The syngonium - Syngonium in Latin - belongs to the Agaseae family (Aroids).
In the classification of plants used sectional division, based on the type of leaf plate. In species of the Syngonium section, the adult leaves are divided into equal leaflets, which may be three or more.
In representatives of Cordatum, the lamina is sometimes oval or oblong-oval in shape, sometimes arrow-shaped, and the anterior blade is slightly compressed at the base.
In species assigned to the section Oblongatum, the outlines of adult leaves can be either oblong or oblong-elliptical, or oval-elliptical. Young leaves differ from adults only in size.
The Pinnatilobum section is the only species of Syngonium steyermarkii, only it has peristosyllabic leaves. Young leaves of an oval shape, growing older, show a more distinct separation, until they become noticeably feathery.
Types and varieties of indoor singonium: photo, name, description of varietal flower varieties
In total, there are 35 species in the genus of singoniums. A complete list of species of syngonium with Latin names contains the base of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Among them are Syngonium angustatum, Syngonium steyermarkii, Syngonium vellozianum, Syngonium triphyllum, Syngonium chiapense and others.
The most famous is the syrhionium barium (Syngonium auritum) - Liana with long clinging shoots, easily forms roots in internodes, leaves are glossy and green, young - almost arrow-shaped, old - with a triply dissected plate and two small ear-shaped segments at the base. The length of its petioles is three to four dozen centimeters.
Syngonium is considered rarer Wendland (Syngonium wendlandii). Liana with velvety to the touch leaves (up to 19 cm in length and up to 8 cm in width), arrow-shaped, with divided into three “tip”. It grows slowly, the size of the stalks reaches 20-30, see Costa Rica is the homeland of the plant.
Scissorfoot (Syngonium podophyllum) - the third of the species of syngonium grown as indoor flowers, the most popular among gardeners. Homeland from Central America, where its fruits are eaten by the local population, in nature is an intensively branching vine with flexible and thin shoots covered with large petioles. The stalks are long, up to 60 cm, the stems are covered with a waxy coating.
Variegated varieties of Syngonium podophyllum, which are difficult to identify because they are hybrids, are also on sale. Varietal syngoniums are valued for exotic coloring. They have several poetic names associated with their external differences. Some varieties of syngonium are described below.
Pixie - plants of this variety are compact, with small green leaves and white spots located along venation.
Bob allusion - leaves are round, leathery, at a young age olive-green shade with a noticeable pink venation.
Neon robusta - lush bush with bright pink leaves.
Regina red - it is known for arrow-shaped two-color leaves, pink on top and green from the bottom. The brightness of their color is directly related to the intensity of illumination.
Silver Moon - leaves are rounded, emerald colored, in the center is a milky-white spot with jagged edges.
Gold allusion - light golden liana, the leaves are medium with bright pink venation.
Cream allusion - at the base of the bush, the color of the leaves varies from silver to cream, the streaks are colored pink in various intensities.
Mango allusion - soft green foliage with a pink middle.
White butterfly –Sort with elongated spear-shaped leaves. Their color may be green, milky, yellow, creamy pink. The leaf is covered with a web of light streaks.
Panda catfishes - A lot of yellow spots on a dark green leaf plate.
Arrow - different motley pattern around the veins, large shoots.
Salad - light green leaves with a fringing of a darker shade.
Silver Pearl - leaves are milky white from above, light green from below.
Angel baby, fairy wings - dwarf representatives.
The photo shows the decorative varieties of syngonium:
Singonium has several areas of distribution, but each species has an exotic homeland: South America (grows in French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil) or Central America (16 plant species are found in Costa Rica and Panama); In addition, some species grow in Mexico, the West Indies (in Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti).
The names and differences of the species of syngonium are displayed on the photo:
The reasons why the leaves of syngonium dry
As already mentioned, several species of syngonium and their hybrids are popular with indoor plants. It does not bloom and does not bear fruit (fruits of a wild-growing plant are very fragrant and edible), but it is suitable for almost any interior and is not too complicated to care; growing fast.
In addition, it is interesting to observe how the appearance of a flower changes as it grows: young singonium has completely different leaves as an adult. In a young plant, they have the shape of an arrow and are not incised. Older specimens have incised or even split leaves.
The photo shows indoor syngonium:
To understand how to properly care for the syngonium at home, you need to remember where the flower grows in nature, and provide it with a similar environment. Leading from the hot countries of Central and South America or the islands of the Caribbean archipelago, being a home flower, syngonium imposes certain temperature requirements: heat, not lower than 15 ° С, warm soil is necessary conditions for plant health.
But despite this, it can not provide an overly hot location: bright or semi-shady, without the sun. Too bright sun - the first reason why the leaves of singonium begin to dry.
In the summer, it is enough to put perennial in penumbra, in winter - to provide a sufficient amount of diffused light. You can adjust it using fitolamp.
The houseplant shown in the photo is a healthy syngonium that gets optimal lighting, it has shiny, glossy leaves:
The tropical origin also dictates how high the humidity of the air should be for a successful growth of the flower: high, it is necessary to spray the syngonium daily so that the spots on the leaves or the fading do not appear. You can increase the humidity of the air by placing a container filled with water next to the pot. The same requirements apply to irrigation: softened water, the substrate is not allowed to dry.
Water should be filtered, past settling and boiling at room temperature. It is important that it does not stagnate in the pan, otherwise the flower root system will suffer.
In summer, the frequency of irrigation and spraying is higher due to warming of the air and accelerated evaporation of moisture: in the hot season, the plant should be sprayed at least once a day, and in winter it is enough to wipe the surface of the leaves with a damp cloth.
The frequency of watering is regulated according to the rate of drying of the top layer of soil in the pot. In addition, in winter, the flower should be kept away from heating sources: radiators and heaters.
Syngonium is undemanding to the substrate: flower soil with a small amount of peat is a sufficient condition for normal flower development. The soil should be loose to allow both air and moisture to pass through; You can add a small amount of coconut fiber. Top dressing is performed regularly: every 2 week during the growth period, in the spring and summer period.
With the onset of autumn, the frequency is reduced to one time. Flower suitable fertilizer organic composition or liquid mineral, which contains a small amount of calcium.
Forming syngonium at home care and how to pinch the crown (with video)
As shown in the photo, depending on the species, the syngonium is held as an ampelous plant or tied to a support:
On the method of planting and care depends on the formation of syngonium at home. If the plant grower wants to grow a climbing flower, he will need support and a drainage layer in the substrate, so that the roots can hold on to something. For the first fit plastic or wooden tube, reinforced in a pot.
You can decorate it with moss, which grows well in high humidity conditions, or with a moisture-retaining cloth. When developing, the stem will curl around the proposed support beautifully. Amphibious plant requires the ability to hang freely for the stems, so you can plant several cuttings in hanging pots.
There are also varieties of syngonium, characterized by short stature and compactness, for example, Arrow or Brokant: they are best planted in spacious drawers or bowls.
Important! In spacious small pots it grows better than in deep ones.
Proper care for the syngonium at home includes the formation of a crown. First, it facilitates the growth of a plant that tends to stretch and weigh heavily on a support; secondly, it allows you to emphasize its decorative properties, giving the plant the desired shape.
Fast growth and high adaptive abilities allow you to see the result of the grower's efforts and correct possible errors in the shortest possible time. In addition to the use of supports with transverse crossbars, around which the climber will curl, there is a more popular way to form a syngonium - pinching.
The method, like pinching a syngonium, is no different from the methods used for other plants - using a knife or sharply sharpened scissors, the apical buds and / or buds located at the ends of the side shoots are removed. Pinching sprouts above every sixth leaf is considered optimal.
Caution! Contains substances irritating the skin and mucous membranes. All traumatic manipulation plants are made with gloves.
How to pinch the syngium correctly shows the video in detail:
Syngonium transplant at home care, reproduction by cuttings and shoots
How at home to determine the time for the transfer of syngonium?
It should be remembered that transplantation is carried out as needed, that is, the plant has developed so much that it is cramped in an old pot. A sign of this is the appearance of visible roots in the drain hole. This does not apply to young (2-3 of the year) singoniums, which must be transplanted every spring.
In the process, drainage first falls asleep, then a third of the soil, after which the plant with straightened roots is placed in a pot, the rest of the soil is slightly crushed, and a good strait is made. Fertilizers are excluded on 14 days after transplantation.
With proper care, syngonium lends itself well to reproduction at home. This is usually done in the spring or early summer. There are two ways in which reproduction is carried out: apical cuttings or separation of shoots. For propagation by cuttings of the adult singonium, the top of the plant is cut off, leaving several air roots, and rooted in the soil or containers with water.
The soil should consist of peat and sand, taken in equal proportions, the water is used boiled, filtered, with the addition of activated carbon. Rooting is carried out at temperature 24-26 ° С.
During the reproduction of singonium shoots, one of the young lateral shoots is separated, on which there are at least 2-3 buds. Rooting is also done, after which the plants are planted one by one or several depending on pot sizes and the desire of the grower.
Why do the syngonium turn yellow leaves and what to do to treat diseases
Regardless of how to care for the flower, the owner of the syngonium can face problems. Pests, diseases rarely affect the plant, but the florist must have an idea of the necessary actions, if this has happened. This section describes the most common diseases of syngonium and their treatment.
What if the syngonium leaves turn yellow?
First of all, you need to find out why the leaves of syngonium turn yellow: defeat by parasites, due to too dry air or a lack of light and nutrients. The first can be detected by visual inspection of the plant, in the second case the yellowness appears from the tip and edges, the leaf itself becomes flabby, eventually falls off, while the third reason initially grows small and does not fall, even completely yellowing.
The solution to the problem is optional: increasing the humidity of the air, feeding it out of schedule, placing the flowerpot in a lighted place or using fitolamps. These measures are usually enough to stop the leaves of syngonium to turn yellow. In case of parasitic invasion, the treatment is carried out in accordance with the type of pest, the affected sample is necessarily isolated from the rest.
Causes of spots on the leaves of syngonium and treatment from pests
Most often the plant suffers from scutes, thrips or aphids.
TRIPS they look like spots on the syngonium — oblong and dark; in addition, their vital activity leads to the appearance of brown foci on the leaves, from which a group of insects sucked out nutrients.
The life cycle of this pest includes a phase that it spends in the ground, so if it is affected by thrips, it is necessary to treat with insecticides not only the body of the plant, but also the soil. Buds and buds are removed, as the pest often settles in them and remains safe during processing.
Shield - a rounded insect covered with a wax shield, from which it received the name. The average size of an adult individual is about five millimeters. Developing, shchitovka moves along the stalks and leaves of the plant, sucking the nutrients out of them - another reason for the appearance of spots on the leaves of syngonium. The adult insect is fixed on the plot chosen for reproduction.
aphid It is a colony of insects of milky-green color, which are easy to see on the plant. The syphonium struck by an aphid dries quickly, its leaves wither, become deformed and fall off. Very contagious.
You can treat a plant that has been affected by pests using both self-prepared means (soap solution, garlic or tobacco infusions), and factory insecticides, such as Actellic, Derris, aktar.
Thus, the diseases of singonium are associated either with parasites or with the need to correct the conditions in which the flower grows. Selecting the best lighting for the plant and the pot, ensuring timely feeding and transplanting, the right watering, the florist will achieve a brilliant and healthy type of pet, a rapid pace of development.
In order to avoid poisoning and allergic reactions, it is necessary to locate the flower in places inaccessible for children and pets.
Due to the irritating properties of the plant's juices, which negatively affect the skin and mucous membranes upon contact, syngonium has not found application in traditional medicine, but the art of feng shui attributes many abilities to the energy of the plant.
So, he is considered the guardian of family happiness and a symbol of positive change. The endurance of a flower has given rise to an opinion about its property to accelerate the recovery of patients, and its rapid adaptation to conditions makes it the optimal choice for people of a conservative nature, who have difficulty opening and assimilating new knowledge.
This property of his will be useful to those who have changed their place of residence, type of activity, or are learning a new profession: under the influence of the syngonium, the mind becomes more flexible and receptive to the incoming information. The plant has the owner to make acquaintances and establish contacts with people, which is very useful for introverts; promotes the development of positive thinking and drives out nightmares.
Feng Shui advises to create various combinations of plants for the accumulation of positive energy that they concentrate: in terms of floristics, this is a promising solution for the most effective use of the decorative properties of house plants.
The syngonium easily gets on with ficuses and other members of the Aroid family. Looks impressive, being grown in rutarii.
In addition to apartments, home syngoniums feel great in hydroponic greenhouses and winter gardens. Due to its simplicity, widely used in corporate gardening.
As a conclusion, decorative compositions with different varieties of singonium are shown in the photo with the names: