When growing Eremurus in the suburbs of gardeners, as a rule, do not face special difficulties. At the beginning of the vegetative season they should be taken care of in the same way as most other garden plants.
But with the onset of prolonged rains, the eremurus require particularly careful care, because this culture is extremely sensitive to overmoistening of the soil.
These plants are sandy plains, steppes and foothills. Therefore, they look very exotic in the gardens of central Russia. Cultures steadfastly retain the habit of the climatic conditions of their homeland, which is taken into account when developing agrotechnologies. The rules of planting and care ha in the open-air eremurus are described in detail on this page.
Soil preparation for Eremurus
For planting choose a well-lit and heated place. It doesn't matter if it's windy. The indications that the Eremuruses suffer from the wind, break down and need props have not been confirmed in our practice.
Their peduncle is strong enough to withstand any wind within normal limits. True, in a sunny windless place is always warmer.
For plants prepare high, carefully drained areas. The collection is best kept on the ridges. As a drainage, fine gravel (lime or granite) or pebbles are poured into the base of the ridge.
The depth of the soil layer should not be less than 20 cm, preferably about 40 cm, the reaction of the soil is slightly alkaline or neutral. In the ideal case, a mixture of fresh turfy land is prepared with the addition of old humus or compost 1 / 3, to which coarse sand or small pebbles are added.
But most of the species (Eremurus Altai, Echison, Regel, red, garden hybrids) can grow well on any clay soils loosened by the addition of sand or small gravel and compost.
When preparing the soil for planting Eremurus in the winter, it is desirable to add superphosphate (30-40 g / m2). In early spring, at the beginning of active growth of leaves, complex fertilizer is applied at the rate of 40-60 g / m2 and organic matter (well-rotted manure, compost) at the rate of 5-10 kg / m2. On poor soils, you can add ammonium nitrate gn / m20 g / m 2 before flowering.
You should not be especially zealous with manure and nitrogen fertilizers: overfed plants are less resistant to diseases, and late feeding with nitrogen reduces their winter hardiness.
Planting Eremurus autumn
The optimal time for planting a dry Kornedonet is autumn (September, although October is also suitable if the frosts on the ground do not become regular).
As shown in the photo, when planting Eremurus, they dig out a spacious hole 10 — 15 depth cm and arrange the Kornedonts in it so that the roots are distributed along the bottom of the fan in all directions:
You will have to act with caution, because they are very fragile and break easily. So if the roots are dry, folded in a bundle, you should not straighten them - plant with a slope, bud up.
A layer of earth above the kidney should be 5-8, see. If the soil is heavy, then coarse sand can be poured directly under the bottom and above, around the kidney, and then finally covered with earth.
The distance between plants is maintained by 30 — 50 cm, depending on their size - it is necessary to take into account that the plant develops in addition to thick, also a system of thin, feeding roots that can reach 1 and m length. When planting flowers Eremurus in mixborders create similar conditions (drainage, elevated position).
Proper care of Eremurus
As a rule, the Eremuruses do not freeze out in conditions of central Russia. Although the eremurus of Olga, Alberta, yellow, Bukhara are more thermophilic than other species, an additional layer of compost or peat about 10 cm thick will reliably protect them from winter frosts.
It is not recommended to keep the plants in the dry sand and in a cold room, as is done with non-frost-resistant crops, because they begin to grow at the end of winter and are depleted without waiting for the planting in the ground. They can only be stored in professional nurseries, where you can strictly maintain a certain storage mode.
Eremurus start to grow at the onset of the very first warm days, and the May frosts often damage their leaves, or even inflorescences, causing an appearance incorrigible in the current season.
To preserve the decorativeness of the plants, in the late autumn, after establishing permanent frosts on the soil, they are covered with a light layer of spruce branches, straw, chips, etc.
All this is removed in the spring, when the danger of frequent frosts has passed, and for the period of the May cooling, the grown plants can be covered again with covering material (lutrasil). True, long stalks can be bent.
If during the period of active growth and flowering of plants - from spring to mid-summer - dry and hot weather sets in, they can be watered so that they grow tall and beautiful. After flowering, the plants no longer need watering, they are more than enough rain.
From late July to late August, depending on the species and weather conditions, the plants usually completely or mostly dry the leaves and ripen the seeds. This indicates the onset of the period of summer rest.
At this time, growing eremurus is complicated, as they become particularly sensitive to overmoistening of the soil, and the rains, which usually increase in late summer and early autumn, create an unfavorable environment.
Only some, especially unpretentious species, such as Eremurus Altai, Eremurus redhead, Eremurus beautiful, Eremurus Crimean satisfied with a high ridge or slide with good drainage.
For most species, the simplest and most reliable method of preservation will be digging up a Kornedonetz and drying them in a dark and well-ventilated room, as is done with tulips. Dig them out when the leaves are largely dried, but not later than mid-August.
It happens that in a rainy summer the leaves are almost green until autumn, for example, in Eremurus Olga, narrow-leaved, powerful, some varieties of Ruiter. But even in this case, it is useful to dig them up so that they can spend at least three weeks alone.
The period of summer dormancy, carried out in dry and preferably warm conditions, is necessary for the normal functioning of the Eremurus.
If, when digging up, the fruits have not yet ripened, then the Kornedonian is laid to dry with the peduncles, and the fruits ripen quite successfully. Leaves are also left, especially if they are not completely dried. Before planting, the Kornedonian is cleaned from the remnants of the roots of the last year, the peduncle is separated, and the dried leaves are cut off.
The method of digging, of course, has negative sides. For the owner, this is extra work and the need to find a storage room for massive plants.
This and possible trouble for the plants themselves: damage to fragile roots, forced introduction of plants to a state of dormancy, which still continue to vegetate; disruption of the life rhythm of those species that form a hibernating kidney just at the end of summer - beginning of autumn (at rest); therefore, they develop a wide network of feeding roots.
However, minor damage to the ends of the roots do not pose a danger, and some disturbances in the rhythm of life are not terrible for those accustomed to the extreme conditions of Central Asia.
In any case, the experience of the authors in growing eremurus in the Moscow region shows that digging is the most reliable way to ensure the existence of plants for many years.
The question, whether to dig up Eremurus or not, does not have a definite solution.
It happens that on a ridge with a well-chosen mechanical and chemical composition of the soil, with carefully arranged drainage, the Eremuruses successfully grow for a number of years without digging.
But in the capricious climate of central Russia, the year is not a year, sometimes the summer is so rainy and cold that no drainage helps, and the plants still suffer.
Another method of protection creates more natural conditions for the Eremurus. Above them, a shelter from the rain is installed, such as a gazebo, so as to minimize precipitation.
This method also has its drawbacks. If there is a high peduncle and planting an eremurus among other plants that may not like the sudden drought, the installation of a shelter may be too difficult. In addition, the shelter itself is unlikely to successfully fit into a flower garden or be appropriate on an alpine slide.
Eremurus breeding methods
If in the spring another one or several small ones appeared next to the large main outlet, then the Kornedonze shared: daughter buds were formed, each with its base and several roots.
After digging and drying, before planting, such a group of eremurus for cultivation can be divided by slightly breaking along the join line. But if the plants are not separated by light pressure, then it is worth leaving them together for another season so as not to injure.
In good conditions, the natural division of adult plants occurs annually. Commercial varieties are particularly rapidly divided, and some species, on the contrary, only rarely.
Perhaps speed up vegetative reproduction: before planting, the Kornedonian is incised from below so that each part has several roots, the cuts are covered with ashes, dried, and the whole group is planted entirely.
It is completely divided into the following year, when each part grows its own bud and roots. Such delenki bloom, as a rule, in a year - another. If plants eat well, then reproduction occurs faster. (For comparison: in nature, Eremurus are not divided every year.)
Reproduction by seeds.
Eremurus well multiply and seeds. They produce better fruit during cross-pollination.
If the collection contains plants of different clones, i.e. the offspring of different parents, the seeds are produced well and abundantly.
In this case, the varieties, and even the species, are easily pereopolylya, and the offspring is obtained with unpredictable traits. Many species of Eremurus hybridize among themselves even in nature, if they grow together.
Obtaining a variety of hybrids in culture does not pose any difficulties. This produces a large set of plants that differ not only externally but also physiologically: different growth rates and vegetative reproduction, resistance to diseases, and periods of vegetation.
Full seeds ripen only in the lower part of the inflorescence, so in order to get seeds it is better to shorten the long inflorescence on 1 / 3 so that it does not waste nutrients.
Sowing with this method of reproduction is carried out in September-September. In order to further care for the seedlings, it is better to sow in boxes with a depth of at least 12, see. Seeds are buried to a depth of 1 — 1,5. But the next spring, only some of them germinate;
Young seedlings need better watering than adult plants, especially if grown in a box. After the leaves wither, the boxes are removed to a place sheltered from the rain, where young plants dry with the ground, or you can put a film cover over the boxes on the greenhouse arcs.
At the end of September - October, the boxes are exposed again under the open sky, where they become accustomed to lowering temperatures. Before the onset of serious frosts, the boxes are completely covered with leaves or spruce branches, since seedlings are more susceptible to frosts than adult plants.
Early spring shelter is removed. In the third year, when the seedlings form more or less large Kornedonians, they can already be planted directly into the ground and later take care of them as adult plants.
Depending on the type and growing conditions, from the emergence of shoots to the beginning of flowering, it goes from 4 to 10 years. Interestingly, plants grown on soil that is too rich in organic matter, bloom later than their peers who received “Spartan education”.
These photos show how the seeds are planted and eremurus is maintained in the backyard garden:
Secrets of growing Eremurus
In the garden, eremuruses can be planted in a flower-mixborder, on a rocky hill, used as tapeworms.
Eremurus bloom begins in late spring - early summer, when they reach maximum height and are at the peak of form. At this time, they play a solo role in the flower garden.
Eremurus comb, Alberta, lacticolor, Echison, bloom earlier than others, and the late bloom dates at Olga's Eremurus, tyanapansky, narrow-leaved.
Then their appearance deteriorates, and by the end of the summer it is no good at all. In addition, many species have to dig at this time to dry.
Taking into account such a dynamic lifestyle, they choose such companion plants for them, which, after leaving the scene, Eremurus will take the lead role in the flower garden and cover the empty place after their digging.
Very well combined with lace arrows of the Eremurus Rose. In the end, an empty place can be planted with annuals and not to think much about the structure of the flower bed.
On a rocky hill is better to plant those species that do not need to dig. But if the slide is adapted for growing Asian plants - especially dry and gravelly - then you can try to keep other species on it without digging it out.
In foreign greenhouse farms, eremuruses, mainly e-leaved, are grown in large quantities for cutting, and they are expelled at any time of the year. But forcing the Eremurus at home is hopeless.
These plants are especially beneficial in the role of tapeworm, when nothing prevents to consider their peculiar appearance. In addition, care for flowers eremurusov in this case is facilitated, and free up after digging a place, you can easily take annuals.
Secrets of growing Eremurus:
- The best time to buy Eremurus is autumn. When buying, you need to check for fresh dense growth buds and roots, which the more, the better.
- Eremurus - plants open habitats, grow well in dry areas with deep drainage, neutral or alkaline soil reaction. Responsive to fertilizer. Successfully endure the winter frosts of central Russia.
- After the ripening of the fruits of the Eremurus, a period of summer dormancy begins, during which they are particularly sensitive to damp. For most species, the simplest and most reliable method of preservation will be digging up a Kornedonet and drying them indoors for at least three weeks.
- Eremurus breeding occurs during the natural division of adult plants, which occurs in varieties annually. Seeds have good germination, with many types of Eremurus hybridizing among themselves.
- In the garden, planting and caring for eremurus is best done in a flower-mixborder where they solo in early summer. They look good on an alpine slide and as tapeworms.
- Eremurus planting place in the flower garden is chosen, given that by the end of the summer they lose their decorative effect, and many species have to be dug out at this time to dry. During this period, other companion plants will assume a leading role and will cover the area that has been depleted after digging up the Eremurus.
See how the planting and care of Eremurusa is made, shown in these photos:
Pests and Pests of Eremurus
Mice and moles sometimes spoil the roots of plants, digging their passages under the ground. Damage to the roots can be judged by the weak regrowth and depressed form of the plant in the spring. Then the roots must be excavated and cut off the rotten parts, sprinkle the damaged place with ash and leave open for several hours to dry.
The same is done with any mechanical damage to the roots during planting or digging. Try to reduce the number of mice in traditional ways using mousetraps, poison or cats, and if possible do not create them places for nesting - grass nests or perennial perennials.
Chlorosis, a pale yellowish leaf color, usually does not indicate a lack of nutrients, but root damage caused by illness due to poor drainage or growing conditions. To correct change the growing conditions.
The pale yellow marks on the leaves, especially those with an uneven, lumpy surface, indicate infection by viruses. Viruses are transmitted by sucking insects (aphids, thrips, bedbugs), and the affected plant is better to quickly destroy, until it becomes a source of infection for others.
In the seeds, as a rule, viruses do not fall, so that the affected species can be healed by reseeding.
If the roots are damaged during planting or careless care of eremurus, rotting may begin, if it spreads to the bottom, the plant dies. Therefore, cuts and breaks when digging sprinkled with ashes.
The rotted parts of the roots are cut and slices are also powdered with ashes. Even in spring, noticing that the plant is lagging behind in development, you can gently dig up the root system and remove the rotted parts, remove the eremurus from the soil, sprinkle and dry the cuts, and after a while sprinkle with light and loose substrate - the plant will give new roots.
Brown or black marks on the leaves, which usually appear in warm and humid weather at ground level, and then rise higher and grow, indicate the appearance of a fungal disease. It is enough to remove the affected leaves, but with a strong defeat they are treated with fungicides.
If the top of the peduncle turns ugly: underdeveloped, bifurcated, etc., it means there was damage to the growing point and, most likely, spring frosts, which can be confirmed by the dried ends of the leaves. Such damage in the current season can not be corrected. For prevention, it is necessary to cover the plants before frost.
Watch a video about growing Eremurus to better understand the agricultural practices of growing this crop: