Eremurus, amazing in its beauty, was introduced into culture at the end of the 18th century. These plants are not only highly decorative, but also very unusual. In some species of Eremurus, very interesting adaptations for pollination were formed in the course of evolution.
At the beginning of flowering, the perianth expands, and immediately after the pollen leaves, it fades and coagulates into a ball, from which processes of petals stick out. Flies take these shoots for aphids, pounce on them, smeared with pollen and spread it around the garden.
The genus Eremurus belongs to the Asphodelov family and has more than 60 species. Almost all of them live in Central Asia, but some species also live in southeastern Europe, and some extend eastward to Altai and the Himalayas.
The favorite habitats of the Eremurus are sandy plains, steppes and foothill clayey deserts, they can climb mountains to a height of 3600 m, settling in juniper light forests, on stony placers and even on subalpine meadows.
Characteristics of the most beautiful species and hybrid varieties of Eremurus are presented in this article.
Yellow and Pink Eremurus Shirashi
The appearance of all plants of the maremurus is very characteristic and easily recognizable: a rosette of dense linear keeled or triangular leaves is crowned with a strong peduncle, sometimes reaching 2 m height. It ends with an elongated cylindrical inflorescence - an erect brush, the length of which is sometimes more than 1 m.
Flowers in a brush arranged in a spiral, each on its pedicel. The flower is wide open or bell-shaped and consists of 6 petals that look like petals and form perianth, 6 stamens with a swinging boot at the end and a thin long column.
Perianth coloring is very diverse in different species and varieties. Although eremuruses of yellow, pink and reddish tones prevail.
As the flower blooms, the pedicels change their position relative to the axis of the inflorescence: they are sticking out as much as possible at full dissolution, and in this place the brush becomes the thickest. Its protruding stamens, which at this time reach their greatest length, widen even more.
Look at the photo - the flowers at the Eremurus begin to bloom from below:
Each flower in the open state is no more than a day, after which the pedicle begins to press against the axis of the inflorescence.
Thus, the wave of flowering - the widest and most brightly colored part of the brush - quickly rises. Depending on the weather, the species with a rare and few-flowered brush simultaneously reveal 5-10 flowers, and in species with dense inflorescences, 20-30.
Varies in species and the number of flowers in the brush - from 50 to 1000, so the flowering period in different species can last from 10 to 40 days.
As seen in the photo, the fruits of Eremurus are round, smooth or wrinkled, dry boxes, revealing three leaves:
Eremuros seeds are trihedral, with a wrinkled surface and a transparent wing.
The underground part of the plant of Eremurus is represented by a short rhizome in the form of a disk - plinth, reaching 10-15 cm in diameter.
5 — 30 of thick cord-like or thickened spindle-shaped roots, up to 15 cm in length, diverge from all sides in almost all directions in the horizontal plane. They serve to store nutrients and to pull the bottom into the ground. This whole underground "structure" is called a Kornedon.
At the end of summer (in some species) or in spring, (in others), a network of thin feeding roots is formed on the storage roots, which can reach 1 m in length. Each year, the upper part of the bottom grows, releasing new stocking roots, and the lower part — the old bottom made of old roots — gradually degrades and dies off by the fall.
Almost all wild species of garden flowers of the Eremurus, except e. Echisona, found in nature quite often, and destruction does not threaten them. Widespread in the culture of varietal plants fully satisfy the demand of an ordinary gardener without collection requests.
Specificity agricultural technologywhich requires the gardener to pay special attention to this crop, does not contribute to the mass cultivation of these plants and discourages interest in wild species.
The local population used (and now rarely uses) the roots of the Eremurus to produce technical glue. These are explained by its popular names - shry or shiryash, which, in Kazakh and Tajik, respectively, mean “glue”.
From dry roots make powder, which is used as a plaster. Young roots of Eremurus-Shiryash can be eaten boiled, they are said to resemble asparagus in taste. But the leaves are edible only in some species, in others they are even harmful.
All parts can be used to dye natural fibers in yellow. In addition, eremuruses are excellent honey plants.
Eremurus - plants open habitats, as a rule, do not tolerate shading. Only a few of them, for example, e. Echison and e. powerful, in nature can grow in light shade.
Eremurus prefer dry habitats where water appears only temporarily - with rain or after snow melt. Stagnant water and nearby groundwater can quickly destroy plants.
The soils of the natural habitats of the Eremurus are quite diverse: these are dense clay of the plains, and loose sand dunes, and salt marshes. But in any case, these soils have a neutral or alkaline reaction, but not sour, and they pass water well.
The climate of the Eremurus habitats is characterized by abrupt changes in temperature and rainfall throughout the year: dry, hot summers and cool, wet winters. This determines the fast dynamic rhythm of plant development.
In the spring, when the soil warms up, they violently start to grow, requiring at this time an abundance of moisture, as well as during flowering. The process of fruit ripening occurs in a dry and hot period, then comes a period of summer dormancy, when the aerial part of the plant dies completely.
In the fall, with a decrease in temperature and precipitation, some species invisibly wake up to life - the wintering bud and a network of thin, nourishing plant roots are finally formed.
Some species (for example, E. Olha and E. narrow-leaved) deform the bud in the spring. With a further decrease in temperature, the plants are immersed in the winter “hibernation”, during which even severe frosts in open sunny places, to -20 C and more, calmly endure.
Buying Eremurus roots
Mainly imported planting material of Eremurus comes on sale, plants brought from and from natural habitats may appear on the amateur market.
Usually, planting material is acquired in the autumn in the form of dried Kornedonian. When buying roots of Eremurus, it is necessary to check the presence of a growth kidney (sometimes there are several of them) on the upper surface of the stem and its condition. The scales that fold the kidney should be tightly packed and have a fresh appearance.
Make sure that the roots are not completely broken off, and the more, the better. The bottom, devoid of roots or with bad roots, dies. Similarly, individual roots are not able to sprout. It is permissible to break off the thin ends of the roots, so on imported material they are always shortened.
Spring buying creates more problems. It is necessary to check whether the plant is too dry. If the roots are not always easy to determine, then pay attention to the kidney, which should be fresh, with thick juice poured scales.
Try to keep the plant at rest before planting in a refrigerator or cellar at temperatures from 0 to 4 ° C, placing it in dry peat or sawdust.
Selection of Eremurus
The first Eremurus, namely the Altai, was described in 1773 by a Russian traveler, naturalist and geographer, a German by origin, Peter Pallas, who brought roots and raised a blooming specimen.
For this first plant grown in culture, a description of the Eremurus species was compiled. Then the scientific expeditions conducted by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, scientists of England, France in the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Iran, the Himalayas, began to bring all new species that they tried to grow first in the botanical gardens, and then distributed to nurseries.
At the end of the 19th century, not only natural species Eremuruses were widely cultivated in France and England, but garden hybrids also appeared. In England, the first were the Shelford hybrids obtained by Sir M. Foster. They are still cultivated, although they are offered only in a few foreign catalogs.
Selection of the Shelford hybrids, carried out by Van Tubergen, led to the removal of a whole group of varieties at the beginning of the 20th century. In 30, Hydedown hybrids appeared in Frederick Stern's garden.
Work with them continued until the 60-s - successful attempts were made to obtain low-growing varieties. But the Stern varieties are not widespread and are now very rare.
From 50 to 80 to N.K. Ruiter was actively engaged in the selection of Eremurus and received a number of varieties, the so-called Ruiter hybrids. These varieties have spread widely enough, are being industrially bred by many nurseries so far and are among us, perhaps, the most accessible.
In Russia, the culture of the Eremurus was not widespread, although some recommendations on cultivation appeared at the end of the 19th century thanks to the work of E. Regel, director of the Imperial Botanical Garden in St. Petersburg, and especially O. Fedchenko, a famous researcher of Central Asian flora.
Additional information about Eremurus presented in this video:
"Pinocchio", "Cleopatra", "Romance" and other hybrids of Eremurus (with photo)
Ruiter Hybrids (Ruiter hybrids)
The most widely represented with us. They are bred by crossing many species and varieties and are distinguished by a huge variety of colors and sizes. Eremurus variety:
'Pinocchio' ('Pinokkio‘) has intense orange flowers
Money Maker '('Moneymaker‘) - yellow
'Cleopatra' ('Cleopatra‘) - pink
'Obelisk' ('Obelisk‘) pure white
'Odessa' ('Odessa‘) - greenish yellow
'Romance' ('Romance') - salmon pink
Eremurus 'Sahara '('Sahara‘) - coral-pink with purple veins on the leaves
Look at how the Cleopatra Eremurus and other varieties look like on these photos:
Hybrid Hybrids (Highdown hybrids)
Few are common and may be only in some collections. Different types also participated in their education. These are hybrid varieties of Eremurus:
'Don Hydeown' ('Dawn highdown‘)
'Golden Toch' ('Golden torch‘)
'Lady Folmaus' ('Lady falmouth‘)
'Haydaun Dwarf' undersized ('Highdown dwarf")
'Golden Dwarf' ('Golden dwarf)
Hybrids Shelford, or Eremurus Isabellinus.
Shelford Hybrids = E. x isabellinus Olga Eremurus and narrow-leaved became the ancestors of this group. Their offspring has flowers of various shades - from white to yellow-orange.
Breeding work led to the selection of hybrid varieties of Eremurus:
'Isobel' ('Isobel‘) - pink with an orange shade
'Moonlight' ('Moonlight‘) - light yellow
'Rosalind' ('Rosalind‘) - pure pink
'White Beauty' ('White Beauty‘) - pure white
Eremurus Bungee, yellow and other species (with photo)
Eremurus narrow-leaved, or Bunge (E. stenophyllus = E. bungei).
One of the most beautiful species and most often on sale.
Eremurus narrow-leaved, or Bunge has relatively thin gray cord-like roots up to 0,5 cm thick. The socket consists of numerous narrow (up to 2 cm wide) gray-gray leaves, above it to a height of up to 150 cm a dense inflorescence rises from wide open golden-yellow, to 2 cm in diameter of flowers that turn brown when withering.
See how beautiful Bunge eremurus are in these photos:
The stamens are very long, of the same color as the perianth, with orange anthers. In total, the yellow inflorescence of Eremurus Bunge can be numbered up to 700 flowers, and it reaches a length of 80 cm, and in thickness 6, see Winters, without requiring special care.
Eremurus yellow (E.luteus)
Relatively low plant (total up to 80 cm). The roots are cord-shaped, the leaves are small - up to 35 cm long and less than 1 cm wide, make up a rather thin rosette. The flowers are bright yellow with yellow stamens and pistil, wide open, up to 4 cm in diameter, with a strong pleasant smell.
All good, but very thermophilic and capricious.
Eremurus Alberta (E. albertii)
This species has light brown, slightly thickened (up to 1 cm in diameter) roots covered with a light down. The leaves are narrow, glaucous, brush loose, up to 60 cm height and 12 cm in diameter.
Flowers more than 5 cm in diameter and amazing meat-red color, which can not be found in other species. Pink stamens, with pink anthers, delicately curved. Named after Albert Regel, who, like his father, Edward Regel, was a botanist and gardener.
Eremurus Altai (E. altaicus)
The roots are yellowish-brown, fusiform. Leaves narrow to 2,5 cm wide, dark green, not numerous. Brush up to 60 cm long and 3,5 cm in diameter.
The pedicels are not bulged during flowering, but directed upwards at a sharp angle. Perianth bell-shaped, up to 1,5 cm in diameter, pale yellow from the inside, including stamens and pistil, and greenish outside.
Very undemanding, which is typical for a number of low-ornamental species, does not need summer drying. Seedlings bloom already on 4-5 year.
One of the eastern species (distributed from Tien Shan to Mongolia).
Eremurus Bukhara (E. bucharicus)
In nature, it is found in southern Tajikistan.
It has thick spindle-shaped brownish-gray roots, bluish, numerous leaves up to 1 cm wide, conical openwork brush up to 120 cm long and 18 cm in diameter.
The flowers, as they bloom, are deflected downwards, pale pink or white, up to 4 cm in diameter, with shiny yellow stamens hung with long, up to 1 cm, anthers. The box, unlike other species, pear-shaped.
It grows quickly from seed, blooms on 4 year.
Eremurus Himalayan (E. hymalaicus)
One of the first Eremurus introduced into culture.
The roots are thick, up to 2 cm in diameter, fusiform. The leaves are few (8 — 10), bright green, like the stem, up to 6 cm wide. Brush up to 90 cm long and 9 cm in diameter. Flowers in the inflorescence of more than 100, wide open, 4 cm in diameter, pure white with a thin brownish-green vein and white stamens. The box is round, smooth.
Relatively undemanding, and grown in many European countries, even in Finland.
Hybridizes with other species. His hybrid with e. powerful - e. Elves (£. X elwesii), - named after the English athlete and collector of plants DG. Elves. A very large plant with wide light green leaves and pink flowers up to 4 cm in diameter.
Hybrid with e. narrow-leaved - e. Tubergen (£. X tuber genii). It has very dense brushes and flowers of an unusual shade - pale, sulfur-yellow.
Eremurus Indersky (E. Inderiensiis)
The name comes from the name of Lake Inder in the Caspian lowlands, where it was found for the first time in the last century.
The roots are brown cord-shaped, up to 1 cm thick. Leaves are bluish, sparse brush, 60 cm long and 5 cm thick. The pedicels do not bulge when flowering, but stick up at an angle of 45 °.
They are of indefinite pinkish-brownish-green color and are successfully complemented by narrow-bell-shaped pinkish-brown flowers with a bluish bloom. Brownish-green stamens protrude as they bloom from the perianth, bringing out orange anthers, and somewhat brighten up the picture.
In nature, this Eremurus grows on the sands. Agricultural technology is not developed.
Eremurus Kaufman (E. kaufmannii)
The roots are gray, fusiform. The leaves in the socket are few, bluish, up to 3 cm wide and, which is characteristic, densely covered on both sides with velvety white hairs.
Multi-flowered brush, up to 70 cm long and 7 cm in diameter. The flowers are wide open, up to 4 cm in diameter, white with a light cream shade and yellow center. White long stamens are decorated with orange anthers.
OA was also grown in the Moscow region. Fedchenko. Successfully propagated by seed and vegetatively.
Eremurus Korzhinsky (E. korshinskyi)
Roots spindle-shaped. The leaves are linear, keeled, 2-2,5 cm wide. Peduncle up to 120 cm tall. The brush is rare, with yellowish or reddish, flowers turning brown when flowering.
It grows well in the suburbs.
Eremurus Shortblot (E. brachystemon)
Roots slightly thickened, fusiform, up to 1,5 cm thick. Leaves are gray, up to 3 cm wide, few. Brush rarely flowered, 60 cm long and 6 cm wide.
Perianth shirokopolokolchaty, to 2,5 cm in diameter, of indefinite dirty-pale pink color from the inside and brownish on the outside. The stamens, like the column, are not only short according to the name of the plant, but also thick, painted to match the tepals.
Eremurus Krymsky (E. tauricus)
Looks like a eremurus personable. It grows on the southern slopes of the mountains of the Southern Crimea and is distinguished by lighter, almost white flowers.
Eremurus lacticulum (E. lactiflorus)
It has light brown, slightly thickened roots. The leaves are bluish in the rosette, up to 4 cm wide, brush loose, consists of white large flowers with one thin yellowish vein in each perianth leaflet and yellowish center.
White stamens with pale yellow anthers. The perianth keeps its color and shape for a long time, even when the fruit began to set. The box is rounded.
Quite undemanding and frost-resistant species, reproduces well vegetatively.
Eremurus powerful (E. robustus)
It is distinguished by brown spindle-shaped roots, dense gray-gray leaves reaching 10 cm wide and tall inflorescence, rising 2 and more than meters upwards.
The brush is dense, with overlapping flowers, it is up to 120 cm long and has up to 1000 pale pink, less often white flowers with a diameter of 3-4. 6 year.
This species was brought in its time by O. Fedchenko and, as she wrote, she had a “whole plantation” of these outstanding plants.
Eremurus Olga (E. olgae)
Named in honor of O. A. Fedchenko.
The roots are rather thick, up to 1,5 cm, gray, often with felted pubescence on thin parts. The leaves are narrow and numerous. The inflorescence is relatively loose, although it contains up to 300 flowers, and is wide. The flowers are large (up to 3,5 cm in diameter) light pink in color, with a yellow spot in the middle. Pale pink stamens, approximately equal to perianth leaves.
Pretty steady in culture.
Eremurus representative (E. spectabilis)
Not the most beautiful. It has spindle-shaped dark brown roots, few bluish-green leaves up to 5 cm wide. The brush is dense, up to 80 cm long and 6 cm in diameter. Perianth bell-shaped, with folded ends of leaves, up to 2,5 cm in diameter, pale yellow on the inside, brownish or greenish on the outside.
Stamens are long brown or green, with corresponding anthers. Farther than other species comes to the north: to the south of Ukraine and in the Pre-Caucasus. Accordingly, it is quite stable in culture, it costs even without summer drying.
Eremurus Riegel (E. regelii)
Named in honor of Edward Regel.
The roots are dark brown, fusiform, thicker than 1, see. Leaves up to 3, cm wide, gray. The brush is dense, 100 cm long and 6 cm wide, with a brown-purple axis. The pedicels are rather thick and protrude upward at an angle of 45 °.
The flowers are bell-shaped, with folded ends of leaves, small, up to 2 cm in diameter, brown-purple with a pink edge.
Eremurus redhead (E. fuscus)
Looks like an Altai Eremurus, but larger. Perianth darker, with enhanced brownish tones. Like the Altai Eremurus, it is undemanding, stable, rapidly dividing and developing from seeds.
Eremurus serottsvetkovy (E. thiodanthus)
Very similar to representative eremurus. Differs in that the leaves are smooth along the edges, and the seeds are with wingless ribs.
Eremurus Tianshansky (E. tianschanicus)
A very decorative look that entered the culture.
Up to 150 cm, with bare, bluish, narrow leaves. In general, it is similar to Olga's eremurus, but the inflorescence is narrower, cylindrical, relatively thick. Tepals pale pink, yellow at base. Capsule globose, smooth.
Eremurus Echison (E. aitchisonii)
Named after the English botanist Echison. This plant has the same root system as the powerful Eremurus. Broad leaves and sturdy stem shiny, bright green.
Brush up to 100 cm in length and 15 cm in diameter, quite loose and made up of bright pink flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. The stamens are also pink, shorter than the perianth and with bright orange anthers.
It grows well from seeds, but it develops long and blooms on 6-7 year.