Spirea (Spiraea) - flowering shrubs up to 2 m tall. Types and varieties differ in flowering time. It is for this feature that the spireas are divided into groups: spring flowering and summer flowering.
Spireas, blooming in spring and early summer at last year's growth, are usually white-colored. These include:
Spirea Nipponskaya (Spiraea nipponica)
Spiraea Berezolistnaya (Spiraea betulifolia)
Spirey Wangutta (Spiraea x vanhouttei)
Ashy spiraea (Spiraea x cinerea)
Spirea sharp-toothed (Spiraea x arguta)
Late summer blooms provide spirea, which bloom on the shoots of the current year. It:
White Spiraea (Spiraea albiflora)
Japanese Spirea (Spiraea japonica)
Spirey Bumald (Spiraea x bumalda) with spectacular decorative leaf varieties.
У Douglas spireas (S. douglasii) grayish foliage, which beautifully emphasizes bright pink erect inflorescences.
Spireas are unpretentious, grow quickly and easily propagated by cuttings and dividing the bush. Spring-blooming spireas are pruned after flowering, and summer flowering in early spring or autumn.
Spiray does not happen much. They are good everywhere - both as a tapeworm and in a hedge.
Look at the photo of the spirea bush:
Description of ornamental shrub spirea
To know how to grow a spirea, first of all you need to familiarize yourself with its description.
Spirea, or, as it is also known by the people as tavolga, is a kind of flowering ornamental shrubs. It is thanks to the winding shoots of the shrub and got its name, because in translation from the ancient Greek "spirea" sounds like "bend" or "flexibility." This shrub is completely unpretentious. This genus of plants includes about 100 varieties growing in different ranges: steppe, forest-steppe, and even in semi-deserts. Shrub varieties are distinguished by their decorativeness and ability to tolerate even the lowest temperatures.
Spirea can be either a dwarf plant, no more than 15 cm in height, or tall shrubs reaching 2-2,5 m. The roots lie shallow, have a fibrous appearance. The branches of a bush can both move along the ground and rush upwards. Have a light or dark brown shade. The bark begins to flake off with age. Blossoms in small flowers, in large quantities.
Shrub inflorescences also differ: these can be either panicles or spikelets or pyramids. The color of the flowers depends on the variety and type of plant. It can be white, lilac, bright crimson. Also, depending on the type of shrub, inflorescences will be located differently.
Some of them cover the entire stem and shoot of the plant, and some are based only on the ends of the branches. The plant can be propagated by cuttings, layering or seed. It is also possible division of the bush, to obtain a new plant.
This shrub is perfect for hedges and planting in a group to create a complete composition. It can also be used for "live carpet". But despite this, in a single planting, the spirea bush looks just as good.
The area of the plant is spread throughout Eurasia. Most often, it can be found near large bodies of water or thickets of wild shrubs.
To breed and grow shrubs with separate species began in the times of the Middle Ages. Favorite of all gardeners can easily be considered a large-flowered look. Her long flowering won the hearts of many people, because it continues, from May until the end of July. Often the bush blooms twice per season, but the second flowering is not so abundant.
By the time of flowering, this plant is divided into two subgroups: spring flowering and summer flowering. The first most often include shrubs, the flowers of which are white in color and they appear on old shoots. The second subgroup is characterized by different shades: pink, lilac, crimson, and the flowers appear on new branches.
The care for each subgroup is different. If the first species can be cut only in the spring, then the second group - immediately after flowering.
Shrubs are unpretentious to the soil, prefer bright places and perfectly tolerate frosts. Cultivation of spirea is possible even near roads: the plants tolerate gas pollution very well. The shrub grows quickly, you can see its flowering already in the 3 year.
Look at the photo of the spirea ornamental shrub:
How to grow spirea: planting shrubs
Despite the unpretentiousness to the soil, planting and caring for the bush of spirea has several subtleties and nuances:
- The ideal soil for the plant will be leafy and soddy soil. The composition of the soil should be close to this: 1 part of peat, 1 part of sand, 2 part of the earth;
- the importance of drainage is often underestimated. It prevents the stagnation of water in the roots, which can lead to serious diseases. For him fit broken brick or rubble;
- The pit should be dug for 1 / 3 more than a grounding bed;
- must be planted to a depth of more than half a meter. The equine neck of the shrub should be visible on the surface;
- the ideal time for it will be cloudy weather. It will also rain. It is worth doing at the beginning of autumn;
- as neighbors, the plant will prefer hnochniki, for example, juniper and thuja.
Now we will talk in detail about how to plant a spiraea at different times of the year.
How to plant and transplant spirea in the spring
Planting in the spring is possible only for the flowering type of bush. The main thing when planting a shrub is what you need to do before the foliage appears. The root system should not be dried, learn this if you buy seedlings. Shoots should also be healthy: be flexible and have several buds. Before planting, the plant must be "lightened." So, if the seedlings are damaged roots, then it is worth a little pruning the upper part of the plant - shoots. Further in the article we will describe how to cut spirea in spring. If, on the contrary, the roots are abundant, then it is worth cutting them.
There are cases that when storing seedlings the roots dry up. To prevent unpleasant consequences, soak them in water, and only after that land.
We will tell you how to plant and transplant spirea to cause the least damage to the bush.
As mentioned earlier, spirea is an unpretentious plant, however, if you prefer to admire long and massive flowering, then it is worthwhile to provide the bush with the best conditions.
Landing places should be chosen on the sunny side, with fertile soil. Learn that the roots of the shrub can grow very quickly, which significantly increases the place occupied by the shrub.
When planting, dig a sheer hole, on 1 / 3, larger than the size of the planting ball. After that, leave it for a few days. Be sure to provide a drainage layer (cm 10-15). Then, mix the leaf soil, sand and peat, at the rate of 2: 1: 1, and pour this mixture into the pit. Lower the shrub, straighten the roots and fill with fertile soil so that the neck remains on the surface. Well seal. After planting, the plant must be abundantly watered and make peat mulch.
How to plant spirea in the fall
Unlike the spring season, in the fall you can plant both groups of plant varieties. Most often, their planting is carried out simultaneously with the division of the bush. For this, young plants are best suited, not older than 4 years. Otherwise, it will be very difficult for you to extract a large earthen clod and wash the soil out of it.
Dig up a spirea bush. Do not be afraid to chop off the roots a bit - it will not do much harm to the plant. Wash the earthy bed by cleaning the roots off the ground. If you have dug a very young plant, then it will be enough just to put it in a container with water and wait until the earth settles on the bottom. When the roots are ready, divide the plant with shears so that each part has powerful roots and a pair of basic branches.
Dig a hole and make a low hillock inside. Plant the fathoms on it and spread the roots. After that, fill the hole with fertile soil and compact it. Liberally water the sapling.
Now you know how to plant a spirea.
How to care for spirea shrubs
The main requirements for the care of spirea shrubs are sunny areas (but many varieties also feel fine in the penumbra), airy, fertile land, drainage, and mandatory peaty mulching. The layer of useful “cover” should be no more than 7. See. If you are wondering how to properly care for the spirea, we will give a detailed answer to it.
Care and cultivation of spirea is easy. It can tolerate drought, but the lack of moisture can adversely affect the condition of the roots of the shrub. In the dry season it is worthwhile to provide the plant with regular watering: twice a month in 10-15 liters per shrub.
The soil must be loosened and weeded, as the weeds have a negative effect on plant growth. Fertilize shrubs worth complex feeding after pruning. In the hot summer season, the plant will appreciate the solution of mullein. You can also add superphosphate (1 g to 1 l) to it.
In the abundant watering needs most Japanese decorative spirea. The remaining varieties well enough to moisten immediately after planting and in the dry season.
When growing spirea in the garden, if you do not have time to provide the plant with the necessary watering, then the land around it should be mulched. This will help prevent premature drying of the earth.
A mixture of peat with sawdust or buckwheat is perfect for mulching shrubs.
To develop shrubs faster, after flowering, it is necessary to remove the inflorescences of the plant.
Look at the photo of spirea growing:
Spiraea pruning in spring (with video)
Shrub is famous for its rapid growth, so it must be periodically cut. Since this genus of plants is divided into 2 subgroups, the care for them, respectively, is different. We will talk about how to properly prune spring flowering and letnese flowering spirea.
If flowering occurs on the entire length of the shoot, then it is necessary to cut only its tips. This should be done no more than once a year. The branches frozen by the time of cold weather are cut off. Spirea pruning is done in spring.
However, the old plant (more than 7 years), you must completely "rejuvenate", cutting off almost at the root. Then, when new 4-5 shoots are formed, you can proceed to the formation of a bush. Pruning must be done before the first sheets appear.
Look at the photo of care and cultivation of spring flowering spirea:
Check out the spirea trim video:
How to trim late blooming spirea
Late flowering shrubs must be cut at the end of summer. The small and weakened branches are completely removed, and the main ones are cut to the largest bud. Do not be afraid to rejuvenate the bush: the more you cut, the better will be the new branches. Otherwise, they dry up and die. When pruning spirea older than 4 years, complete rejuvenation is needed: the bush is cut to a height of 25-30, see. If after such a procedure the plant develops poorly, then it should be replaced. Usually such a shrub lives about 20 years.
Care and pruning spirea must be done on time, otherwise the heavy branches will begin to lean toward the soil and dry out.
Now you know how to trim the spirea.
Reproduction of spirea in the spring by dividing the bush
Spirea breeding is carried out in several ways: by dividing the shrub, seed, layering and cuttings. The first method is considered the most optimal and fast. We will talk about how to multiply spirea in all ways.
A quick way to get an adult plant. Spirea breeding by dividing the bush is carried out if the plant has reached the age of 4. It is divided into several smaller bushes. If the plant is older, then this method will be extremely time consuming: the roots have grown and formed a powerful system. Because of this, it becomes extremely difficult to remove the shrub from the ground and divide it.
This method is suitable for breeding spirea in the spring. This can be done in the summer, but not during the period of heat and drought, as new shrubs will need moist soil. Cool air and warm earth will be the best conditions.
Dig a bush, based on the size of the crown, plus half a meter. Do not worry if during this process you damage several roots.
The root system must be dipped into the water for several hours, until a portion of the land settles. Wash residues under running water. This is necessary so that the land does not interfere with the division of the bush into parts. Otherwise, due to carelessness, you can damage the roots or divide them unevenly, as they tend to weave.
Divide the bush. Each part should have a pair of basic branches and a good root system. After that, the plant must be prepared for planting. The roots should be made the same length and cut off small shoots.
After digging a hole, place it inside the ground to form a small mound, on which you need to place a new shrub. After that, evenly distribute the roots. Cover the hole with fertile soil.
Immediately after planting, the plant must be watered abundantly. If it is hot summer outside, then you need to water it every day, and in cool time - once a week. If moisture is enough, the plant will quickly take root, and will actively develop.
If the shrub has outgrown 4's, then you should use other methods.
How to propagate spirea seeds
This method is suitable for all varieties except the hybrid. They multiply by grafting or layering.
For breeding spirea shrubs with seeds, wide and low containers are best suited. Fill them with peat and fertile soil at the rate of 1: 1. After planting, the seeds must be “covered” with the same mixture with a layer in 1, see
The plant will begin to make its way through the ground already after 9-10 weeks.
To prevent the development of disease in seedlings, they must be treated with basezol or ordinary solution of potassium permanganate.
After the 2-3 month of the shrubs can be planted in their permanent place of residence. After that, they need to be plentifully watered and mulch, for example, with peat. Expect flowering costs on 4 year of cultivation.
Reproduction of spirea shrub with layering
This breeding method is suitable for the spring period. Shoots that are located below the rest, you must bow to the ground and secure with studs. Cut the end of the branch and sprinkle with fertile soil along the entire length.
Rooting occurs throughout the year. In winter, in order to protect the escape from low temperatures, it is necessary to cover it with fallen leaves. After the new shrub has taken root, the branch is cut off from the main shrub and planted in the required place. To make the foundation process faster, the bark on the shoot needs to be cut a little.
Reproduction of spirea in the spring by cuttings (with photo)
Cutting is one of the least laborious methods for this shrub. Spirea propagation by cuttings is available for any variety, including hybrids.
After the end of the active growth of shoots, you can proceed to grafting. For early flowering shrubs, cuttings are cut at the end of spring, and for late flowering, in the middle of summer.
Select suitable containers and fill them with a mixture of peat and sand. Place the cuttings in them. To make the plant take root faster, you should water it with 4-5 once a day or install foggy watering.
The plant has a good engraftment. However, when using a root growth stimulator, the chances of rooting will reach a maximum. Next year, cuttings can be moved to their permanent place in the garden.
Reproduction of spirea cuttings in the spring will give the most healthy and strong shoots.
Look at breeding photo spirea:
Spirea diseases and pests
As a rule, the bush is very rarely sick. However, sometimes it can be attacked by malicious insects.
It is one of the most dangerous. Leaves will help to notice the appearance of this pest: they are covered with small whitish spots. After that, the leaves die off. Most often spider mites can be found in hot summer, especially in dry times.
To get rid of this pest, it is necessary to treat the plant with Arex solution or fosalonom.
It can cause no less damage than a tick. It feeds on the sap of the plant, which leads to its gradual fading.
To overcome aphid, you can use solutions of Pyrimor or Kronofos.
If a small part of the plant is affected, then folk remedies can be dispensed with: tinctures of chilli, onion or tobacco.
In addition to dangerous insects, the shrub may also be attacked by a fungal infection, such as gray mold. To cure such a disease, it is necessary to apply a Bordeaux mixture. However, if the plant is severely affected, it cannot be cured.
Fungal infections can spread to other shrubs, so an infected plant should be treated as soon as possible.
Spiraeus varieties of different types: photo, name and description
Spirea ornamental shrub is famous for its diversity. We offer in this section you familiarize yourself with the descriptions and photos of different types of spirea and its varieties. As mentioned earlier, this group of plants is divided into two categories.
Spring Flowering Types
They are characterized by the appearance of flowers on old shoots. Look at the photo of the species of spirea with the following description: