Elderberry (Sambucus) - shrubs or small trees (3-5 m), many of which differ in decorative fruits. Elderberry red, or brushy (Sambucus racemosa) has several decorative forms, unpretentious and besides scares mice. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) also has decorative forms, and its fruits are eaten.
Black elderberry is less hardy, but still quite stable, especially when landing in a place protected from cold winds. It is easily restored in case the shoots are frozen.
It is similar to Canadian elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), which also has decorative forms. This is a more hardy plant. The listed species are to some degree shade tolerant and moisture-loving. Prefer rich soils. Well tolerated pruning, including "on the stump." The elder is propagated by seeds, the cultural forms by cuttings.
What does a black and red elderberry look like, how a bush blossoms (with photos)
Looks at an elder, look at the photos proposed below, and admire its unique beauty:
This typical sample of the honeysuckle family is an extremely attractive plant, fanned by unusual beliefs. Healers consider him a talisman from evil spirits, an improvised material for creating medicines. How does an elderberry, surely every summer resident, a villager and even a dweller of a megapolis far from gardening know.
There is a whole palette of varieties and types of elderberry, they are known around 40. The characteristic aroma of foliage frightens off annoying insects (for example, flies), rodents and other pests. Shrubs are often planted in the area of cesspools and compost pits, street toilets, manure heaps.
In addition to the common red and black elderberry, other varieties of this plant are also cultivated, for example:
How different species and varieties of elderberry look in all kinds of territories look at the photo:
Red as well as herbaceous elder - inedible plants, in their composition are present cyanoglycosides. Black elder, by contrast, is known for its healing qualities. Sometimes it is not easy to distinguish the poisonous berries of red elderberry from medicinal black fruits. If there is no perfect certainty about which plant is in front of your eyes, you should not risk it.
Photos of black and red elderberries are offered below, look through them in order to see the important differences:
Most varieties of elderberry for Moscow region are quite suitable, they can be planted even in the North-West. If you provide the plant with reliable insulation for the winter, it will not suffer from severe frosts. Ornamental cultivars are cultivated for the purpose of decorating personal plots, cottages, gardens, park zones. The elder in landscape design is very much in demand, because the deciduous mass and flowers of this plant are extraordinarily beautiful, they can have various colors and shapes.
How to propagate elderberry cuttings and in other ways
The elder is bred by grafting, sowing seeds, dividing bushes or forming layers. Reproduction of elderberry cuttings - a convenient and most famous method. Cuttings are used as lignified, and young. They must contain at least 3-x internodes, several upper sheets. The material is harvested in June-July.
Cuttings from an adult plant (10-12 cm) are placed in a sand-peat mixture, covered with a jar on top. That part of the stem, which will be in contact with the ground, preferably before planting process root forcing - this composition will speed up the rooting process at times. Requires regular watering. In the fall, seedlings are sent to the open ground.
Seeds are harvested around the end of October, sowing is carried out immediately or in spring. If the procedure is scheduled for spring, then seeds must be prepared properly:
- they are pre-soaked - for 3-6 days;
- water is changed daily;
- then the seeds are mixed with wet sand, placed in an airtight container, put in a fridge for 50-60 days.
Sow the seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm, keeping the distance between rows. In the very first summer season, seedlings grow noticeably (to 0,5-0,6 m), at the age of 1, they are transplanted to a permanent “habitat”. Autumn sowing does not require pre-treatment of seeds.
The key features of this method of elder planting and care are depicted in the photo - review them to make all the steps correctly:
How to propagate an elder tree in order to achieve almost 100 percent survival rate of a young plant? The best option is the formation of layers, which are added from an adult shrub in the fall or spring. A branch of the 2-3-year-old plant is folded down, placed in a trench dug the day before. Compost is added to the bottom of the groove. The shoots are securely fastened with a bracket made of metal, well dropped, leaving the top of the branch above the ground (they are cut into 10 cm after planting). The plant needs frequent watering, especially until it takes root.
The division of the root system is performed in the fall. A large, perennial bush is dug, divided into equal sections. For this you will need a saw or a sharp ax. The cuts / saws are smeared with ashes, immediately planted in prepared trenches or containers (if spring planting is planned).
How to plant an elderberry
To get a strong, beautiful plant, you need to know how to plant an elder correctly. The shrub is not particularly picky about the soil on which it grows, however, preference should be given loam, sod-podzolic soil with pH 6,0-6,5. Excessive acidity of the soil is neutralized by liming (making dolomite flour).
The plant can put up with excessive humidity and moderate shade, but it definitely does not withstand drought - it grows poorly, loses its decorative effect, and is capable of dying at all. This should be taken into account when choosing a site for planting and with further care.
It is recommended to stop the attention on the open, sunny, eastern site of the site. Looked at the photo in a suitable place, well-groomed elderberry bush, look at the photo:
Shrubs are planted in the fall or spring, which depends on the breeding method. In any case, dig a hole in advance (one month before the intended landing). The depth of the pit - 0,8 m and 0,5 m - its circumference. Ground from the upper layers of the ditch is thrown in one direction, from deeper layers - in another.
At the bottom of the trench is placed nutrient "pillow", consisting of such components:
- soil excavated from the surface layers;
- 7 kg quality humus;
- 50 gr. phosphates;
- 30 gr. potassium fertilizer.
All ingredients are thoroughly mixed. Cover the 2 / 3 mixture with the bottom of the excavated pit. On the day of planting, the trench is slightly loosened inside, the root part of the seedling is lowered there, sprinkled with soil previously extracted from the lower layers. Top sleep with residual fertilizer mixture. Tamped area around the trunk, poured water (1-15 l). When the liquid is absorbed, the seedling is carefully tied to a peg.
With some of the main stages of planting an elder black and caring for her in the future, see the photo:
Although the plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness, it still needs some attention, otherwise the shrub will not be able to perform its decorative functions.
The nature and amount of care measures depends on the season:
- Spring. In March, there is a risk that the plant will suffer from temperature changes when the bark heats up during the day by the sun's rays and cools rapidly at night. To prevent damage, all forks stained with lime mortar. If there are cracks or injuries caused by rodents on the trunk, then all such “injuries” should be washed with a solution of potassium permanganate, covered with garden pitch. On a fine, cold day, proceed to pruning. Dried, unhealthy, frostbitten shoots are subject to elimination. With the help of a secateur, the crown is given a neat look. Cuts and cut points are treated with Nitrafen or Bordeaux liquid.
- Summer. After flowering, the elder is sprayed with special preparations to prevent damage by harmful insects, powdery mildew. The soil on the ground is loosened, kept wet. In the bushes frozen out during the winter period, the growth of basal shoots is activated. They are destroyed until they have "overtaken" the elderberry itself.
- Autumn. Autumn care means watering, harvesting, preparing for winter. In September curative berries ripen in black elderberry, they are harvested and processed accordingly. After that perform sanitary pruning. When the plant leaves foliage, it is treated with fungicides, insecticides. At the end of the month, they dig up the soil around the trunk, warm the ground area with peat, humus or straw. Sometimes pre-fertilize.
- Winter. To prevent frostbite root bush partsperiodically pile snow around the trunks. Also ensure that the insulating mulch does not collapse.
In sufficient quantities of water need varieties of all types of elderberry: and black, and red, and Canadian and others. Reduce the frequency of irrigation or even eliminate them only in a rainy summer and when the tree trunks are mulched. Mulch (compost, straw, rotted manure) slows down the rate of evaporation of moisture from the soil. In a particularly hot time, 10 l of water is poured under each bush, 1 time / week.
Type of black elderberry: varieties for the Moscow region, care and cultivation (with photo)
The most popular, all recognizable view is the elderberry black. Look at her varieties on the photo - all of them with proper care can perform decorative tasks:
To understand even better how an elder looks black, read the description below. This is a very productive shrub or medium-sized (not higher than 10 meters) tree. He likes sunlight, but he also feels rather well in the shade. Adult specimens have branched stems, gray bark, rather large (cm 10-30), unpaired leaves, consisting of 3-9 individual segments. Planting black elderberry and care in the future for it are simple.
The flowers are collected in a wide shield-like inflorescences up to 25 cm in diameter: snow-white or with a slightly yellowish tinge, less often pale pink. To find out how the elder blossoms, you have to wait for spring-summer. During flowering, a characteristic aroma spreads from it, which attracts insect-collecting plants. Black and purple, glossy fruits with 2-3 pits and scarlet pulp ripen closer to September. They contain persistent pigment substances.
The berries of the black elderberry shrub are sour-sweet in taste, the fruits, and also the inflorescences contain many biologically active components. Therefore, the cultivation of black elderberry is very important for alternative medicine.
Medicinal extracts with valuable properties are prepared from herbal raw materials:
- bile-, diuretic.
Used raw materials for external use for hemorrhoids, burns, diaper rash, ulcers, wounds. Tasty jam, marmalade, compotes are made from fruits, they make liqueur. There are contraindications to the use (pregnancy, Crohn's syndrome, colitis, etc.). Leaves and bark are toxic to humans.
Growing black elderberry and caring for it do not have distinctive features; they are carried out according to the general principles detailed in the article. Black elderberry is also propagated in standard ways - each gardener chooses the most appropriate technique for himself.
Next will be listed the most popular varieties of black elderberry, this species is very fond of gardeners and is actively used by landscape designers:
Aurea Lime color crown grows.
Luteovariegata. Leaves initially have a bright yellow color, and later become white-yellow.
Aureo-variegata. The variety is characterized by golden-motley foliage.
Albomarginata. The leaves are spotty, bordered by a white stripe.
Argentea. Green leaves are present on the white leaves.
Guincho Purple. In spring, the krone is green, in summer - bright purple. The flowers are pink, over time a little dull.
Black Beauty. Purple leaves, pink inflorescences with a pleasant citrus scent will conquer each person. Purple-black berries are edible.
Rotundifolia. Slow-growing shrub with wide leaves. Inflorescences openwork, not abundant.
Sampo. Valuable for industrial production grade with average parameters of brushes, but large, appetizing fruits.
Due to the relative resistance to frost, most of the described varieties of elder black and near Moscow with its severe climate are suitable.
Before using parts of a variety for treatment or for food, you should consult with an experienced herbalist, a phytotherapist. This is necessary in order not to confuse edible species with poisonous, not to cause harm to health with incorrect dosages.
Type of red elderberry: photos and description of varieties
Red elderberry (Sambucus racemosa) - A small deciduous tree begins its lineage from the mountainside of Western Europe. Its distinctive feature is a peculiar smell and beautiful, but inedible small fruits of red color. Externally, the plant becomes especially attractive just during fruiting. A copy is quite shade-tolerant, but it looks more impressive in good lighting conditions.
It has an elder red variety very interesting, decorative, which successfully tolerate formative pruning, adverse weather conditions:
Nana. Dwarf, compact form. It has a nice golden crown, notches along the edges of the sheets. The flowers are green-yellow, the berries are bright scarlet.
Sutherland Gold. Differs from Nana more pronounced dissection of the border sheets. The variety is resistant to sunlight.
Goldenlocks. Charming plant, whose height reaches 0,75 m.
It has deeply dissected, yellow leaves. Their decorative effect does not deteriorate even under the influence of the scorching sun.
Purpurea Pleases luxurious buds pink, purple hue.
Flavescens. Favorably stands out among other varieties of the original color of the fruit. Beautiful red berries have orange dilutions on the sides.
Tenuifolia Shrub grows slowly, reaches 150 cm.
Arcuate shoots produce fern, very tender leaves. The latter, when blooming, acquire a purple overflow.
What are the charming types of mentioned elderberry, look at the photo:
If we talk about what red elderberry planting and care are required for, then the situation is the same as in the case of black. All the classic rules of care are perfectly acceptable for this type. Reproduction of red elderberry is performed by grafting, sowing seeds, the formation of layers.
Any part of this shrub contains substances that are toxic to humans. Caring for the plant, after wearing protective gloves, try to be extremely careful. After work, wash hands with soap and running water. If the plant sap, its other fragments hit an open wound or cut during cutting, you should hurry to the doctor.
Black and red elderberry in landscape design (with photo)
Black elder in landscape design is used quite often, because this plant has many advantages - decorative, endurance, unpretentiousness, etc. Other types of elder (red, Canadian) are also used to design parks, homestead territories, aley, roadside green stripes.
The plant is highly promising in the aesthetic design of the plots:
- If the garden is made in a natural style, the composition of the elderberry bushes will act as a kind of underbrush for the natural grove. Beneficially fit elder in the design of the edge with a lake or pond.
- Graceful colorful inflorescences that cover some varieties of elderberry will give a romantic mood to the whole estate - look at the photo, what a unique effect they provide:
- In massive rock gardens dwarf plant species will look great, and "weeping" varieties are suitable for registration of the coastal zone.
- Elderberry is a shrub that is often “invited” to play the role of a hedge. It retains an attractive appearance for many months.
- The “responsiveness” of the shrub draws the attention of summer residents to it. Growing black and red elderberry and caring for her are processes that do not involve any difficulties. With only a few simple tools (pruners, shovels, saws), minimal time is easy to turn the planting into a work of art.
How successful attribute can be an elder in landscape design, look at the photo for yourself:
The usual set of garden and park plants already become boring. The elderberry bush will bring freshness, innovation, an interesting highlight to the landscape. With its help, a person can show imagination, feel like a real master of creating charming compositions. It is important that the black elder in planting and care is extremely unpretentious, the same can be said about other varieties. They are allowed to safely improvise, decorating their yard.