Mahonia (Mahonia) - small, up to 1,5 m tall shrub with glossy, leathery, dark green leaves. The most popular is Mahonia Mahonia (M. aquifolium). This is one of the few evergreen deciduous plants wintering in the middle belt. Large feathery leaves are equipped with sharp spines. In autumn and spring, leaves turn reddish.
Magonia is extraordinarily beautiful in spring, during the flowering period. Bright yellow flowers are collected in dense erect inflorescences-panicles. By the end of the summer, bluish-blue edible fruits ripen, which, however, almost no one eats. In the fall, some varieties bloom again. In the form of Atropurturea leaves in the spring have a purple tint.
How impressive, original and catchy is the hollow-leaf mahonia, look at the photo:
Mahonia is undemanding to soil conditions, shade-tolerant. Good winters under cover of snow. Shoots not covered with snow may freeze or suffer from sunburn. However, even after a strong frosting bushes usually recover quickly. Easily tolerates pruning and shearing. Grows at the expense of root shoots.
Mahonia is one of the best shrubs for a shady garden. It is well combined with coniferous cultures, with a stone, but in the Russian “birch” landscape it looks like an alien object. Despite this, the Mahoniya padubolnaya in the suburbs is quite common, it attracts the attention of landscape designers for its original appearance.
What does the holly leaf mahonia look like: photo and description
Among the vast range of ornamental representatives of the plant world, bred by breeders in the process of lengthy and complex research, there are very original samples. One of such specimens is Mahonia, the closest relative of the barberry, belonging to the large family of Berberidaceae. Her homeland is North America, where she lives on gentle or steep slopes, in forests.
The plant is considered a symbol of one of the states (Oregon), its name was in honor of the famous American botanist B. McMahon. Other names are common - “Oregon grapes” (due to the similarity of fruits with bunches of grapes), “lily of the valley” (due to the similarity of the shape and smell of inflorescences with lilies of the valley), “American barberry” (due to the tribal affiliation).
As the bush grows in natural conditions Magonia, look at the photo:
In the open spaces of Europe, M. aquifolium began to be actively cultivated since the middle of the XIX century. H
In order to understand how a Mahoniya is hollow, read her description - the key features and typical features are suggested below:
- Mahonia is a slow-growing shrub, the height of mature specimens reaches 1,2-1,5 m. Initially, the branches rush upwards, and then gradually descend, creeping along the ground.
- The foliage is reminiscent of holly, hence the name of the plant - “hollow”. In winter, the leaves do not fall, they only slightly change their color. In summer, the crown is saturated green, with the onset of cold weather, it becomes golden-red-brown. Purple shade persists until spring. Leaves are leathery, dense, glossy. On each massive element (size up to 20 cm) there is from 5 to 6 miniature leaves.
- Erect inflorescences at the end of branches appear after the 2-th decade of May or 1-th half of June. The flowers are very fragrant, variegated yellow. A pleasant smell attracts many pollinating insects. Sometimes in autumn mahonia blooms again.
- The fruiting period begins at the end of the summer. If the process of pollination was successful, and the mahonia holm-like good care received, then the bush will literally be covered with fruits. In autumn, fully blue-black berries ripen with a beautiful bluish coating. They are distinguished by an oval shape, their size is about 1, see. The fruit tastes sweet, with pronounced sourness.
When growing in bright and sunny areas with fertile soil, the plant forms a dense, dense, low grove.
After reading the description and description of Magonia, look at the photo presented below:
Magonia in the suburbs becomes the original decoration of personal plots, gardens, alley. Here, flowering enters the active phase from mid-spring, the crop ripens closer to the end of summer. Magonia in landscape design is used everywhere, because it retains decorative all year round, at any stage of its development, is not afraid of shadow, gas or smoke, tolerates forming haircut well. A copy is also taken to be planted on the territory of city parks, squares, along the route tracks.
In the middle zone of the country shrubs are prone to freezing, especially in the frosty but snowless winter. For this reason, the cultivation of padubal magonia, planting and caring for it in the suburbs of Moscow region imply compulsory protection from low temperatures. Especially the case for young bushes - those who have not yet had time to take root completely.
American barberry berries are eaten, frozen or frayed with sugar for storage. Of them prepare delicious jams, marmalade, jam, mashed potatoes, jelly. Confectioners and winemakers use the fruit as a natural dye. The plant contains many nutrients, cultivation Magonia is important for homeopathy, traditional medicine.
The root part is the raw material for the manufacture of medicinal extract, rich in a complex of valuable elements:
- ascorbic acid;
- organic acids;
- heterogeneous alkaloids, etc.
Bitter medicine increases appetite, tones the body, prevents early aging, strengthens the immune system. It also improves the functioning of the cardiovascular apparatus (strengthens the walls of capillaries, stabilizes the outflow of blood), neutralizes the negative effect of free radicals.
The extract has beneficial effects on the digestive tract. It is indicated for cholecystitis, hepatitis, dysbacteriosis. The tool demonstrates a noticeable antibacterial, antiviral activity. It is well established in dermatological practice, where it is used in the treatment of pustular rash, herpes, eczema, psoriasis.
In the shrub there is a component "berberine". The substance reduces the level of glucose and lipids in the blood, optimizes the natural production of insulin. Based on this, evergreen shrub Magonia used in the treatment of diabetes.
There are contraindications to the use of natural products based on Oregon grapes: lactation period in women, pregnancy, personal intolerance to the elements of the composition, etc. It is not recommended for children to use in children. Before starting treatment, it is necessary to consult with a specialist, because illiterate actions can cause harm to their own health.
Varieties of Magonia padubolistnoy (with photos)
Foreign breeders (mostly Dutch) have developed many cultivated, highly decorative plant forms. Not all of them take root in Russia due to the country's climate. Only a few varieties of Magonia are bred, planting and caring for them in the Moscow region can be provided in accordance with the needs of the shrub. Not so long ago, two varieties of Magonia of the Dutch selection were imported to us - Apollo and Atropurpurea. Each of them is good in its own way, has characteristics that will be discussed further.
Unlike ordinary mahonia, the plantations of the new Apollo variety do not grow to uncontrollable scales with time. There are no special requirements for planting and maintenance in the open field. Strong branching, multi-stemmed shrubs are among the slow-growing specimens. The height of a mature ground cover sample usually does not exceed 60 cm, and the diameter is 1 m.
Single-pinnate, shiny leaves grow up to 30 cm long, consist of 5-7 prickly toothed leaves. Their color is prone to seasonal metamorphosis:
- when blooming, leaf buds have a reddish tinge;
- in summer the leaves become juicy green;
- in the autumn the crown is red-bronze;
- in winter, foliage takes on a purple color with a purple tint.
The plant pleases with numerous tassels of yellow flowers, as well as edible dark purple fruits.
Enjoy the beauty of this variety Magonia, looking at the photo below:
The shrub magonia of the hollow-leafed Apollo variety is unpretentious, grows well in both sunny and shaded areas. Luxurious dense bushes form in the sun, but in the penumbra it is easier for the plant to winter. Since spring, the bush forms an attractive carpet, low curb. Since plants rarely grow beyond measure, they hardly need pruning.
Another popular variety is M. Atropurpurea - a description of this magonia is suggested below:
- the height of an evergreen bush is about 0,5 m, width is up to 1 m;
- crown shape - dome;
- growth rate is moderate;
- leaves are alternate, pinnate, elliptical;
- shade of leafy part - from green and copper to violet-brown;
- flowers - yellow, with a specific aroma;
- fruits - black, round berries with a diameter of about 1 cm;
- root system - well developed (the skeletal roots are deep, the lateral ones are located superficially), branched, with pressure releases juice that has a strong coloring ability.
M. Atropurpurea is very light-requiring, prefers moist soil, although it can grow in drought conditions. Resistant to difficult urban conditions, in a harsh winter prone to frosting, but in the spring it recovers very quickly.
After reading the description of the holonia-holland magonia, look at the photo - what this variety looks like:
Reproduction of Magonia with holmwood cuttings, seeds and layering
There are several effective ways in which padubal magonia is bred - this is reproduction by cuttings, sowing seeds and forming layers. Each gardener chooses the most suitable option for themselves. Most people prefer reproduction by cuttings for magonia - the technology is simple, effective, not associated with complex manipulations.
How is the reproduction of Magonia with holm cuttings described below - read the key points of the procedure:
- In early spring, cut lignified shoots are cut from which all sheets are removed.
- The cuttings are placed in a container with water (only 2-3 buds are left above the liquid surface).
- The vessel is sent to fresh air, but protect from bright rays.
- When in several months the length of the roots on the shoots reaches the length of 5 cm, the cuttings can be planted in open soil, covered after planting with a glass jar or a transparent plastic bottle.
- After 10 the days begin to harden the plant, lifting the cover more and more every day.
Growing the cuttings of the hollow-tree magonia allows you to get a specimen completely repeating the biological features of the mother bush.
No less often than grafting, another method of propagation of the holonomy Magonia is used - reproduction by sowing seeds purchased in the store for summer residents or obtained independently from the fruit of the plant ripened by autumn. If you plant the grains immediately after harvest, they will undergo a natural stratification, and by the spring they will delight young seedlings. Seeds are sent to small wells, buried on 1-2, see Mulching sprouts is highly recommended. Seedlings that have reached the age of 2 of the year, gardeners move to a permanent place of "habitat", where they then provide Magonia with holm care and cultivation according to generally accepted rules.
It is also very well possible to carry out the reproduction of magonia by layering. To this end, the most powerful, healthy branches in the spring bend close to the ground, placed in a previously prepared oblong hole. The shoot is pinned with a large metal bracket, sprinkled with a layer of fertile soil. At the same time, the top is left outside free.
How is it done in this way magony planting and care, look at the photo:
To optimize the rooting process, the inflection point on the branch is pulled over with wire. By fall, the layering should take root. Then it can be separated from the parent copy. Postpone this manipulation the next year, if the root apparatus is not fully strengthened. In the future, create favorable conditions for the development of Magonia (care and cultivation - these are closely interrelated activities).
Planting and caring for hollow mahony in open field
The first step in planting a hollow leaf mahonia is choosing the right place for it. The plant loves semi-dark areas that are not accessible to drafts. The soil needs a moist, rich, slightly acid and necessarily loosened. The optimal composition of the substrate - humus, turf soil, sand (proportion 3: 2: 2). This combination of ingredients will be ideal for Magonia shrubs - planting and care will give the desired results. Since the plant reacts painfully to stagnant water, the soil needs to be drained.
See how the padubal magonia is planted in the photo proposed below:
What kind of care does a plant need?
A beautiful Magonia shrub after planting needs proper care. Only in this case, the plant will be able to perform its ornamental functions, it will bear fruit well.
- Top dressing. Mineral or organic fertilizer is desirable to make in the spring, sprinkling it near the roots of the plant. This is done at least twice a season.
- Watering. Shrub courageously endures drought, but do not deliberately test his strength. The plant with sincere gratitude responds to rational watering. For one copy you will need from 10 to 12 l of pure water. The procedure is performed no more than twice a month, since it is also impossible to overdo it with moisture - its excess can be even more harmful than the deficit. Sometimes in the evening sprayed the crown of the bush (if the summer was very hot). Such an event leads to the purification of the pores of the leaves, refreshing the general appearance of the plantings.
- Pruning. It is not necessary to cut a shrub, as it rarely grows beyond measure. If you need to forming pruningthen it is carried out immediately after flowering or closer to autumn. Shoots shorten no more than half. In the spring they make sanitary pruning - they get rid of all damaged, frozen, unhealthy branches.
Painlessly transfers the rejuvenating care Mawonia - look at the photo, what a rich, luxurious growth it gives after a radical pruning "to the stump":
- Loosening and mulching. The soil is constantly maintained in a structured state. In the middle of autumn, the trunk circle is mulched with a layer of decomposed organic matter (cm thickness 3-5).
- Preparing for the winter season. Young, immature shoots are experiencing bad wintering. In the fall, they are reliably warmed with spruce branches; during the first years of life, the shelter is simply necessary for 4-5.
Particular attention should be paid to the protection of shrubs from diseases and pests. From spotting use copper-containing agents, green soap, blue vitriol or Bordeaux liquid. Powdery mildew is fought with the help of such preparations as foundation, caratan, colloidal sulfur.
The plant acts as an "intermediate host" of rust fungi, parasitic on cereals. From rust helps spraying sulfur-containing drugs, zinebom.
Look at the photo, as they provide a hollow-leaf Magonia after planting spraying and avoiding diseases:
Bush mahonia holly in landscape design (with photo)
Mahonia is hollow in landscape design plays an important role - thanks to its versatility. It is used in different ways:
- planted near buildings;
- make out the slopes of steep or gentle slopes;
- decorate lawns, gardens, squares;
- form from it live fences, low curbs;
- complement alpine slides, etc.
How interesting is it to combine with grassy plants, trees and other shrubs, and how effectively the Mahonia is hollow in landscape design shows its aesthetic qualities - look at the photo:
The plant looks great in the composition of complex floral compositions, it emphasizes the beauty of their "colleagues". You can experiment by planting a specimen with large or small stones.
As it looks on the stony surface of the Mahonia in landscape design, take a look at the photo:
Lily of the valley shrub, relatively recently entered into use of domestic design art, quickly fell in love with gardeners. The main reason for this is the stunning decorative effect, the extreme unpretentiousness of the holon-leaf magonia. Planting and caring for her do not involve difficulties, and her plant preserves its beauty throughout all four seasons of the year.