo of bougainvillea naked in the form of indoor bonsai:
Why does not bloom bougainvillea?
The plant ceases to bloom if it is under adverse conditions or is not properly cared for. For example, she may not have enough light (it should be enough even during wintering - in the fall and winter). If necessary, include an additional coloring. In the summer, in order for the petals to have a bright color, it is recommended to take the flower to the open air, but protect it from winds and drafts.
But there are other reasons why the bougainvillea does not bloom: for example, if the plant grows well and the flowers do not appear, you should limit its watering and refuse feeding.