Among the barberries there are many resistant and ornamental species that grow well in conditions of central Russia. Japan is considered the birthplace of the plant. All barberries are thorny shrubs from 1 to 3 meters in height. The leaves are small, gathered in bunches on shortened shoots. The fruits of the plant are edible, with a high content of tartaric and citric acid. But there are some varieties of barberry, which are used only as decorative seedlings.
Not only autumn, but also the main coloring of cultural forms is interesting. Perhaps, therefore, the barberries, as ornamental shrubs, giving a beautiful color, rarely speak. But in the early summer, in bloom, the bushes of these plants become especially attractive. Entirely dotted with small, but numerous yellow flowers, they look very impressive. In late autumn, the plant is decorated with fruit. Today, barberries of different types and varieties make it possible to combine different shapes and colors into beautiful garden compositions.
See how beautiful the barberry looks like in the photo:
What does a barberry look like and how does it bloom: photos and description of species and varieties
Most often in landscaping use:
Relatively large barberry ordinary (B. vulgaris) and its shape with purple leaves 'Atropurpurea'. The common species is widely known as a fruit plant;
Barberry Thunberg (B. thunbergii), which many gardeners are breeding, has especially many decorative forms and varieties that differ in leaf color and crown size and shape;
Barberry of Ottawa (V. x ottawensis)representing a hybrid of the first two species.
Bushes are undemanding to the soil. They suffer drought better than excessive moisture. They can tolerate partial shade, although their decorative qualities are more fully manifested in the world. Well multiplied by summer cuttings.
Thanks to the beauty, variety of forms and colors of the plant can be used as a single planting of decorative barberry, in small groups or for creating hedges. Most species blend well with other shrubs. Coniferous trees with low growth - this is the most common neighbor in the garden for barberry. The plant is well combined with alpine slides, as well as a central shrub when designing flower beds.
Growing barberry in the garden does not constitute a hassle for its owner.
Any sort of barberry shrub is incredibly attractive. Many gardeners are confused by the variety of species of this plant. But in order to make a choice, it is recommended to focus on the goal that you are pursuing.
If you want the plant to delight you with delicious berries, then this is one variety. Want to decorate your garden - use decorative species. Further in the article we will tell about the barberries of different varieties with photos and a description of the features of each. We have already mentioned them above. We will note that each kind presented by us well copes with both tasks: it will decorate your garden and will give edible, tasty fruits.
Common barberry - one of the most common plant species. Reaches a height of up to three meters. The leaves are elliptical in shape, on the inside they have a gray-green color, and on the front - dark green. Shrubs have shoots of gray-brown color, with spines up to 2, see. This species blooms during 3's weeks. The inflorescence has a racemose shape up to 6 cm, consists of fragrant flowers of yellow shade. Fruits reach 1,5 cm in length and have a bright red tint.
The barberry ordinary has many enough subspecies:
The last representative of the plant of this species has a seedless fruit, which facilitates its processing.
See how the species of barberry ordinary in the photo.
Variety Thunberg can be considered the leader among the decorative barberries.
If you compare it with the previous view, then its size is much smaller. The adult bush in height reaches no more than 1 m. The branches of the bush extend in the horizontal direction. Depending on the variety, the young shoots of the plant may be bright red or even yellow, which later turn brown. The foliage is ovate, slightly elongated, the average length reaches no more than 3 cm.
In summer, the bush has a bright saturated green color due to the color of the leaves; by autumn it becomes bright red.
Color lasts no more than 2 weeks. During this period the bush gets a red-yellow shade. The flowers of the barberry bush of the Thunberg variety have a double color: the petals are yellow from the inside and bright red from the outside. Ellipsoid fruits reach 1 cm in length, have a coral shade and ripen in early autumn. If they are not collected, they can hold out on the branches until the first serious frosts. Barberry Toonberg, care and cultivation of which does not require special knowledge or skills, will give a different, more aesthetic look to your backyard. This species also has many hybrid varieties that are considered decorative: many-flowered, silver-bordered, dark purple, etc.
Look at how the barberry of Thunberg variety looks like in the photo.
Ottawa variety - is a shrub that combines the qualities of the first and second species.
This species is perfect for regions with fairly harsh winters. According to the external characteristics of this plant is similar to Thunberg, but in an enlarged form. Its height reaches 2 m. But the leaves are closer in shape and color to the common species. They have a pink-purple hue, which becomes almost black in the sun. In autumn days, when most of the colors in the garden fade, the bush will become the most beautiful, as its leaves take on a purple shade and keep on the branches for a long time.
Ottawa barberry, its types and varieties are presented in the photo:
In addition to the varieties listed, barberries of various ornamental varieties can be found throughout the world, which differ in their color, height and shape of leaves.
To create alpine slides use dwarf varieties of barberry bushes:
See how effectively such a barberry looks like an ornamental shrub in the photo surrounded by stones:
Their height does not reach more than 50 cm, so these varieties are called dwarf.
Barberry growing conditions: how to plant and care for shrubs
Decorative barberries, care for which even an inexperienced gardener can do, does not differ much depending on the type of plant or its variety. Therefore, it is enough once to get acquainted with all the subtleties and you can safely grow different types of such plants, regardless of its form.
You can find ideal barberry growing conditions in any garden. Choosing a place for further growth of the plant, give preference not too dark places, but he does not like abundant sunlight. Penumbra is considered ideal for these bushes. In such a place you will see all the brightness of the colors of the leaves and flowers of barberry.
Planting and caring for a plant does not take much time and mainly consists of:
- the correct selection of shrub planting method;
- ensuring timely watering, loosening of the soil, cleaning of weeds;
- shrub trimming;
- top dressing.
If you live in a region with enough rainfall, then water the plant as the soil dries. Watering is especially important in the summer months for the southern regions of the country, where rain does not happen long enough. Provide barberry shrubs with care, which includes weekly watering. Make it water not too cold. It is better if it is water that has warmed up in the sun, and not just recruited from the tap or from the well. Water should be poured at the root of the plant, trying not to fall on the leaves of the barberry.
The subtleties of care and watering look at the photo:
It is important to remember that in the first few weeks after planting, watering should also be carried out weekly, until the barberry is fully rooted. Planting and care further implies the absence of water stagnation in the soil. Therefore, it is important not to overdo it with watering.
Also in time should remove weeds in the area around the bush. Pay special attention to the growth that will appear near the barberry shrubs. It must be eliminated in time. From time to time, loosen the soil around the bush.
Fertilized barberry shrub during planting, does not require care more than indicated above. Provide him with timely watering and air intake into the soil. This will be quite enough for a young plant. But after a year it is desirable to do it in the spring, it should be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. To do this, dilute no more than 30 of urea in a bucket of water. Further, it is sufficient to do this no more often than once per 3 year. But such feeding will be acceptable for ornamental shrubs. If you want to get more and useful fruits with good edible qualities, then do more and fertilizing each bush with phosphorus and potassium, in the ratio 1: 1,5.
Pruning, as for other shrubs in the garden, consists of the removal of weak or dry shoots. Such a process carries a health and aesthetic moments. Remember that barberry bushes have sharp spikes, so use mittens and trim very carefully.
The first circumcision of the branches can be carried out in the spring on the one-year-old barberry.
Look at the photo and read the description of how to do it:
Such pruning is used only for tall grades of barberry. All shoots must be shortened to almost 2 / 3 or half. Dry branches are removed completely.
This will help to form an ornamental shrub that will look aesthetically beautiful.
Further pruning is carried out twice a year: at the beginning of summer and in August. Dwarf species are only sanitary pruning.
Looks like barberry - ornamental shrub before and after trimming, look at the photo:
Ways how to propagate barberry
Many believe that this is quite a capricious plant. That is why some gardeners are afraid to grow it in their area. But the reproduction of barberry and care in the future will not be difficult even for an amateur. Let's try to dispel the myths that cultivated this plant fanned.
There are a lot of breeding methods:
- division of the bush;
Each of the above methods has its drawbacks, which should be taken into account. In many ways, the final result depends on the plant variety. For example, for barberry Thunberg reproduction by cuttings is best, because this species has a lot of young shoots that can be used for this. If you do not know how to propagate the barberry growing in your garden, gardeners recommend using several methods and identifying the most suitable, giving quick results.
The propagation of barberry seeds gives a fairly low germination rate. Another significant disadvantage of this method is a big possibility of losing varietal characteristics.
The division of the bush also entails some problems. For example, with this method of reproduction, there is a greater likelihood of damage to the root system. As a result, both bushes can disappear or fall ill.
Despite all the difficulties, gardeners claim that with the right approach and following all the subtleties, you will very soon see in your garden how beautiful the barberry blossoms.
How to plant a barberry: seed reproduction
The plant can be grown from small seeds. Since germination is low enough, it is recommended to immediately plant several fruits.
How to plant barberry from sunflower seeds? The process begins with the selection of a mature, large fetus. Sort a few berries from the bush you like. Next, peel the fruit and release the seed. It should be washed with running water and kept in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Next, dry the seed well.
Sow recommended in the fall. Use open ground with loose soil. Make indentations up to 3 cm and sow seeds. Winter frost will harden them, and in the spring you will see the first shoots of your future barberry. Planting entails the care of the seed, the reproduction of which depends directly. For this, the collected product is kept in the refrigerator in dryness, mixed with sand, at a temperature of + 3 degrees. And only at the end of April it can be sown in loose open soil.
Seeds that sprout, should be thinned, removing the weakest shoots. A year later, the matured barberry can be transplanted to a permanent place.
With this reproduction, the first fruits you will see in the second year. There is a possibility that varietal traits may not be preserved in plants grown in this way. But you can prevent the situation by grafting.
Barberry quite independently can multiply itself, by self-seeding. If you do not collect the fruits in the fall, they are showered on the ground and may well take root. In the spring, sprouts are not touched, and transplantation is carried out the next year.
Reproduction barberry Thunberg and other types of cuttings in the spring
And nevertheless how to grow up the barberry of the same grade? To do without subsequent vaccination, it is better to use the method of cutting. To do this, it is enough to cut the branches from an adult bush, root and plant. But we note right away that not all types of barberry can produce a good cutting that will quickly take root. In addition, this method requires a lot of time for sprouting. To speed up this process, gardeners recommend using special root stimulants.
Reproduction of the decorative barberry cuttings takes place according to the following scheme:
- the cuttings are on the side branches, they are cut in June, up to 15 cm;
- the leaves at the base of the incision are removed, and the incision is treated with a root formation stimulator;
- soil is prepared: peat and sand;
- planted cuttings are planted;
- All seedlings are covered with plastic wrap or cans to create a greenhouse effect.
Reproduction of barberry cuttings in the spring also implies the subsequent care of the seedlings: airing, loosening the soil, spraying with water.
If the cutting gave the root, then soon on the visible part of it you will see new leaves. Next, the rooted plant should be transplanted into a deeper container with loose soil and mineral fertilizers. Here he remains for another year, after which the plant can be transplanted to a permanent place.
See how barberry cuttings look, planting and caring for it in the photo:
Reproduction of barberry by layering and dividing the bush
Another way to get a subsidiary plant of the same kind is the reproduction of the barberry by layering or by dividing the bush into parts.
Many shrubs in the garden can be propagated by dividing the root system. Barberry in this case is no exception. But here you need to be extremely careful and not to allow strong damage to the root system, otherwise the bush will not be accepted.
On how to plant barberry, sharing the root, we describe further:
- A healthy mother bush is suitable for dividing;
- dig him gently out of the ground;
- divide into parts;
- place the planting material in prepared flooded wells.
If the mother plant has a large root, then it can be cut into pieces.
Reproduction of barberry in the spring can be carried out and layering. Select annual branches for this. They must be healthy and strong enough. Near the mother shrub make a groove, moisten it well. Put the selected branches into the prepared soil, secure and sprinkle with earth. On the surface it is necessary to leave the tops of the shoots. Here is what a barberry looks like with prikannymi layering as a result.
Throughout the summer, both the shrub and subsurface cuttings are watered, weeds are removed and soil is loosened. By the fall you will get ready seedlings that will retain all the varietal signs of maternal barberry.
How to grow barberry: the fight against diseases and pests
As with any other plant in the garden, the barberry is also exposed to some diseases and pests. Therefore, if you want to preserve the beauty and fecundity of your bush, you need to monitor its condition and carry out measures to eliminate them in time.
Among the main signs of diseases that should alert the gardener, are the following:
- loose white bloom on leaves and shoots - powdery mildew;
- bright orange spots on the upper side of the foliage, leaves turn yellow and peel off - rust;
- gradual drying of the leaves of the bush, which spreads from one side to the other - wilting.
These are the most frequent diseases that the barberry is subject to. It is recommended to combat powdery mildew and rust by spraying 1% with a solution of colloidal sulfur. Depending on the degree of damage, the plant can be processed several times intermittently.
From the withering only timely removal of the affected shoots and treatment of the bush with Bord fluid will help. Damaged and distant shoots are necessarily burned.
Often badly affected bush can not be saved. Therefore, it is important to promptly identify the problem and fix it.
The insects that attack the barberry bush include aphid, sawfly and peppered moth.
If you find that the leaves have wrinkled on the plant and there are drying places, then this is a clear sign of the presence of aphids. Look at the shoots and young leaves - for sure you will notice this insect.
To combat it, you can use the old, but proven method - a strong soap solution. Concentration: 300 of household soap is taken on a bucket of water. The plant is well processed with a spray.
The peppered moth is especially dangerous for the barberry of a fruiting species, since it settles in the berries of the plant. With it, as well as with the sawyer, they fight with the spray of 1-3% chlorophos.
Look at how beautiful the barberry blooms in these photos:
This plant is still quite rare in the gardens of our country. But if you want to surprise with such an unpretentious and beautiful shrub, then make every effort for his disembarkation and care, and very soon the barberry will decorate your site.