Arbors entwined with grapes are not only a very beautiful element of the dacha decor. If you grow ordinary varieties in the gazebo, you can get a great harvest. The main thing is to choose the frost-resistant varieties that you do not need to cover for the winter.
Particular attention in the cultivation should be paid to the grape shape of the grapes, so that such an arch would look decorative all year round.
This vine is one of the most ancient used by man. The country of viticulture was Ancient Egypt, and then the Roman state. In Russia, the history of cultivated grapes goes from the beginning of the XVII century. About agrotechnology and the value of the fruits of grapes is now known to every gardener, but this plant is also of interest as an ornamental.
Grapes can be grown not only on the trellis, it works well on gazebos, near the walls of the house, on balconies, loggias and terraces. Up to 70 kg of grapes can be obtained from each wall or bowline bush.
What could be grapes arbors
Arbors, entwined with grapes, can be of different shapes - round, oval, quadrangular. Overlaps are also allowed different - flat, conical, pyramidal.
The size of the arbors for grapes depends on the layout of the backyard or garden plot. When building galleries, the height of the structure is kept up to 2,5 m, width - from 1,5 to 3 m.
Intermediate supports are installed at a distance 3-4 m from each other. Cross rods or wires are placed through 50-70, see. Sidewalls of galleries and arbors can be figured, it all depends on the owner's imagination.
These photos show the most beautiful gazebos for grapes:
For wall culture construct a trellis on the wall. The crutches are fixed in the wall at a distance of 1,5 m with holes or a loop at the outer ends for wires or trenches that are placed horizontally.
The distance of the trellis from the 20-25 wall, see. If the structure is wooden, grapes are planted by stepping back from the wall at least 1,5 m for better ventilation.
Cultivation and formation of arbor grapes
When choosing a place under the gazebo, you must remember that grapes do not like shading, it can not be planted under trees. For the same reason, the northern walls of houses are unsuitable for gazebo grapes.
The best side is the west. Here you can plant less winter-hardy varieties. The southern exposure is also suitable, but in this case the plants should be located at a distance of 1,5-2 m from the walls due to sharp temperature differences in winter, which sometimes causes damage to the peepholes, perennial wood and the vine.
If it is not possible to withstand the specified distances, then it is better to plant the Isabella or Lydia varieties. The grapes, located near the eastern walls of the buildings, are exposed to the cold northeast winds prevailing in the southern zone.
In addition, a sharp change in temperature at sunrise is dangerous in the period of swelling and blooming eyes. Here it is more expedient to plant more frost-resistant technical varieties.
Plant grapes for gazebos or wall culture preferably in the fall. This provides stronger root growth in the year of planting.
The landing pit is prepared, as for the ordinary planting, with obligatory filling with organic and mineral fertilizers (up to 10 kg of humus, 100-150 g of phosphorus-potassium mixture and 200 g of wood ash). The distance between the bushes is allowed up to 1,2-1,5 m, because the area of nutrition of each plant includes the area of the arbor itself, not occupied by the roots of other plants.
Form grapes in the bowline culture in different ways. It all depends on the variety (high-growth or low-growth), winter hardiness (requires shelter or not), planting density, height of the structure, etc. One-piece or multi-sleeve type of forming, fan or high-stem, different types of cordon are possible.
The cultivation of grapes for gazebos is described in detail in this video:
The best grapes for arbors
For gazebos, interweaving the walls of houses, fences, balconies in the first place recommended varieties with complex resistance to disease and relative to frost. These are, first of all, vintage varieties:
In gazebo culture one can use strong-growing European and Central Asian varieties of different ripening periods, but for the winter, even in the North Caucasus, the vines have to be removed from the support and sheltered.
For arbors suitable varieties with a rare ability for grape regeneration.
"Gift of Magarach" able to bear fruit from the lower and replacement eyes. In the case of damage to young shoots by returning minus temperatures, this variety still produces a crop, while most varieties only recover the vegetative part and there is no harvest in the year of late spring frost.
This is one of the best grapes for arbours for early ripening (125 — 130 days). The cluster is average, 150-200 g, dense, cylindro-conical. Berry weighing 1,5 g, round, white, when overripened with rozovinkoy.
As can be seen in the photo, the skin of this grape variety is thin, elastic, the flesh is slightly slimy:
The taste of wine, pleasant. The berries are sweet enough. Growth bush average. Shoots mature well every year. The number of bunches on the shoot is two. Grown without shelter for the winter. It withstands frost -25 ... -27 ° C. Not affected by mildew, relatively resistant to oidium, gray mold.
In graft culture - stock "Kober". Excellent table and dessert wines are made from this grape.
"Spartan Magaracha" also capable of producing crops from replacement buds. Treats the same terms of maturing.
The cluster is average - 180 g. Berry 1,6 g, slightly oval, white. The skin is thin, the flesh is juicy with a slight nutmeg aroma, sweet. Growth bushes strong.
Look at the photo - this grape variety for gazebos shoots are upright with good autumn ripening:
Productivity is high. It is frost-resistant (maintains temperature - 25 ° C). Relatively resistant to mildew, oidium, gray rot. Used to make high-quality diet juices, table and dessert wines.
Without shelter vines on gazebos, balconies and high pergolas, you can grow technical varieties that can withstand temperatures down to -28 ° C.
"Burmunk" - medium ripening, nutmeg, with amber-colored berries
"Dvin" - late variety, black berries
Codru - medium late variety, nutmeg, with yellow green berries
When caring for grapes in the garden, it must be remembered that in a state of active growth even very cold-resistant plants also die in small frosts. To increase resistance to frost, timely suspension of shoot growth, accumulation of reserve and protective substances is necessary.