Japanese quince, or henomeles (Chaenomeles) - not only decorative, but also a fruit plant. It is a shrub with a thick crown and beautiful glossy leaves. Chaenomeles Japanese (Ch. Japonica) can grow to 2 and even 3 m, and henomeles Mauleya (Ch. Maulei), also called Japanese quince low, to 1 m. In May, the bushes are covered with numerous large bright flowers rare for scarlet shrubs and red-orange flowers. There are varieties with other original flower color. For example, white petals are typical for describing varieties of Japanese quince such as 'Nivalis', and pink for 'Pink Lady'.
Japanese Quince varieties: photos and description of shrubs
Chaenomeles develops and blooms better in the open, but it also tolerates partial shade. When planting a Japanese quince, you need to take into account the fact that in severe winters the branches above the snow cover are covered with ice. Chhenomeles are propagated with green cuttings, offspring and layering, species - by seeds.
Chaenomeles planted in groups on the lawn
Japanese quince shrub looks good as a tamping to higher plants.
For example, the henomeles can cover the exposed barrels of the pince-necks.
Those who decide to plant this plant should pay attention to some very important features in the description of the Japanese quince. First of all, henomeles is a heat-loving plant, therefore experts consider regions with a mild climate to be favorable areas for its growth. If planting and caring for Japanese quinces are planned in northern latitudes, where temperatures can drop to -30 ° C, it should be taken into account that the part of the shrub that will be under the snow will surely bloom in spring, but annual shoots or buds above the level snow cover is unlikely to give a lush color.
However, even such a bit capricious and demanding characteristics in shrub description Japanese quince do not stop skillful gardeners, because the plant has several other features and advantages:
- for example, smooth, small, juicy-green leaves are characteristic of chhenomeles;
- however, besides the leaves, the quince also has thorns, reaching lengths up to 2;
- fruits resembling pear shape or apples, differ in not very large sizes - some 3-5 cm - and are located on the surface of the shoots;
- in landscape design, the Japanese quince will delight the eye from May until about mid-June (flowering lasts for about 20 days) when pink, white or red-orange buds bloom.
After reviewing the description, look at the photos of the Japanese quince shrub in order to understand what forms and colors this plant has:
Due to the fact that today there are many varieties of Japanese quince, these gardeners and just wanting to decorate their land, can choose the kind of plants that will appeal.
You can see in the photo a variety of Japanese quince, which is distinguished by its beauty and is very popular among connoisseurs - this is “Pink Lady”. It is characterized by a wide crown and pink or saturated pink flowers. And the height of the shrub is only 1,5 m.
In May and at the end of the summer - August - henomeles “Nivalis” becomes covered with wonderful white buds. It can grow in width and in height to 2 m.
Pay attention to the picture of the Japanese quince «Hollandia»: This plant has red-orange flowers, dark green leaves and a broad crown. The henomeles can bloom twice - in May and in August.
A plant variety such as “Vesuvius” is considered to be very miniature: it does not grow above 1 m. Despite this, his fire buds delightfully fit into any garden.
If you look at a photo of a Japanese quince bush called "Crimson and Gold", then also join those people who consider it one of the most beautiful varieties. The color of the flowers in the plant is simply gorgeous - rich scarlet buds with yellowish stamens. And this beauty is most often used by real gardeners to create a hedge, as this variety does not require pruning.
But the henomeles "Jet Trail", unlike Crimson and Gold, it spreads along the ground and decorates any lawn with wonderful white flowers. Moreover, the variety is completely devoid of spines.
French breeders tried very hard when they brought out the variety "Simone". This shrub has red-crimson flowers, brings green fruits and differs lambing shoots almost round shape.
And if you want to get the most real bonsai tree in your garden, stop choosing the variety “Rubra”. Just keep in mind that in order to do this, you will have to carefully monitor its appearance and regularly trim it when caring for a Japanese quince.
Resistant varieties of Japanese quince for the Moscow region
Given the climatic and soil specificity of the Moscow region, experts advise a careful approach to the choice of a particular variety of this plant. For the Moscow region, Japanese quince varieties should differ, first of all, in their resistance. Therefore, one should pay attention to interspecific hybrids of henomeles and breeding varieties.
For example, a Japanese quince called Zubutlinskaya would be a suitable option for residents in the Moscow region. It brings large fruits, is frost resistant and resistant to various diseases. In addition, the plant is not afraid of the northern winds. And, by the way, very tasty jam and juices are made from fruits.
In addition to the named variety, you can still experiment with the cultivation of Japanese quince, which is called "Nicoline". Since it is very resistant to low temperatures and gives a lush bloom in the form of scarlet flowers, this type of henomeles will be an interesting solution for your landscape design.
Another frost-resistant option, which is distinguished by a beautiful pale pink color, is the Pink Lady variety already known to you. Adult plant reaches no more than 1,2 m.
Growing and caring for Japanese quince in the open field: how to plant a shrub
To know how to plant a Japanese quince, carefully read the following recommendations from experienced gardeners. In principle, henomeles is distinguished by a certain capriciousness and exactingness only at a young age. During this period, the plant is very necessary moderate moisture, which implies the absence of stagnant moisture.
Further similar difficulties should not arise. True, we must still take into account that in poor light the plant may not bloom so luxuriantly and will hardly bear fruit.
How to plant a Japanese quince so that it pleases you with its delicate flowers? As you may have guessed, you should choose a place for landing sufficiently lit.
Next, do not forget that in the winter time the plant should be under the snow. Therefore, find a place where a massive snow cover is formed. And if you have snow storms are very frequent guests, do not forget to cover the bush with spruce branches or fallen leaves.
A very characteristic feature of the plant is that it can grow well and grow on almost any soil. So if you plant a shrub on wet clay or poor sandy soil, Japanese quince will be fine and will give a lush color. But this will happen only if the land is moderately wet, as mentioned earlier, and rich in humus.
Only on such soils as calcareous and saline, henomeles will not be able to grow. Note that alkaline soil will cause leaf chlorosis.
It is best to plant a Japanese quince on the site, which is located on the southern side of a country house, or in a secluded corner, which is well protected from the north winds.
Pay attention to the photo of the Japanese quince: if the planting was done correctly, your plant will give a similar fertile color:
It is necessary to remember that if you decide to plant a shrub in the spring, you need to prepare the soil in the fall. To do this, completely clear the area of weeds, if any, and keep the selected area under the black steam until planting. Fertilizers such as peat-vodka compost in the volume of 10 kg / m 2, potash and phosphate fertilizers in the volume of 40 g / m X NUMX are necessarily applied to the soil. This contributes to the creation of the necessary water and air-permeable earth ball.
If you want to decorate your garden with a plant with an open root system, and plant it in a permanent place, select the time for planting in the spring, when the soil is already thawed, but the buds do not start to bud. In the fall, it is also possible to plant a Japanese quince, but since henomeles is thermophilic, he may suffer or even die.
Be sure to consider a photo of a Japanese quince, whose care and planting assumes that the shrub will be planted in small groups or along the paths in order to form a low hedge:
In such cases, each plant should be located at a distance of one and a half meters from each other, if they are assembled in a row, and at a distance from the 1 meter, if the quince forms a group.
Planting Japanese quince in the open field is considered to be wrong: the root neck of the shrub must be located at ground level, but the root should never be bare! It is also important that the root neck, which is too deep in the ground, does not contribute to slowing the growth of henomeles.
Remember that this plant responds very badly to transplantation, and an experienced gardener will never disturb him again. It is known that in one place quince can give a lush color up to 60 years.
Well, when henomeles is already planted, it's time to think about how to grow a Japanese quince healthy and beautiful.
In order for the plant to bloom luxuriantly and in the summer, around it carefully loosen the soil at a depth of about 10 cm. This procedure is combined with the destruction of weeds.
For an even more effective result, which you will see if you look at the photo, in the care of Japanese quince, they use such a method as mulching - that is, covering the ground with a layer of mulch (peat, sawdust or crushed bark) to protect the shrub:
To apply this method, it is better to stock up with all necessary things in late spring and carry out the procedure while the ground is still quite wet, but it is already well warmed up. In the autumn, mulching is performed only when a constant low temperature has already been established.
In the cultivation and care of the Japanese quince, which was planted a year ago, gardeners do not recommend the use of liquid dressings that can easily injure young roots. And without the use of these funds, the plant will have enough nutrients in the planting fossa. And now, in the second or third year, when spring comes and the snow melts, experts advise to apply organic and mineral fertilizers.
They will contribute to the lush color and fruiting, which you can observe in the photo of the Japanese quince, the cultivation of which was also carried out using fertilizers in the form of liquid dressings:
Reproduction of Japanese quince with seeds and cuttings
It is the seeds that are considered the simplest and proven by tens of generations of gardeners to reproduce the Japanese quince. You need to know that when already ripe fruits are sent for processing and clean the core, large brown seeds can not be disposed of, but left for further sowing. They are sown in the soil in the fall.
This method is so loved by many people, because, thanks to him, it is guaranteed you can get dense shoots next spring. But if you failed to realize your plans in the mentioned period, you will have to plant seeds for stratification - long aging (2-3 of the month) in peaty or moist soil at + 3 + 5o C. In spring, the seeds are naturally transferred to the ground.
You can resort to another method - reproduction of Japanese quince cuttings. However, experts say that this method is considered less effective. In most cases, the cutting procedure is used to preserve the varietal qualities of chaenomeles.
Pay attention to the photo so that the cultivation and care of the Japanese quince in the future will not become a problematic and unloved task for you:
Remember, these green cuttings are usually harvested in early June, while the weather is dry but not hot. Be sure to cut them early in the morning. Gardeners say that the most effective rooting - 80% guarantee - are cuttings cut with a small piece of last year's wood. They are also called "with the heel." To stimulate growth, a solution of indolylbutyric acid with 0,01% is used.
The cuttings must be planted obliquely into a mixture of peat and sand (the required ratio is 1: 3). If the temperature outside is + 20 + 25 ° C, rooting can easily occur in 40 days.
How to propagate a Japanese quince with scions
Since the plant always gives a lot of root offspring, you can use them. How to propagate the Japanese quince in a similar way, experienced gardeners have long known. To do this, select shoots of approximately 10-15, see length and at least 0,5 thickness, see. Be sure to ensure that the offspring have a well-developed rhizome system. Then they are vertically planted and watered regularly so that the soil retains the necessary moisture. Then they resort to the already familiar mulching procedure - they cover the soil around the plant with chips, shavings or humus. True, one disadvantage of henomeles grown in this way is: it has been observed that the plant produces fruits of a smaller size than its counterparts, propagated by seeds or cuttings.
But there is also a special advantage in this situation: with this method of breeding, the Japanese quince very often later spreads in different directions and at the age of 20 can take up to 2 m2. This is very beneficial in those cases if you want, for example, to hold the soil on any slopes.
Cultivation of the Japanese quince in the Moscow region: planting, care and pruning
A very valuable feature of the Japanese henomeles is that he loves to “perk up” very much. Truth, gardeners are in no hurry to approach the plant spines. They do this only when they arm themselves with thick garden gloves - leggings.
The Japanese quince in spring is in need of sanitary pruning: during this period all dry shoots that have died from frost should be carefully removed. To do this, you can use ordinary well-sharpened tools - garden saws and pruners. After the procedure, be sure to handle the place cut garden pitch.
But how to prune the Japanese quince, if it is associated with the formation of a bush that begins at the age of 4-5 years? First, the procedure is carried out in early spring. Annually cut part of the root growth.
Only the 2-3 offspring is left for further growth. It is desirable that these be exactly horizontal shoots that are at a height of up to 40 cm from the ground. Other shoots, spreading along the ground or growing vertically, are boldly removed.
Another type of pruning, which is indicated in the description of planting and caring for Japanese quince in the Moscow region, is a rejuvenating procedure. It is used when the plant reaches the age of 8-10. Gardeners understand that the time has come for this pruning, when the annual growth is reduced to 10, see
The procedure is carried out as follows: the shrub is thinned, all thin and weak branches are removed, and only a dozen strong shoots are left.
Look at the photos of beautiful varieties of Japanese quince, the description of which is presented above - for them such a pest as aphid is the most terrible threat:
If you find these monsters on the plants that are in your garden, immediately use special tools.
No less vicious and dangerous enemy for henomeles is wet, cool weather, which causes many fungal diseases:
- if the plant has necrosis and numerous spots have appeared on the leaves, this is a sure sign that the Japanese quince may soon die;
- in cases where henomeles is afflicted with cricosporosis, all sorts of brown spots appear on it, fading with time;
- brown spots are a sign of ramulariasis.
What, then, must be done to save the plant? It is urgent to use the most effective means - spray the shrub with a solution of fundozol (0,2%) or apply a copper-soap liquid, which is made by adding into 10 l of soap water 100 g of copper sulfate.
These funds are considered quite dangerous, so there is another option: you can make a tincture of onions, and for this you need to insist 24 hours 150 g of husk in 10 l of water. After filtering the drug, they sprinkle the plant for a whole summer every 5 day.
Japanese quince shrub in landscape design (with photo)
After reading the description of the Japanese quince and looking at photos of various varieties of this plant, which are presented below, you can make sure that the henomeles can be considered one of the most magnificent ornamental shrubs:
Each variety is distinguished by its unique color range of buds (from delicate snow-white to massive fiery-red), which literally shimmer in the sun. And the fruits that reach the Japanese quince, resemble either outlandish pears, or amazing fabulous apples.
Moreover, the henomeles of many avid gardeners are attracted by the fact that it retains its regal appearance for a long time. Certain varieties can live up to 50 years! An amazing plant blooms in spring, pleasing the eye and bringing pleasure to the inhabitants of a country house, and in the summer and autumn shares its succulent fruits.
Japanese undersized quince is very often used for landscaping garden paths. This variety does not grow above the 1 meter. In addition, in May and early June, chaenomeles begins to be covered with orange-red flowers, which look very advantageous in any garden.
To create hedges Japanese quince also fits perfectly. It can be seen and single-seated, and collected in small groups, which very often create the most genuine artistic compositions.
In the garden henomeles looks great on a trunk - a vertical or inclined element in the shape of a letter. To obtain the desired result, the plant should be grafted with cuttings on a pear or rowan.
Look at the photo of the Japanese quince in landscape design: when you design a territory, be sure to consider the following points:
- for example, to create an alpine slide, you can combine henomeles with dwarf spruce, varietal thuja, or slate pine;
- if you plant shrubs along the garden path through every one and a half meters, you get a whole picturesque ensemble;
- in combination with daffodils and Carpathian bells, Japanese quince helps to add bright colors to the landscape design.
In fact, there are many options for composite solutions with the landing of the Japanese henomeles. Much depends only on the fantasy of the gardener. So - do not be afraid to experiment!