Forsythia (Forsythia) - shrub height 2-3 m with a spreading or erect crown. Forzition blooms one of the first. Bright yellow flowers appear before the leaves. The bushes covered with flowers from afar “shine” in a bare, barely waking garden.
Forzition species are close in appearance.
Most commonly used:
Forsythia average (F. x intermedia)
Forsythia hanging (F. suspensa)which have decorative forms and varieties.
Forsythia develops better on fertile soils. It is photophilous, does not tolerate excessive moisture. In severe winters can frost up. Easily propagated by cuttings.
Forsythia is also called Forsythia, since it got its name in honor of the English botanist W. Forsythe.
Forsythia in flowering looks particularly advantageous on a dark lawn background. It is better to place the shrub not singly, but among other tree species, because after the plant has thrown off the flowers, the forsythia no longer attracts attention.
In this article we will talk about the features of planting, care, as well as give a detailed shrub description Forsythia as a decorative element for the garden.
Forsythia yellow ornamental shrubs: photos and description
The blooming forsythia shrub is the first sign that spring has come.
This magnificent plant is completely covered with golden flowers 3 cm in diameter. They appear long before the foliage. And only when they fall, the first green appears. The leaves of the fossaeus are serrated, 2-15 cm long. Foliage shimmers like: from dark to light green. The fruit of the yellow forsythia shrub is a box with winged seeds inside.
Forsythia is very fond of light, although tine-resistant. Not demanding to the ground. It is a close relative of the olive.
The most profitable forsythia looks against the background of the lawn in combination with other rataniyami. Flowering shrub for three to four weeks. Unlike many plants, Forsythia remains attractive even in deep autumn due to its light purple leaves.
Usually this shrub blooms in early April, and in the southern regions even in February. Forsythia is distinguished by its exquisite form - the branches are thin and curved inwardly.
After reviewing the description of forsythia, look at the photo of the bush:
How to plant forsythia in spring and autumn
Planting and caring for forsythia in the open field require some knowledge from beginner gardeners. We will tell you how to plant forsythia in spring and autumn.
It is necessary to plant forsythia with the establishment of heat and before the first frost, so that the plant can take root before the onset of cold. The ideal will be a windless piece of land on the sunny side - forcing will easily carry the shadow, but prefers sunlight more. The shrub does not tolerate frosts and prefers heat. In winter, the tops of the shoots can freeze, but with the onset of the first thaw, the crown of the plant quickly returns to normal. The recommended soil composition is alkaline and slightly dry. If it is acidic, then it is worth lowering the pH level, having carried out a digging with the introduction of ash into the soil. Forsytiya is also resistant to harmful gases: do not be afraid to plant it near the road. It tolerates drought and is not disposed to diseases. Before wintering, Forsythia should be bent to the ground and covered with foliage or spruce branches.
Planting a forsythia shrub is most effective in a whole composition. If you want Forsythia to bloom much earlier - plant it on a well-lit area or near a heat source, for example, the walls on the sunny side of the house.
Hanging forsythia will most effectively be planted on higher ground: its weeping branches will look most beneficial.
Pits for planting Forsythia need to pull 50x50X70 see. To plant a group of plants at once, they should be driven in at a distance of 1-1,5 m. Before planting the shrub, the drainage is laid on the bottom - rubble. Its layer should not exceed 12-15, see. Over the rubble pour sand, about 5-10, see. All this is covered with a mixture of compost. After planting, the shrub is covered with earth and carefully compacted. Also immediately after planting the plant is well watered. If the Forsythia was planted in the fall, then before the first frosty nights it must be mulched with breathable material to prevent freezing. With the onset of heat mulch is removed, and the branches are bent. Now you know how to plant forsythia correctly.
Pay attention to the photo of the correct fit forsythia:
Forzition species and varieties: photos and description
There are 7 species of Forsythia shrubs, some of them came to us in Asia, and the other part was grown in Europe. In our area, the most accustomed are egg-shaped, weeping and intermediate Forsythian. A detailed description of the forsythia varieties is presented below.
For warmer regions, European and Forsythia Giralda are suitable - these varieties are more vulnerable to cold weather.
Forzition species and varieties differ from each other in a number of characteristics.
Oval Forsythia best tolerates cold. It grows to a two-meter height. This type of shrub was brought to us from North Asia.
In country gardening, the most frost-resistant species is most often used - Goldzauber.
Forsythia Came to us from the warm regions of East Asia. Representatives of this species need careful care before frost: the shrub must be covered.
Intermediate forzition variety - a mixture of dark green and weeping forsythia. It has many decorative forms.
European view characterized by the fact that blooms with the appearance of foliage. Because of this, bright blooms are not as prominent as compared to other species. Not frost-resistant, shrub buds are often damaged due to cold.
Forsythia Giralda is similar to the European, but more vulnerable to night frosts.
Photos of varieties and types of forsythia you can see below:
Also, having read the description of forzition varieties, look at the photo, where the most obvious differences are presented:
Care for growing forsythia shrubs
Care for the yellow forsythia shrub is not difficult. Adult shoots do not need constant hydration. Water them abundantly, especially during the dry season. Do not over-wet the forcing, she does not like it. To maintain optimal water levels in the soil, the plant should be mulched around the trunk with compost.
Thanks to top dressing, forsythia blooms much earlier and brighter. It will be enough to fertilize the plant twice: at the first thaw, during the period of ripening of the flowers with the use of complex feeds and after they fall, with phosphorus dressings.
When planting and caring for forsythia, it is important to consider that it must be weeded constantly, as it does not tolerate the weed "neighborhood". Loosening the soil will also be beneficial.
After 3-4, you need to prune all dead shoots. This procedure should be carried out every spring, before the budding period.
Care and cultivation of forsythia provides for regular feeding. The first dressing of a plant should be carried out with a full complex of mineral fertilizers. On the 1 m consumption of feeding around 50-60 gr. After flowering to help the shrub in the base of new buds, Kemira Universal fertilizer will be an excellent option. It should be used at the rate of 100 g per square. m
If the climate in your region is dry, then forsythia should be regularly humidified. Monthly watering on 8-10 l will ensure the full development of the shrub. After a lot of moisture, the ground should be loosened and mulched to avoid premature loss of moisture. Planting and caring for Forsythia is a long, but not complicated process. The main thing - timely feeding and pruning plants.
Pay attention to the photo of landing and care for forzition:
Forsythia is less prone to disease, which is its advantage in comparison with other ornamental shrubs, which require constant care, which in turn turns out to be a real problem for a novice gardener. The main cause of forsythia diseases is excessive moisture in the soil. It tolerates dry periods with ease, but if during planting you did not take into account the need for drainage and ensure regular watering of the bush, then be prepared for the fact that the plant will soon begin to wither. The rot in the roots is almost impossible to remove, therefore, it will be much easier to avoid the disease. To do this, you need to properly water the shrub: 10 l of water every 3-3,5 week.
If the excess moisture in the soil could not be avoided, then immediately proceed to loosening: this will help to dry the soil faster.
If the roots of the plant are constantly kept in the damp it may lead to more serious consequences. When the rot in the roots has already appeared, it is necessary to dig up the shrub and prune all the affected parts. The remaining roots should be dipped in 30 minutes into a disinfecting solution. If the root system was badly damaged and after pruning it is almost gone, then it is necessary to cut off most of the shoots. Otherwise, the plant will immediately feel the lack of food from the roots of such a number of shoots.
After all these procedures, the shrub needs to be transplanted to a new place, preferably with good lighting. Do not forget about the drainage system during landing.
One of the most dangerous diseases of forsythia is bacteriosis. The main symptom of the disease is premature yellowing of the foliage. After a certain time, the bush begins to languish. On the cut of the shoot, dark areas are pronounced.
Unfortunately, the plant cannot be saved from bacteriosis. The only way out is to remove the shrub from the soil with subsequent disposal.
The fact is that bacteriosis is able to spread to neighboring plants, and since Forsythia is most often planted in a composition, such a development is inevitable. The place where the shrub used to grow should be treated with potassium permanganate for decontamination.
See how healthy forsythia shrubs look like in the photo:
How to propagate forsythia cuttings and seeds
Forsytia seeds and cuttings are propagated. Drooping forsythia can be multiplied by layering. We will talk about how to multiply forsythia in each of the ways.
- How to propagate forsythia cuttings
In early October, it is necessary to cut the thick shoots older than 1, for 15, see the cuttings. Then, they are lowered into the ground, leaving a pair of buds outside. Escape covered with dry foliage. Already with the onset of spring, the cuttings will begin to grow actively, and in the autumn will become full-fledged seedlings. If you notice that the plant develops poorly and weakly starts branches - it must be cut. Cut branches descend into the water until the roots appear, after which they are planted in the soil.
Cuttings with foliage are cut in June. A few weeks later, when the cuttings are finally rooted, they can be transplanted into the garden on the 2-3 of the year;
- How to propagate the weeping forsity
At the end of summer-beginning of autumn, the branch of a weeping shrub is inclined to the ground and fixed. After that, it must be covered with a layer of fertile land. In order for the roots to sprout faster, the bark on the branch should be cut a little. With the onset of spring, it is separated from the main plant. Next year, a new forsythia will appear on this site.
The shoots of this Forsythia variety are well rooted and do not require growth stimulants.
- How to propagate forsythia seeds
After 2 stratification months, seeds can be sown in spring or early autumn. Caring for them is no different from caring for any other seeds. It is important to water them and feed them in time.
In order to enjoy the beautiful flowering of Forsythia, it is not necessary to wait for the onset of spring in your garden. Growing forsythia is also possible during the cold season. To do this, it is necessary to cut off twigs older than 1 year in the fall, cover them with polyethylene and hide them in the refrigerator.
To wake up the spring in your house, just lower the twigs for a few hours in warm water. After that, pour water into a glass or vase and dissolve in it 50 g of sugar in 1 l. Put the shoots in a vase. Already after a week, Forsythia will delight you with a lush blooming yellow bouquet.
How to prune forsythia in spring and summer
Young Forsythia shrubs should not be touched for the first few years, except perhaps removing dead shoots after wintering. Mature plants are cut more strongly. We will tell you how to properly trim the forsythia, and when it should be done.
- How to prune forsythia in spring
After severe frosts, most often young shoots freeze slightly and need to be removed. Also, in spring, the basis for the formation of the future bush is laid, since the branches are better viewed and it is much easier to get into the depths of the bush than when everything is overgrown with foliage. However, the main pruning is carried out in the summer, after the flowers fall;
- How to prune forsythia in summer
All faded branches must be cut in half. Dried and old shoots, even if they are already quite large, need to be shortened at a height of 5 cm from the soil level. The resulting stumps will soon have new buds from which young, healthy branches will go. When pruning is to give the plant the shape of a bowl or bowl. If you use foresight as a hedge, you need to rejuvenate it once a year in 3. For this, the plant is pruned at half its height. This will give a powerful impetus to the active development of many young shoots, which means that the fence will become more dense.
Forsythia is an ornamental shrub, so it should be cut at least once in 4 years. Otherwise, it will lose its appearance and become worse to bloom.
Forsythia shrub in landscape design (with photo)
Forzition found wide application in garden and park decorative art. Forsythia is most often planted together with other flowering plants, creating a whole composition. Very often forsythia in landscape design is used as a hedge, due to its ability to quickly grow young shoots.
Look at the photo of forsythia in landscape design: