Cissus is a kangaroo vineyard whose birthplace is Australia. Treats the most popular climbing home cultures due to unpretentiousness in leaving and pleasant appearance. Long stems organize dense foliage, which can curl around the stand or attractively descend from the pot. So, cissus as an indoor flower is ideal for decorating loggias or office space.
This is a perennial deciduous, sometimes evergreen climbing plant. Unlike ivy, it winds around the support with the help of special “antennae”, and not the stem itself. It is growing fast, unassuming and sold everywhere. Elastic shoots grow in 2-3 year to 3 m in length.
Over time, the stem stiffens, becomes not so elastic, overgrown with coarse gray bark. The leaves of cissus are whole, palmate-complex or lobed - depending on the species. At home, the plant does not bloom, but if buds appear, it is collected in clusters of greenish buds. If they are pollinated, roundish red or black fruits will develop.
Types and varieties of cissus: photo video, name and description
Rozh includes more than 300 plant species. The species listed below and some varieties of a flower such as cissus, bred within them, are most common. You can find a description of them on this page.
Cissus Antarctic (Cissus antarctica) more often called simply cissus. It has antennae that cling to the support. The leaves are oval, large, light green with large-toothed margins, ranging in size from 5 to 8. See The front surface is dark green, the reverse side is slightly lighter, and the veins are light brownishly pubescent. For the year, cissus can grow on 1 m, its shoots reach a length of 3 m. Green flowers are collected in inflorescences.
Pay attention: on the photo - one of the types of cissus - rhombus (Cissus rhombifolia).
Especially unassuming. Shoots are more sophisticated and elastic, reach 1,5 meters. They recognize it from the cinnamon leaves, sometimes with a reddish bloom, trifoliate leaves are composed of simple leaves of a diamond shape. Flowers of this particular species after pollination form into red berries.
The best grade is considered Ellen danicawhose leaves have a lighter green shade.
Mandiana is a variety that, like Ellen danica, refers to rhombus.
As shown in the video, cissus is larger than its “relatives”:
It has a thicker stem, which stretches upward and twists along a support with the help of antennae. The leaves of the variety are quite large, because of this, the crown looks thick. It is a hardy flower that endures any changes in conditions. Well propagated by grafting: sprouts can take root even at high temperatures. A distinctive feature - in the winter does not need a period of rest, but continues to grow.
Rate on the photo one more type of cissus - striped:
Its name conveys the type of leaf coloring: white oblong spots in rows go along the entire width. The plates are small, 3-5 pieces on the stem, resemble the shape Girlish grapes. The plant is not demanding of moisture and tolerates heat. There is a popular red sensation variety with reddish leaves.
On a warm window sill, suitable for flowers, you can keep more types:
Cissus discolor (multicolored)
Cissus amazonica (Amazonian)
They have leaves with a silver pattern, but these species are on sale only occasionally. They are more demanding to care than the first three of these.
Next, evaluate the photo quadrangular cissus - a flower that is most dissimilar to its "relatives":
It evergreen vineswhich adapted to dry conditions and turned into a succulent. The plant has thick tetrahedral stems with a width of 1, see. Its flowers are rather inconspicuous, like those of other relatives. Requires a lot of light and fairly infrequent watering.
You can find these types of indoor grapes, like the round-leaved or ferruginous. However, they are not easy to find on sale.
Succulents also include the Cissus Bayneza, Yutta presented in the photo:
Houseplants take the form of a shrub. They have fleshy leaves, but in Baynez they are trifoliate, green, and in Yutta they are olive and pointed.
Why does the leaf tip of a cissus flower dry?
Photophilous plant He needs a bright diffused light, for example, for a diamond-shaped flower. Antarctic varieties, on the contrary, require partial shade. Well suited office space or halls. However, it is worth protecting plants from direct sunlight, especially in the open air in summer.
All types of cissus can be used as ampelous plants, for gardening vertical walls separating rooms, or trellis. The exception - cissus multi-colored. This species best feels like an epiphyte in a tropical window.
It is necessary to maintain the room temperature, Cissus discolor and Cissus amazonica prefer not lower than + 18 ° С, Cissus antarctica and Cissus striata tolerate temperatures below + 12 ° С in winter. In the summer you can make a loggia, the main thing - to prevent drafts. Cissus is still an indoor plant, so when it gets cold, it is necessary to bring indoor grapes back into the house so that the leaves do not fall off.
It is necessary to provide a high level of air humidity only for Cissus discolor, so that the crown grows. This can be done with the help of regular spraying or bathing in the summer under a warm shower. That is, you can put the plant in the bathroom and gently walk along the stalks with the pressure of water at a temperature of + 30 ... + 35 ° С.
A similar procedure should also be carried out with plants that have a dense crown. Otherwise, leaves gradually dry in cissus or take a strange shape - convex or concave. Excess liquid needs to be poured out of the pan.
Another reason why the tips of the leaves dry in cissus is often dry air. It is necessary to spray the plant from the spray and regularly repeat the procedure in the summer.
How to water and transplant indoor plant cissus
In the spring and autumn, all indoor grapes are actively growing, so it is important to maintain a constant soil moisture. First of all, plants with a large mass of foliage need this, as their water evaporates faster. In winter, only the Mandiana variety and those species and varieties that do not hibernate in winter can be watered. At home, care for cissus should be this: the hotter, the more often watered. The soil needs to dry out at 2-3 cm between irrigation periods. However, you can not fill the flower, otherwise the roots will rot. If it is too rare to feed a flower with water, it will dry.
In winter and autumn, it is necessary to reduce watering to a minimum - only to maintain the livelihood of the roots.
Plants up to five years old need to be replanted annually, and then once in 2-3 years. This is due to the fact that the flower grows very quickly, and in order for it to continue to grow, it is necessary to change the pot to another - bigger one. Ceramic or clay containers are best suited. It should be a “breathing” pot, that is, letting in fresh air.
The soil can be taken different, with neutral or low acidity. Some cissus species, such as, for example, the Antarctic species, take root well in hydroponics. Often used a mixture of turf and sheet soil with an admixture of humus, peat and sand. All parts are mixed in equal proportions.
Transplantation is carried out in early spring, when the plant has not yet fully departed from rest. At the bottom of the pot put drainage, then the soil and plant a flower. Fertilize is not necessary. At the same time, it is better to trim the cissus to give shape.
Pruning, if leaves fall in cissus
Pruning is carried out at any time of the year, and if the lower leaves fall off the cissus, in the spring it should be cut to. In other cases, the flower is cut in half and remove the stems that were left uncovered. If it is plants that hover up the support, pinching is carried out in order to impart splendor and thickness to the crown. It so happens that in the winter, when there is not enough light, cissus lets out powerless stems that die in the spring or produce even weaker shoots. In this case, they should be removed in early spring.
- After pruning at home, care for such a flower as cissus should be correct: put the plant in a well-lit place, water, if the grapes are transplanted, start feeding in a month.
- If the leaves suddenly began to fall, there are two reasons: draft and heat. You can change the position by moving the flower to another place.
However, such symptoms may indicate rotting of the root system. Check if you are pouring tsissus!
If the leaves suddenly began to curl and fall off en masse, this means that there is not enough oxygen in the soil. It is necessary to loosen the soil every 15 days.
When cissus leaves the bottom sheets fall off, do not worry, this is not a problem, but a normal phenomenon for a flower - it grows.
Top dressing so that cissus doesn’t have brown spots on leaves
The flower needs nutrients for development. Especially this need is manifested in the period of growth - in spring and summer. Top dressing should begin in mid-spring. In the summer, once in 2 weeks, from mid-autumn until the end of winter, once in 6 weeks. You can take mineral complexes for ornamental plants.
If brown spots appear on cissus leaves, it means that it lacks nitrogen. It is necessary to use fertilizers with a high concentration of this substance. Usually they are added to boiled, non-rigid water, which has to stand for some time before this, and then water the plant.
If the brown spots on the leaves of cissus are accompanied by sheet fading and lethargy, it means that cissus lacks fertilizer. You can eliminate this by changing the brand of nutrients or increasing feeding.
When the sheets are suddenly very pale, you need to reduce the amount of light and remove the plant in partial shade.
Cissus reproduction by seeds and cuttings
Cissus is bred by cuttings, seeds and dividing a bush. As a rule, this procedure is carried out at the end of winter - at the beginning of spring.
Sowing seeds. A small amount of peaty-sandy soil is placed in a saucer, seeds are placed on top and slightly pushed into the ground. After a slight moistening, the container is covered with a transparent dome and placed on the window sill. Reproduction of cissus occurs at a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° C. The first shoots will appear no earlier than in 4-5 months. Separately, you need to distribute them only after the first real sheet plates appear.
Sometimes it can happen that the outer shell of the seed is too hard, then you need to help the germ to come out. To do this, you can either pre-clean the seeds a little from the surface layer, or try to separate it in the process of growing cissus.
Cuttings. Reproduction of cissus using cuttings is easy, even in the absence of experience with the owner. Carry out the procedure in February and March. To do this, cut the cuttings with a pair of buds and planted in small pots with soil - peat, sand - on 2-3 pieces. In one container size 8 cm can be planted 4 cutting.
The tank should stand indoors with a high level of humidity at + 20 ... + 22 ° C. The diamond-shaped variety can breed in water at a temperature of not more than + 19 ° С. Within three weeks, the roots appear, which are distributed separately.
How to propagate cissus by dividing the bush
There is another way to simply propagate cissus - the division of the bush. A large flower gives basal processes that are used as starting material for cultivation of cissus. It is necessary to cut the rhizome into several parts and immediately plant in the ground. Keep, as the previous time, in a warm, closed room with a high level of humidity. Within three weeks the shoots will sprout.
Important! Use a clean knife to detach the stems and cause minimal damage to the root system of the flower.
This method is rarely used, since grafting gives excellent results.
Pests and diseases of cissus
If the plant is not properly maintained, it will weaken and become sick. So angular spotting may occur, the symptoms of which are brown spots on cissus sheets. Usually yellowish-brown, they indicate excessive soil moisture. It is necessary for some time to stop watering the plant and provide the flower with even more light.
One of the serious diseases is powdery mildew. This is a fungal infection that manifests as a white powdery coating on the leaves. In this case, the fabric on the back of the sheet is brown or brown.
To combat the disease with a weak defeat, you can use biological fungicides. If strong, use Topaz.
Spider mite - pest that sucks the juice from the leaves. Symptoms - cissus dries strongly, small white dots appear on the leafy plate, increasing to spots. Ticks can be detected in the lower part of the plant and eliminated with the help of water pressure. The flower should be washed several times under a warm shower stream with soapy water. If it doesn’t help, use Fitoverm or Lightning.
Aphid is a pest that cripples leaves: they curl, turn yellow, they appear discharge. If the lesion is weak, the aphids can be removed with soapy water, otherwise Antytlin, Fitoverm, etc. are used.
Important! Poor tolerant chemical plant protection products. Large hydroponic plants no need to replant.
In order for room grapes to pleasantly please the eye with its greenery and not cause any trouble, you need to follow a few rules for caring at home for the flower cissus:
- Water regularly.
- Monitor air humidity.
- Provide a lot of light.
- Constantly feed in the summer.
- Conduct an annual transplant and pruning.
Follow this instruction, and the result will not take long. Good luck in growing!