There are about 200 species of viburnum. All of them are very decorative, but not all winter-hardy. Viburnum trees are usually shrubs or small trees 3-5 m in height. Most species are shade tolerant. Viburnum spectacular in flowering, fruiting, as well as in autumn colored dress.
Look how beautiful the viburnum bush looks at the photo below:
Kalina ordinary (V. opulus) from antiquity known in Russia as a healing plant.
We treat Kalina with respect, cultivated varieties whose fruits do not have bitterness:
"Shukshinskaya" and etc.
But we are primarily interested in the decorative qualities of viburnum. Very long and widely known variety Roseum with spherical inflorescences of sterile flowers. There are other varieties, for example, Variegatum with variegated leaves and Nanum - miniature, not higher than 1 m, form.
Kalina gordovina (V. lantana) - a bush of impressive size with an original look. This is a drought-resistant and shade-tolerant plant with pubescent leaves and a beautiful decorative crown all season. It blooms before Viburnum ordinary and not so impressive.
Fruits, as they mature, change shade from green (through scarlet) to black. All these colors can be observed simultaneously. Garden forms are bred with golden and yellow-colored leaves. Kalina ordinary is demanded at registration of a manor in Russian style. Gordovina suitable lover of garden wonders. Kalina - growing and care: planted singly and in groups, in the immediate vicinity it is better not to plant anything, because the lower branches of the shrub can take root and inhibit other plantings.
Description of the bush viburnum
In the wild, the plant is found in any forest glade. Viburnum is cultivated as an ornamental shrub and at home, planted near rural houses, cottages and even city parks. The plant belongs to the family Honeysuckle, from 200 known forms actively cultivated around 60. The average lifespan of a tree is 40-60 years (subject to competent care).
Distinctive features of the plant are offered in the generalized description of the viburnum - shrub or slim tree:
- Plants are very diverse in their appearance, the parameters of flowers and fruits.
- The arrangement of sheets, as a rule, is opposite, in some species - whorled. Stipules whole.
- The bush blossoms with snow-white, occasionally pale pink shields. There are two types of inflorescences - fruitless (with a massive perianth) and fruitful (nondescript, narrow tubular).
- Fruits are often bright scarlet, but not necessarily. There are varieties whose berries have orange, black sides or even glaucous spraying. The vast majority of varieties are edible fruits.
How to grow viburnum, in Russia, everyone knew, because the plant is associated with a lot of folk beliefs, traditions, rituals. Kalina has long been called the "wedding tree". The girls presented their chosen ones with festive towels, skillfully embroidered viburnum leavesred clusters. Bouquets of fruits tied with a scarlet ribbon were erected on dishes by which the couple treated their dear guests.
In the central regions of the country, Kalinniki were baked for a long time: wiped berries were placed inside cabbage leaves, and then brought to condition in the oven. The finished pie had the appearance of a black cake with a characteristic aroma. Viburnum was always used in the design of the garden, as well as in the household - comfortable purses were made of its flexible branches, shoe nails and other necessary trifles were made of woody branches. The fleshy berries lose their astringency and bitterness after freezing, as well as with curing and thermal processing, when they prepare tasty fruit drinks, jams, and marmalade.
How to care for viburnum, is known to all folk healers, because the fruits of this plant have an incredibly beneficial effect on the body:
- strengthen the immune system;
- reduce fever;
- normalize blood pressure;
- work as a diuretic;
- harmonize the emotional state;
- purify the blood;
- eliminate constipation.
Kalina ordinary is very effective against anemia, hypertension, and neurological disorders. It removes toxic substances from the body, slags. Fruits are safely stored all winter, if they freeze or grind with sugar.
Growing viburnum: planting, care and pruning in spring
Kalina is propagated in several classical ways, which will be discussed further. When autumn sowing of freshly harvested seeds, seedlings will appear a year later. The first couple of years, seedlings grow very slowly, but since 3-th year, this process is markedly accelerated. How to plant viburnum planting seeds, read on:
- Grains rid of the pulp, washed with running water. Dried seed suitable for 2's years.
- Stratified seeds are preserved at room climate 2 of the month. 3a this time, begin to peck roots.
- Containers with seedlings are transported to the basement, where 1 is kept for a month.
- Then they dive into special containers, deepening only the roots, sent to the greenhouse.
From February to March seedlings continue to develop, they are exempt from scales, turn into leafy seedlings. They can be transferred to a suitable site, where young viburnum will always be located (planting and departure will be carried out according to the general rules).
Vegetative reproduction provides an opportunity to save the unique characteristics of the variety. For many ornamental forms, vegetation is the only breeding path. For the formation of daughter otvodok shoots root, not separating them from the mature bush. Annual healthy growths until the bud breaks down bend to the fluffy, nutritious, moist soil. Fixed with strong metal straps.
When the young shoots, developed from the buds, reach the height of 10-12, they are spud. How to cut viburnum, or rather its cuttings: in the fall, after the cuttings are well rooted, they are cut with a secateur from a mature bush.
Decorative varieties desirable to propagate by cutting. Green cuttings are perfectly rooted, cut from an 2-3-year-old tree. The material is harvested from June to July, cutting the stems to 10 cm. They must have internodes (at least 2-x pieces). The upper cut is performed at a right angle, the lower - obliquely. Cuttings are seated in a greenhouse or a portable container under the oilcloth. Used soil mixture from the same parts of sand and peat.
How is the preparation of cuttings viburnum, planting and caring for them, look at the photo:
Before you plant viburnum, you need to determine the place where the plant will live comfortably. Most varieties of viburnum seamlessly exist in conditions of moderate shade. Garden forms are recommended to be planted in open areas of the backyard, otherwise the bushes will not demonstrate maximum beauty and fertility.
When choosing a territory for planting decorative viburnum, preference is given to areas with good moistening. If there is a reservoir in the garden (an artificial pond, a natural lake), then there is no better zone to find - the plant is not at all afraid of the surface occurrence of groundwater.
- Landing. The right time is spring, autumn. The optimal parameters of the landing pit 0,5 x 0,5 m. In addition to peat, mineral components are added to the trench. Sapling well deepened, which favors the active development of auxiliary roots. The distance between the bushes must be at least 1,5-2,0 m.
- Watering. Kalina needs abundant watering, she painfully suffers drought. The lack of moisture adversely affects the appearance, degrades the quality of the fruit. During the hot period, viburnum is watered especially often.
- Pruning. The procedure is carried out every year. In the process of autumn pruning viburnum remove dried branches, and of all the healthy, young shoots leave only a few (for 10-year-old tree - 8-9 pieces). Rejuvenate the bushes should be by cutting all the old branches at a height of 15-20 cm from the soil surface. Sanitary pruning of viburnum in the spring or autumn is done as needed.
- Extra food. Fertilize the plant before the start of the growing season (especially Kalina needs care after pruning) and before starting to drop foliage. After the winter, minerals are introduced - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. In the fall, they are limited to the last two microelements, and only half of the spring portion is used. Drugs are distributed around the trunk, after which the soil is loosened, abundantly watered, sprinkled with hay or peat.
- Pest control, diseases. Bush viburnum often suffers from aggression bark beetle. He unceremoniously eats all the foliage, leaving only the veins intact. To destroy the parasite, the bushes are sprayed with chlorofos 0,2%. In addition, on the trunks from time to time, the cartilage guard may settle. It is adversely affected by Karbofos 0,1%. To prevent an unpleasant disease called "powdery mildew" throughout the season shown spraying solutions prepared from garlic, onions.
Although planting viburnum and caring for it in the open field are not labor-intensive activities, it is advisable to show diligence and attentiveness so that the plant does not feel discomfort, please the eye and bring tasty berries.
Harvesting begins after the time of ripening (this is approximately from 10-th to 20-th of September). Over-grown berries partially lose their value, as juice flows out. In addition, the longer the fruit will be on the tree, the greater the number of birds they eat (you can leave some of the brushes to the birds after harvesting). Collecting clusters, you can not break off branches or chop them, because such actions cause great harm to the crop next year.
Types and varieties of viburnum: photos and description
There is an uncountable number of species and varieties of viburnum - then a short description is given of only the most sought-after specimens of this remarkable representative of the plant world:
It grows on fertile soils. It is a shade-tolerant gigrofit with a highly branched crown. The shrub reaches a height of up to 3 m. Sometimes it looks like a medium-sized tree with a broad crown, a grayish trunk and bare, yellow-gray branches. The leaves are pointed at the top. The berries are glossy, with black skin, sweet flesh.
It is found on Sakhalin, Kuriles, where it grows in the mountains, birch undergrowths. Forms dense thickets. This is an ornamental shrub with very pretty, massive leaves, spectacular white flowers and rich red berries.
After reading the description of varieties of viburnum, look at the photo, which depicts this plant.
Kalina is proud
Heliophilous mesophyte. One of the most popular and beautiful views. Fruits black, suitable for consumption of berries. Differs in a marble pattern on a wrinkled foliage of a greenish-yellow shade.
Dwarf 1-meter shrub with symmetrical shoots. Crohn accurate, grows slowly. The homeland of this specimen is Western China. Variety appreciated decorative leaves 15 x 8 cm, with deep conductors. Inflorescences are white and pink, arranged in umbrellas with a diameter up to 8, see. Flowering begins in June. Blue fruits usually ripen by October.
Comes from North America, where it grows near swamps. This is a massive shrub with a dense crown, gray bark. Has wiry leaves of rounded shape, dentate along the edges. The flowers are white, miniature, gathered in panicles with a diameter of 6, see. Flowering falls on June-July. Fruits are dark blue, small, numerous, slightly bitter in taste.
Rate the extraordinary charm of this variety of viburnum, looking at the photo.
Its homeland is Eastern Canada, where it peacefully coexists with deciduous and coniferous trees. It is a tall shrub or slender tree up to 6 m tall, with an oval crown. Differs broadly oval, pointed at the tops of shiny leaves. Milky-white flowers are organized in corymbose brush. Fruits are bluish-black.
Rational care and cultivation, as well as pruning viburnum are the key to its delicate beauty.
How original are the various types of viburnum, look at the photo:
How to grow viburnum "Buldenezh": planting and care in the open field
Particularly noteworthy variety "Buldenezh" (with fr. "Snowball ball"). This is a very ornamental shrub, which is famous for its attractive, rich flowering. Description of viburnum varieties "Buldenezh" is fully consistent with its name: light flowers, gathered in large umbrellas with a diameter of 15-20, see really look incredibly similar to snow balls.
How is planting viburnum "Buldenezh", look at the photo - they depict the key points of the procedure:
You need to ensure Kalina "Buldenezh" after landing and care - look at the photo, what it should be:
Kalina in the landscape design of the garden (with photos)
All varieties of viburnum decorative enough, they are appropriate in all sorts of variations of plantings. For this reason, viburnum in landscape design is used quite often and successfully. It is important that the mandatory care for viburnum is not without any difficulties. Thanks to the powerful root machine, Viburnum bushes reliably strengthen the slopes, steep slopes.
Winning viburnum looks in tandem with maples, lindens, birches, spruces, rowan. Its miniature form is also cultivated - a spherical, elegant bush-dwarf, whose diameter rarely exceeds 1 m. Such volumetric “caps” of dark green color are very interestingly located on lawns along with garden forms of conifers. Before you cut the viburnum, it is recommended to imagine how harmoniously the planned composition will fit into a particular space.
To understand what could be the use of viburnum in landscape design, see the photo:
If you are bored with new-fashioned capricious plants used in the design of plots, then the best choice for your yard will be viburnum (how to plant and care for it, described in detail above). Gardeners appreciate for its unpretentious, attractive appearance. This shrub with great sensitivity responds to the most basic care, in gratitude for the care pleases with spectacular flowering, autumn triumph of the foliage. Kalina is a fascinating and very useful plant.