They belong to the Araliaceae family (Araliae), and China and Japan are considered to be their motherland. In the wild, some species of shefflera can be not only trees or bushes, but also creepers. Domesticated species can also reach quite large sizes (up to 2 m in height). They are very often used by interior designers as tapeworms.
Types of shefflera: photos, names and characteristics of varieties
Today, quite often on the windowsills of houses, offices, you can find a home-look flower shefflera. The external distinguishing characteristic of this plant will be the shape of its leaves. They resemble spread fingers on a human hand.
The leaves of this flower are dissected, having from 4 to 12 lobules. And their shade can be monotonous green or with fairly bright patches, divorces of yellow or white color.
It is noted that at home the plant almost never blooms. Inflorescences can often be seen in the botanical garden, as the conditions here are as close to the natural ones as possible.
Room shefflera are similar in appearance to small trees or have the form of a bush. But at the same time, their shoots are quite thin, therefore it is recommended to fix large specimens to the support.
Look at the houseplant shefflera in the photo and appreciate its beauty:
In the care of this representative Araliahs not whimsical. Even beginning flower growers can grow large, lush and beautiful specimens.
In nature, there are more than 200 species of this plant. But not every single one of them has decorative features and characteristics. And only some of them are considered domesticated.
For indoor breeding shefflera are of these types:
The most graceful (palmate)
Below is a description of each of them.
Radiant view (Schefflera actinophylla) - quite popular among gardeners, may also be called stellar. It is believed that he hails from sunny Australia, where his relatives grow to 12 m in height.
The trunk of a domesticated plant is very powerful, at the base of a stiff, light gray shade. The leaves are placed on long petioles in dark green with a reddish tint of color. The plate itself is divided on average into 15 parts, more often 14 or 16.
Each of them is oblong in shape with a pointed tip. The foliage is rather large, in diameter it can reach 20-24, see. By the shade the halves of the plate are green, close to malachite, and their surface is waxed.
Look at the sheffler room radiant view on the photo:
Some varieties of this type of shefflera may have slightly different foliage colors, for example:
Green Gold - mustard shade
"Nova" - olive with yellowness.
Eight-leaf (Schefflera octophylla) popularly called the octopus tree.
It is characterized by rather long petioles of a light shade hanging down. They can be located up to 12 sheets of elongated shape, pointed at the end. Each of them can reach 40 cm in length.
In contrast to radiant, this species, although it has glossy greens, but it is rough to the touch. It is also characterized by distinct veins and a rich malachite tint that appears on an already grown leaf. But initially young greens of rich bottle color with yellowness.
View called "Veitch" - This is a sheffler, in which the sheet plate has an oval-elongated shape, with the edges of a wave-like structure. It is reddish, and later changes to emerald.
Look at the scheffler tree view in the photo (the name Latin - Schefflera arboricola):
It is believed that this plant is from New Guinea. At home, it grows a small tree, which has many shoots on a straight trunk. Also this species gives a lot of basal processes. While the shoots are young, they are grassy, but after a time they become darker and become brownish in color.
If we talk about the leaves of this plant, they are divided into oval-shaped 16 parts with pointed ends. They sit on not very long light shade petioles with a slight yellowness.
There are such decorative color foliage shefflera depending on the varieties of the variety:
The Gold Chapel - green with yellow marks randomly placed.
Amate - bright malachite shade.
Schefflera most elegant (Finger Aralia) -Schefflera elegantissima (earlier Dizygotheca) - This is an elegant plant that can reach 1,5 m in height.
From 7 to 11, narrow, long sheets are arranged like fingers of a hand on a thin stalk. Look at varieties of shefflera of this species and its varieties.
The photo shows that the young Schefflera elegantissima the leaves are reddish, then they turn dark green, and in the more rare species Schefflera veitchii with age, they appear white central vein:
Family: Araliaceae (Aralia).
Reasons why shefflers turn black and leaves fall
Although many flower growers say that a sheffler flower does not require special care at home, there are still some rules whose observance will help it to develop in full force and please its owner.
First of all, pay attention to the location: light or half-shaded, without sun. Since southern countries are considered the birthplace of this plant, where there is a lot of daylight, indoor shefflers will grow better with a good amount of light.
For flowerpots with such flowers, southern, southeast and southwest window sills are ideal. But do not allow direct sunlight on the plant. This is one of the reasons why shefflers turn black, dry and leaves begin to fall. In especially bright sunny days, it is recommended to cover the flower with a light cloth or a curtain.
In winter, when the plant lacks daylight, it is recommended to illuminate several hours a day (in the morning or in the evening) with special lamps.
Temperature: the daytime is warm, the night is cooler. It should be remembered that during the period of spring and summer it should not exceed 20 ° С, and in the fall and winter - 10 ° С. Pay attention to a certain peculiarity of indoor plant shefflers with spotty sheets: in caring for it in the cold season, indicators should not fall below 18 ° С.
Remember that this flower does not like high temperature. If you keep it in such difficult conditions for a long time, then the plant will start dropping foliage.
Humidity for indoor flower shefflers is another item in care and reproduction. There is an unspoken rule: "The higher, the better (approximately 60%)." Daily spraying of foliage is also required.
To do this, use boiled, cooled or melt water. But in winter, when the air in the houses is dry enough, it is necessary to carry out additional moisture. To do this, take any larger diameter dishes, on the bottom of which pour the clay or small pebbles.
Place the pot, pour water just enough so that the roots of the flower do not touch the liquid.
Why else have shefflera darken and leaves fall
Despite all the love for humidity, the house plant shefflera in caring for her and during reproduction does not require abundant watering, you only need to maintain moisture. Oriented experienced gardeners recommend the top soil layer in the pot.
As soon as it dries, the flower must be watered. For irrigation use separated water at room temperature. In winter, watering is almost halved.
Remember that the plant is destructive for waterlogging of the soil. Crude substrate causes root rot, shefflera stem and petioles darken (stained) and leaves fall.
Top dressing is another important point in the care of this indoor flower. In the summer, do it every 2 week; in winter, if the plant is cool, every 6 weeks. It is recommended to begin to fertilize the soil with the beginning of spring. During this period, there is an active growth, so additional food will not be superfluous. Top dressing should contain mineral complexes for indoor flowers (universal variants can be used). Also during the period of active growth when spraying a plant, bioregulators can be added to the water.
Cropping and crown formation rules shefflers
Often, the owners of this indoor flower fails to achieve the pomp of the crown. These plants do not look very decorative. In the care of him there are small tricks that help to form a beautiful and lush green.
First and foremost, you need to remember: Scheffler requires the formation of a crown, and about the rules of pruning, read below.
The second trick is planting several sprouts in one pot. Such a landing is done quite often, which allows to achieve a high external decoration indoor flowerrequired density. 2-3 plants in one pot look better than they do alone.
It is important to remember that the shoots should be the same in their development and height. This is a guarantee of harmonious and uniform growth of Schefflera. Before transplanting the sprouts, they prepare a good soil mixture, and the young stock is placed close to each other.
Further, after rooting the plants, they are twisted with each other:
- Double helix (two shoots).
- Pigtail (three shoots).
In addition, some varieties of this plant branch out very badly, and without human intervention to achieve a beautiful shrub or tree will not work. But here you should also follow certain rules.
If after the intervention shefflera turn yellow and her leaves begin to fall, then most likely the formation of the crown has gone wrong.
The correct pruning takes place in an already well-established tree, which has an escape from the bottom with 4-5 internodes. It is at this level that the crown is formed.
Caution! May contain substances that irritate the skin. Wear gloves when handling and wash hands thoroughly.
After the cut is prolonged, young side shoots will soon appear. Thus, shefflers form a crown.
Important! When the flower grows up, separate shoots should be tied to bamboo supports or cut off the tops of young shoots so that the plant will bush more strongly.
Transplant shefflera when caring for a flower (with photo)
Transfer: Young plants every year, and adults if necessary.
Shefflera requires planting in a larger pot than before, as the root system is large enough and growing rapidly.
Drainage material is laid at the bottom of the pot, its approximate amount is 1 / 4 pot. This may be expanded clay, broken shards or red brick. Substrate: floral soil with a weak acidity (pH not more than 6).
You can prepare the land for the plant itself, for this mix:
- 2 part of the soil riding.
- Xnumx share of humus.
- 1 portion of sand.
- 1 share leafy soil.
After the shuffler has landed or transplanted, and appropriate care is required. First and foremost, ensure that the plant is watered in a timely manner, but moisture should not linger in the soil.
Fertilizers are made not earlier than the appearance of new sheets on it. The first months the flower must be protected from direct sunlight.
In more detail about the features of the content Schefflera and care for it is shown in this video:
Reproduction shefflery cuttings and transplanting seedlings at home
Reproduction: seeds, cuttings, with preliminary incision, air layings.
This process is quite complicated, and not everyone is able to grow good planting material.
The most effective way of breeding shefflera is air layering. For this purpose, a shallow incision is made on the plant stem in the spring with a sharp knife. He is wrapped in moss, constantly moistened and covered with polyethylene.
After 50-60 days, roots will appear at the site of the incision. The top is separated and transplanted into a separate pot. The old plant is not thrown away, very soon it will give side shoots.
For propagation by cuttings, you can use material from shefflera after pruning and the formation of the crown. But the likelihood that they will give the root is quite low, because the shoots are too young.
As a rule, for reproduction with the help of cuttings, material is taken with a stem that is already slightly stiffened. Its base is incised and put into the water with phytohormones diluted in them. It is also possible to land the plant immediately.
Seed propagation is very difficult, so it is used less frequently. But with the proper conduct of all stages it is possible to achieve good germination of seed.
With the help of seed shefflera it is also possible to multiply it at home. Winter is a suitable period for sowing material. Planting seeds occurs in the soil mixture of sand and peat, taken in the same proportions.
You can also use light wood and sheet soil with the addition of sand. The soil must be disinfected before planting.
Before planting, seeds are soaked in warm water, in which products are grown that accelerate the growth process (“Appina” or “Zircon”). The depth to which the prepared material should be planted is two lengths of seeds.
The soil in which the shefflers are transplanted in the process of propagation by cuttings or seeds must be moistened with a spray gun. Next, the ground in the vase go box with planting material should be periodically moistened in the same way.
For seed shefflera it is good to organize the lower heating, which will increase germination several times.
After the seedlings give the second or third leaf, they should be transplanted into larger pots. Here they will spend the next three months, it is necessary to maintain the temperature within 20 ° С.
When the clod of earth is covered with the roots of a young shefflera, the seedling is transplanted. At home, the plant during this period needs a pot with a diameter within 9, see. The growth of seedlings will be very fast, so the next transplant is needed by the fall.
The reasons why shefflera drops leaves, and what to do
Shefflera, despite his unpretentiousness in care, can still suffer from various diseases. From many of them helps insecticidal and fungicidal treatment plants. But if the main cause of the problems that arise is errors in the care, then the first thing to do is to eliminate it.
If the sheffler drops the leaves, the reason for this is excessive watering. What to do in this case: try to reduce its moisture. Follow the basic rules of watering:
- As required (drying of topsoil).
- Water settled at room temperature.
- In warm weather, watering more often, in the cold is reduced by half.
Excessive hydration of the plant, if it is not noticed in time, often leads to the fact that the root system of the flower begins to rot. At the same time, the leaves begin to turn black on the sheffler, dark spots appear on the cuttings and trunk.
The only salvation for the plant in this case is a transplant with the removal of rotted elements of the root system. At the same time, it is recommended to replace the earthen room with a new soil, which must be disinfected without fail.
The reason for the appearance of brown spots on leaves Shefflery
Another reason for the appearance of brown spots on leaves shefflery - it drafts.
Important! Do not put on windowsills opening windows. Draft is deadly! In most cases, eliminating this negative factor for the flower, it is possible to suspend the appearance of changes.
Strongly "cold" shefflera, except for brown spots on the leaves, can start and dump them. The amount of fallen greens can reach ten pieces per day. For the treatment, flower growers recommend creating greenhouse conditions for the plant.
To do this, it is wrapped in polyethylene, which should not come into contact with foliage. Reduce watering by replacing it with a spray of greens to 3 once a day. “Cycron” is added to the water once a week. Such rehabilitation should be carried out until the plant provides new foliage.
Why do shefflera dry and turn yellow leaves
Sheffler flower dries most often due to direct sunlight. At the same time, brown dried-up areas (burns) appear on the leaves, and the plant itself practically ceases to develop, stopping in growth.
Over time, such damaged elements of the sheffler discard, which leads to a loss of the decorativeness of the flower. Remember that the plant is light-requiring, but direct sunlight is dangerous for it. The only way to eliminate such negative manifestations is to shade the pot with it.
Shefflers can also dry the leaves when it is kept under high temperature conditions. This is especially true of the summer period, when many flower growers take out pots with a plant on stuffy balconies. Remember that prolonged temperatures above + 25 ° C are detrimental to the flower.
If you notice that during the winter period your pet loses its decorative effect (the leaves darken, crumble), then the reasons for this may be such errors in the care:
- Lack of sunlight.
- Low temperature indicators of content.
- High soil moisture.
Under such adverse conditions, the flower begins to drive itself into artificial rest, which is undesirable for the plant. To avoid such negative consequences, provide him with appropriate content during the cold period:
- Temperature from + 14 to + 20 ° C.
- Rare but abundant watering.
- Additional lighting.
- Regular spraying.
If the shefflers turn yellow leaves, and this process is not abundant, then you should not panic. This is an indicator of the normal development of the plant, which is aging green. The average life of the leaves of this flower is three years.
If yellowing occurs massively, then pay attention to the conditions of the flower. They may have changed and the plant should be provided with normal, usual care and climatic norms.
Why do shefflers fall leaves and what to do
Sheffler, like any other plant, after the purchase takes time to adapt to a new place of residence, which differs in the level of air humidity, the amount of light and temperature indicators.
The new owners of shefflery raises the question of why the leaves fall off the flower after purchase. In most cases, this is not worth worrying about, as this is a completely normal reaction of the plant to a new place of residence.
For a softer adaptation, remember the main rules:
- Do not replant the plant during the 1 month.
- Do not feed it.
- Provide optimal conditions with adequate lighting and temperature.
It is believed that if the leaf fall within the first month after the change of place stopped and new greens appeared, the plant successfully survived the adaptation period.
If, after a month in the new conditions, shefflers continue to fall leaves, which is recommended in this case:
- Add in 200 ml of water for irrigation 1 a drop of "Cycron".
- Spray 2 once a day with water (200 ml + 2 drops of “Epin”).
- Location: bright, but without the sun.
- Temperature: the whole year is warm. The soil is warm.
- Air humidity: high, better in the closed space of the shop window.
In most cases it helps to solve the problem of falling off and yellowing of the foliage.
Why shefflera drops leaves and what to do to combat diseases and pests
Pests, diseases do not bypass the Scheffler side. It is important to identify the problem in time and take timely measures to eliminate it.
Scheffler may be affected by such pests:
It is possible to recognize spider mites by the appearance of dry spots on greenery, on the reverse side of which a spider web is found. This pest can cause the sheffler to start dropping leaves.
What to do when spider mites are detected:
- Use a damp sponge to remove the web.
- Spray foliage with karbofos solution.
- Repeat the procedure after 14 days.
In a similar way they struggle with the shield, which is manifested by brown inclusions on leaflets, cuttings, trunks. But spraying karbofos solution is carried out more often (up to 1 once a week).
If you notice fibrous formations in the white sinuses of the leaf shade, then this is a clear sign of the defeat of the plant by a mealy scale. Remove the pest with tweezers and treat the greens with karbofos solution every two weeks.
With the naked eye you can see aphids. Most often, this pest settles in groups in the lower part of the foliage, concentrating around the points of their growth. The danger of aphids is that it feeds on the sap of the plant, while weakening the sheffler.
The plant becomes susceptible to diseases and pests. Very often, after the defeat of the aphids, the flower is exposed to viral diseases, so it is very important to identify and destroy it in time.
If the pest is a bit, then you can simply remove it by crushing with a finger and washing the plant with warm water. If the lesion is large enough, it is sprayed daily with a soap solution (15 g of household soap on 1 l of water) until the aphids completely disappear.
Most often, Schaeffler affects such diseases:
Perinosporosis (downy mildew)
Rot manifests itself on the flower due to errors in watering. To combat this disease, you should normalize the amount of humidification, hold them softened with water. Scheffler is very sensitive to stagnant waterlogging.
Unfortunately, the chemicals on the market in the fight against this disease are ineffective. But just in time, decay can be cured by normalizing soil moisture. If the damage is abundant (with a strong decay of the root system, stem and green), then such a plant should be eliminated.
Also considered dangerous are viral diseases that manifest as growth retardation and the formation of mosaic-like spots on shefflera leaves. Quality drugs that will help cure the plant, does not exist.
As a rule, the flower stops growing and dies after a while. Prevention of viral diseases is the timely elimination of pests, which are their carriers.
But with downy mildew, you can fight. This is a fungal disease that is treatable. The disease is manifested by white bloom on foliage, flower stalks. Treatment begins with the complete removal of all damaged areas. Then, once every 10 days, treat the 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
If you have become the owner of shefflera, then by providing her simple, but decent care, you will get a beautiful, luxuriant, highly decorative plant that will become a real decoration of your window sill for many years.