Honeysuckle (Lonicera) quite diverse. These are bushes (large and not so) and creepers. There are many flowering species among the honeysuckles, and the flowers at the honeysuckle are of unusual original form. The fruits are also very decorative, and in some species are also edible (for example, blue honeysuckle). But do not try all the berries, most often they have an unpleasant taste and can cause mild poisoning. Many ornamental honeysuckle shade-tolerant, making them valuable crops for planting shaded areas. Unpretentiousness is characterized by honeysuckle Tatar (L. tatarica). She has a lot of garden forms, differing mainly in the color of flowers from white to crimson-red. Tatar honeysuckle is often affected by "witch brooms." However, this disadvantage is compensated by the undemanding plant to the growing conditions.
Maak's honeysuckle is less common, but very original and attractive.L. maackii) - large, durable, abundantly flowering shrub or tree. During flowering, the branches are completely covered with white sedentary flowers, in place of which beautiful red berries are then formed.
Otherwise, but also alpine honeysuckle (L. alpigena). The plant has a dense rounded crown and large leaves. During the cultivation of honeysuckle, you will not even notice how it blooms, but then it suddenly enchants you with bright red shiny fruits. The plant is low, up to 1,5 m, and the form 'Nana' - up to 1 m.
Very decorative climbing shrubs - honeysuckle honeysuckle (L. sarrifolium), blooming in June, large at first white, then yellowing fragrant flowers, Telman (L. x tellmanniana),
With flowers of golden color and curly late (L. periclymenum 'Serotina'). In the latter, large flowers of a refined shape are colored cream-white and purple. By the way, honeysuckle flowers are most often used in design, which are great for vertical gardening.
Honeysuckle is generally stable and quite hardy. However, for example, in the description of the varieties of honeysuckle Kaprifol it is worth paying attention to the fact that this plant is somewhat demanding of light and soil fertility. Reproduction of decorative honeysuckle possible cuttings, layering, seed.
Thanks to German scientist Adam Loniceru, honeysuckle got its Latin name - Lonicera. However, the famous Swedish botanist and naturalist Karl Linnea stubbornly used the name of the plant as “Kaprifol”. This was due to the fact that in the XVIII century one of the most popular types of honeysuckle varieties in Europe was Lonicera fragrant - “Kaprifol”.
Conditions of growing and caring for honeysuckle in the country: how to plant a shrub
To know when and how to plant honeysuckle, let's turn to experts for help: they, in turn, looking at the calendar, will confidently say that it is possible to engage in planting this ornamental shrub from early spring until mid-autumn. With only one reservation: May and June are not suitable for a similar procedure, because it is precisely at this time that the rapid growth of shoots occurs. You also need to remember that the plant has the property of early awakening, so you should not delay, if you want to plant the bushes in the spring. Moreover, experienced gardeners insist that planting decorative honeysuckle most favorable in late September and until the second half of October.
So, how to plant a honeysuckle so that all the nuances of its natural features are taken into account?
- First, you need to find a comfortable place: Best of all, if it is a well-lit area, which is protected from the north winds.
- In addition, the master of garden affairs is advised to engage in the cultivation and care of honeysuckle on fertile soils, more specifically - loamy or sandy. If there is no such possibility, special elements should be added to the soil - organic. Keep in mind: acidic soil for shrubs are contraindicated. Neutralize acidity with chalk or dolomite flour.
- Planting and caring for decorative honeysuckle also provide that a caring gardener will inspect the plant before planting to make sure that all injured shoots have been removed and the roots shortened to a length of no more than 30.
When all the previous steps have been done, it is possible to undertake the landing process itself. You need to dig a hole the size of 40x40x40. If you plan to place several bushes next to each other, then do it at a distance of at least 1 m.
Already preparing the pits, they bring in a certain mixture, which consists approximately of 10 kg of humus or manure, a small fraction of superphosphate - 100 g, potassium particles - 30 g - and a fraction of wood ash - 300 g. .
After you have covered the hole with loose soil, be sure to check that the root neck of the shrub is at a depth of at least 3, see
Do not forget also that after planting and initial care of the shrub of the honeysuckle it will also be necessary to water the sapling with one bucket of clean water. Finally, be sure to perform the mulching procedure - sprinkle the area around the bush with a layer of peat or humus.
You can see in the photo the decorative honeysuckle, which was planted and cared for again, that is, the beginning gardener wanted to transplant the plant:
If you have to do the same, do not be afraid: just follow these instructions.
- You need to dig around an adult so that you can determine where its root system is located and ends.
- Having done this, you can safely dig out a bush and move it to a new place that you like.
- Do not worry about the fact that the plant will not survive this event. However, experts recommend to make such events in the summer.
- And take note: the care of decorative honeysuckle after such a stressful situation for her is better to carry out carefully, that is - do not forget to water it properly.
Pay attention to the photo: a similar shrub of honeysuckle will please you if you listen to our advice:
How to care for honeysuckle to grow beautiful shrubs
To decorate your garden and get to the table a harvest of tasty fruits, you need to learn a few secrets of growing honeysuckle. In fact, these are not even secrets, but elementary rules for the care of a plant that apply to other ornamental specimens. Of course, we are talking about such procedures as regular watering, thorough weeding, careful loosening of the soil, nutritional feeding, cutting and protection from all sorts of ills in the form of diseases and insects.
You will be surprised, but after planting for three years, you practically have nothing to worry about: unless you have to water the bush and fight weeds. By the way, if you are not lazy and carried out the procedure of mulching, then these actions will be reduced to a minimum.
But, how to care for honeysuckle in the future, you should learn from the very beginning.
- First of all, you should take care of watering the plant. Despite the fact that it is practically not demanding in this matter, during the period of high temperature indicators - May-July - the shrub needs abundant watering. Remember that if the temperature is quite tolerable and there is enough rainfall, you can perform this procedure no more than 4 once per season. The amount of moisture needed - 10 liters for one bush at a time.
- As for such an important condition for growing honeysuckle, as loosening the soil. To loosen the ground around the plant is necessary, firstly, after watering, and, secondly, be sure to immediately remove all the weeds. Only you need to do everything very carefully, because the roots of the shrub are close to the surface: do not go into the soil more than 8 see.
- To know how to grow a healthy and fruitful honeysuckle, you need not ignore one more tip of experienced gardeners - plant nutrition. It is carried out after landing only two years later. Keep in mind that it is best to introduce elements of organic matter into the soil. For example, in late autumn, you can feed the shrub with compost in the amount of about 5 kg, without forgetting to add 40 g of superphosphate and 100 g of ash to it. This “portion” is calculated for m2. But in the spring you can indulge in saltpeter: add this substance under the 15 bush with the addition of a large spoon of urea. Again, this is the volume on the m2. There is also such a thing as “summer feeding”. It is carried out after harvest, at about the very beginning of July. During this period, it is introduced into the soil, for example, a mixture of slurry, which is diluted in pure water 10 l.
- Growing honeysuckle in the country also provides that the gardener will be engaged in collecting the same crop. In order not to ruin the fruit, you need to know when it is time to serve them to the table. And this moment comes when they are painted in a rich blue color. Remember that berries can be easily damaged, so try to put them in any container in one layer. Unfortunately, the harvest will not last long in your fridge, if you do not freeze the berries. Or, of course, do not cook a very useful jam, wine or liquor.
Look at the photo: decorative honeysuckle is a profitable addition to the landscape design of any site.
But such beauty is sometimes destroyed by certain types of diseases and pests. Such, for example, are spotting, powdery mildew, drying out of branches, which develop due to fungal infections. If you come across them, you will witness how your plant dries, turns black, turns yellow, or leaves leaves before its time. The masters of gardening deal with these misfortunes with the help of tools called fungicides. The most commonly used colloidal sulfur, copper chloride or bordeaux liquid. But instead of treating the manifestations of possible diseases, it is better to prevent them - simply sprinkle the bush in early spring and late autumn with the same fungicides.
But sometimes you have to fight not only with fungal lesions. Sometimes pests such as various types of aphids, miners, false guards, sawflies, leafworms, moths and spider mites attack honeysuckle. In such situations, connoisseurs of gardening get a variety of drugs: Konfidor, Rogor - for sucking pests, and Decis and Eleksar - for sheet-eating people.
How to correctly trim the honeysuckle in the spring and autumn: trimming scheme and video
Now let's talk about the aesthetic appearance of your "pet" - about the correct pruning of honeysuckle. As we have said, you will not have to worry about this for the first three years. But time is running fast, so how to trim the honeysuckle, we will tell you right now. Keep in mind that, in the event that your shrub is not distinguished by active growth of shoots and its crown is not heavily thickened, then the plant does not need to be cut immediately. We even know those gardeners who first took up the scissors only eight years later.
However, experts still advise to comply with the scheme of trimming honeysuckle: Remember that at the very beginning we said that it is necessary to shorten the shoots of the plant immediately after planting. By the way, take note of the fact that other haircuts are best done in the fall.
And how to do pruning honeysuckle in the fall according to all the canons and rules of the masters of gardening? In fact, everything is quite simple:
- should cut those branches that grow from the ground, if you think that they thicken the crown;
- need to remove and broken, very short or dry shoots that in any case will not bear fruit;
- it is possible and necessary to thin out the plant inside in order for the light to freely penetrate the leaf thick of the shrub;
- Remember that it is not recommended to shorten the young shoots, which will have to ripen the fruit. If you want, you can simply trim the tips of those shoots that seem to you are not very strong;
- Do not forget to get rid of those branches that are below the bush: they only prevent you from cultivating the land around the plant;
- by the way, the honeysuckle trimming scheme also implies that it is possible to rejuvenate shrubs - that is, to cut off almost all the shoots from them, but to leave young shoots around their stumps;
- but pruning honeysuckle in the spring is only that it is carried out for sanitary purposes: frost-bitten ends of the branches are trimmed, broken and diseased are removed;
- the formation of the same shrub occurs after the harvest.
So, to consolidate information on the conduct of different types of haircuts bush, let's see the video trimming honeysuckle:
How to propagate honeysuckle layering and dividing the bush
There are several ways to reproduce honeysuckle: someone uses seeds, others prefer cuttings, others resort to layering, and fourth trowels divide the bush. A technique assumes that each procedure has both its own positive and negative consequences. For example, in order not to ruin the properties of fruit-bearing edible plants, it is better not to plant them with the help of seeds. This technology is used most often for breeding. But the division of the bush is suitable only for adult copies, but not for the old ones: when your shrub is 15 years old, you are unlikely to succeed in doing anything, even if you use an ax.
So, what is the principle of reproduction and care for honeysuckle, if you used one of the most effective and popular breeding methods - layering? First you need to remember that this method of reproduction of honeysuckle layering specialists use in early summer - in June.
Experienced gardeners loosen the ground around the bush and, so to speak, “lift” it. After this, the gardeners choose a couple of young shoots from the lower part of the plant and simply press them to the ground with the help of a wire. Be sure to not forget to sprinkle the shoots with soil, and then regularly water them for the whole season. Already in spring you will only need to separate the rooted layers and transplant to another place. You can admire full-fledged bushes two years later.
But how to multiply the honeysuckle using the very technique of dividing the bush? First, you need to choose a moment in the beginning of autumn or spring. Then, armed with a pruner or saw, you should, of course, divide the plant into a certain number of parts. Having done this and thoroughly processing the sections of the bushes with a disinfectant, you calmly seat them in already prepared places. Be careful: do not torment adult specimens! It is unlikely that they will survive a similar breeding procedure.
Reproduction, care and planting honeysuckle with the help of seeds are more laborious: you have to follow certain instructions.
- Taking a few ripe berries, you smear them on paper so that their seeds are from each other at a distance of about 1 cm. Be sure to let them dry.
- Now you need to roll the toilet paper with the seeds into a roll and store it in this form at room temperature. Remember that only those seeds that are left for more than two years will be able to take root.
- But if you have plans to plant the plant this year, you should get the necessary material in June and immediately sow it in the wet ground.
- The container where the seeds were placed should be placed in a greenhouse or covered with glass. Just remember that you need to carefully monitor the top layer of soil, so that it does not dry out. After about a week, three seeds will begin to germinate.
- But at the end of autumn you will have to take up the procedure for breeding and planting honeysuckle very hard: you will need to take the container to the garden, but only if you sowed a frost-resistant variety. Then you just need to sprinkle the seedlings with snow.
- But if you sowed planting material in the mid-late fall, you skip the aging in the greenhouse and immediately take the seedlings out into the street so that they go through the stratification procedure and begin to grow actively in the spring.
- In order for this procedure to be successful, it is better to deposit the seeds in early spring in the greenhouse and support there until they have at least two pairs of leaves. And only after that, plant them on the garden bed.
- Do not forget to water the saplings and protect against weeds. In addition, be sure to loosen the soil after watering.
- When a year has passed, you will need to plant the plants, following the 20x20 scheme.
Method of breeding honeysuckle green cuttings (with video)
A breeding method recommended by all masters of the garden business is reproduction of honeysuckle cuttings. In order to carry out this procedure, it is necessary to prepare stiffened cuttings as early as early spring, until the buds have blossomed. A suitable material for this will be those young branches, whose diameter is not less than 7 mm. Please note that the length of the cuttings most often reaches at least 15 cm.
So when and how to propagate the honeysuckle cuttings to the breeding process was successful, and your garden was decorated with young plants? The right time comes when snow comes off the ground and it thaws. The cuttings are planted in such a way that they are submerged into the soil by about 10 cm, but at the same time ensuring that their upper buds can be seen above the surface. Already after this, the seedlings are covered with a film. To root the cuttings will take a month.
A further procedure for caring for cuttings is to water them regularly - at least 2 once a day. This will guarantee that the tops of the cuttings will start to grow as soon as possible, that is, the root system will form.
You can see in the photo honeysuckle, propagation by cuttings, care and planting of which were carried out according to the recommendations that we just described to you:
Honeysuckle propagation by green cuttings is carried out by gardeners in the summer when planting materials taken from young shoots are used. Most often this is done in early June, when fruits ripen on the bushes. The approximate size of the cuttings that are needed for disembarking is 10-12, see. The procedure for disembarking to the ground is carried out in the same way as the stiffened specimens. The only difference is that under the film you need to create the necessary moisture and monitor the soil moisture. In addition, experts advise to accelerate the survival rate of planting material to process their lower sections with heteroauxin in order to plant the plants in the required areas as early as the beginning of autumn.
We invite you to watch a honeysuckle breeding video to summarize all the information you have learned about the breeding of this plant:
The best types and varieties of honeysuckle for landscape design in the Moscow region: photo and description
You will not be surprised to learn that honeysuckle is used in landscape design, which has the name lianoid. Her varieties are not so much, but she won the love of many gardeners, thanks to its dense foliage, beautiful bright colors and colorful decorative fruits.
Let's look at the photo of honeysuckle in landscape design: with the help of this plant, gardening experts create truly magnificent works of plant art - these are all kinds of arches, and decoration of hedges or gazebos, disguise fences and old mansion walls:
This ornamental shrub is simply designed for vertical gardening. What's more, its flavor is really delicious.
But I would like to decide which varieties of honeysuckle for the suburbs fit the most. And all because the temperature diversity of our region is very unpredictable.
According to experts, one of the most suitable types of this shrub is already mentioned many times. "Caprifol" - fragrant honeysuckle. It is a deciduous vine, which can curl up the support to a height of not less than 6 m. In addition to this feature, “Kaprifol” is also distinguished by a frost-resistant feature, which is so necessary for the best varieties of honeysuckle for the Moscow Region.
But it is worth remembering that it is imperative to take care of the fertility of the soil on which this specimen will grow. It would be nice to choose a place for planting so that the plant receives a sufficient amount of sunlight.
Note that this species blooms at the very beginning of summer. Especially noticeable is the magnificent floral scent in the evenings. And to please not only the sense of smell, but also your vision will be charming small buds, which are painted inside in white and yellowish shades, and outside - in purple or red. Despite the fact that such flower riot lasts only a little more than two weeks, the fruits of "Kaprifol" will decorate your garden from August to the end of autumn.
Look at the photos of this type of honeysuckle: what lovely flowers are typical for "Kaprifol".
Rђ RІRѕS, "German Caprifol" is able to surprise you with the fact that she not only can climb up the height of the tower to 5 m, but also agrees to grow in a shady place where northern winds are not rare guests. In addition, this plant will be able to please with its lush color for much longer: the buds will bloom and smell from the very beginning of summer until the onset of autumn. By the way, the color of the flowers is amazing - from light shades to rich purple. And in August, you will be pleased with the charming dark red small fruits. Keep in mind that the description of this variety of honeysuckle for the Moscow region is very important feature - frost resistance. Young shoots can freeze slightly, but it does not affect the plant, which is characteristic so quickly to recover.
Look at the photo of this variety of honeysuckle: in front of you is a fast-growing brown liana-like shrub:
Its average height is about 5 m. It pleases the masters of gardening this plant with abundant carrot-red blooms, which begins in June or July and lasts for 3 weeks. By the way, this type of honeysuckle may bloom a second time: for example, in September. Like the previous two copies, this shrub is frost resistant and fast regeneration. The nuance in the care of the plant is only that it was planted in a sunny area where cold winds are not atrocious.
One of the best varieties of honeysuckle is considered to be Henry's lianoid plant., which was brought from China. It has a much more compact size than the previously described specimens - it does not exceed 2,5 m. The flowers of this variety have a tubular shape and have a rich pink or purple hue. Henry's honeysuckle blooms most often in July, and its ornamental fruits, which are painted in black and red undertones, ripen in autumn — in September or October. By the way, the plant feels comfortable in shady places.
Known and such a hybrid that can grow on the support to 4 m. It is called Honeysuckle Gokrota. The plant has buds that are colored creamy yellow inside, and outside pink or purple. They have a wonderful aroma from the beginning of June to the end of September. This species differs in that it does not bear fruit.
Another curious example of gardeners consider seaside honeysuckle. It is characterized by large size - it can reach height up to 5 m - and a long flowering period, which begins in early April and ends only in September. To provide the necessary conditions for the growth of this species, experts recommend planting it in well-lit areas with sufficiently moist soil. By the way, this variety is valued by gardeners also because it is practically not afraid of all sorts of diseases.
A peculiar unique plant is Gerald's honeysuckle, because it is not peculiar to her to dump leaves for the winter period. Just imagine that her leaves remain intact even at a temperature of -25 ° C! This property has conquered the masters of the garden business in our area. Moreover, when a variety blooms, it gives off a scent that resembles the smell of jasmine. By the way, the flowers of this species can be painted in light or yellow shades, which then become more saturated.
Look at the photo of this variety of honeysuckle, suitable for the suburbs:
And now look at the following photo: the description of such varieties of honeysuckle is unique in that they have such a characteristic as “edibility”.
They will not only decorate your garden, but will also delight you with their tasty fruits!
How to distinguish an ornamental plant from an edible? It's very simple: the second fruit will be painted in dark blue shades. Among the edible varieties of honeysuckle the most popular are Kamchatka, Altai, Turchaninova and blue. But this edible variety does not end there: the geniuses of the garden business have already managed to bring out a huge variety of delicious varieties!
For example, those who are interested in great harvests, experts advise to breed such varieties as:
For connoisseurs of sweet large berries suitable shrubs called:
The Giant's Daughter
And for those who are more important sourish taste of berries, it is better to opt for the varieties:
Moreover, they have a strawberry flavor.
You can see in the photo, varieties of honeysuckle for the suburbs, the description of which falls under the category of "edible":
First, it is Princess Diana, which grows up to 2 m in height and has an oval crown. This variety has very large fruits, painted in bluish shades and characterized by a magnificent sweet-sour flavor.
This is followed by Honeysuckle Nymph, characterized by spindle-like berries with a thin skin and a slightly tart, sweet-sour taste.
Such a variety as Souvenir is distinguished by the fruits of a cylindrical shape with slightly pointed tips. The plant itself grows no more than 1,5 m in height. The berries that are harvested from it, have a sweet-sour taste.
Shahin is a shrub that has a crown of conical shape and height up to 2 m. This variety not only produces sweet-sour fruits with a delicate skin, but also ideally suited for landscaping plots.
Depending on what you are pursuing - decorating your garden or harvesting tasty and very useful berries - you should choose one or another type and variety of honeysuckle. But rest assured: this plant certainly will not disappoint you.