Sansevieria (sansevieria, sanseviera) - It is a plant of the Agavaceae family (Agave). Perennial and evergreen herbaceous crop, which is considered one of the most unpretentious and easily grown. It occupies a leading place among the most common household plants. Homeland is Africa, Asia and the state of Florida USA. Dracaena and Yucca are the closest relatives.
The name of the flower was in honor of Raimondo di Sangro of San Severo - Italian prince of the XVIII century, who made a great contribution to the development of natural sciences and botany. The people houseplant Sansevieria is widely known by other names. So, in England he is known as “leopard lily” or “devil's language”, in Germany as “African cannabis”, and in America they called it “snake scales”. For the local contingent, such a nickname as “Teschin language” or “pike tail” is more known.
How does the room flower Sansevieria (with photos)
This steady and not exacting plant perfectly will be suitable for the beginning plant growers. Yes, and it looks very attractive - dense fleshy basal leaves or collected in a rosette with a glossy surface. Color depends on the type and variety of plants. Mostly color range varies from different shades of green with different white and yellow patches or stripes. There are more variegated varieties that have bright yellow, reddish, dark green, silver or golden patterns. Basically they are located across the leaf plate and can be both straight and zigzag. Good looking varieties with spotty color.
Very often, sansevieriya is used as a home flower for gardening office and educational institutions, as a basis for floristic and botanical expositions. After all, according to a study by NASA "Clean Air", the flower has amazing air-cleaning qualities. It is able to absorb huge amounts of carbon dioxide and toxic substances, while releasing large amounts of oxygen.
Take a look at the photo of a beautiful indoor flower of the Sansevieria and make sure that it is original and unique:
Species and varieties of sansevieria: photos, names and descriptions of popular varieties
They began to cultivate the flower in the XIII century, and today there are more than 200 of its species. В home floriculture The most common 10 of them. All types of flower sansevierii can be divided into two types:
- With flat leaves.
- With wide, thick leaves.
The names of the species of flowers of sansevieria that are most popular in domestic plant growing are as follows:
Three-way Sansevieria (Sansevieria trifasciata).
Sansevieria large (Sansevieria grandis).
Sansevieria Duneri (Sansevieria dooneri).
Sansevieria elegant (Sansevieria gracilis).
Kirk Sansevieria (Sansevieria kirkii).
Sansevieria Liberian (Sansevieria liberica).
Sansevieria hyacinth (Sansevieria hyacinthoides).
Sansevieria cylindrical (Sansevieria cylindrica).
Sansevieria three-beam (Sansevieria trifasciata).
Zellanica Sansevieria (Sansevieria zeylanica).
Below are photos of species of Sansevieria with official names and a brief description:
The best known is the three-lane sansevieria with striated, flat leaves up to 60 cm in length and with a pointed slightly widened top. It is because of her plant called "mother-in-law language." As a rule, the color is dark green with light milky transverse stripes.
The large Sansevieria is a rosette of 3-4 sheets of light green color, 13-15 cm wide and up to half a meter high. Characteristic coloring - the presence of transverse dark stripes and a red rim on the edge of each sheet.
Sansevieria Dunery It is an outlet of 15-20 straight fleshy leaves up to 3-4 cm wide and up to 40-45 cm long. See the color of the plant is light green with dark green transverse stripes.
Sansevieria elegant has a stem height up to 6-7 cm, which serves as the base, and large oval leaves with a pointed end, covering the trunk. The plant is a pale green color with light transverse divorces.
Kirk Sansevieria - a plant species with a small root system and a rosette, around which there are up to 10 pale green leaves with old spots and dots, and a brown or reddish band stretches along the edge.
Liberian Sansevieria It is a wide rosette with six flat squat leaves up to 1 m and a width up to 8-10. See Color dark green with white zigzag transverse strokes.
Hyacinth Sansevieria - It is a large species up to 1 m tall, with fragrant blooms. The color is dark green with silver and gray stripes or spots.
Sansevieria cylindrical Possesses cylindrical sheets up to 55 cm long, assembled into a rosette. It has a green color with a dark shade with gray stripes across it and a yellow edge.
Sansevieria Trekhpuchkovaya - outwardly almost identical with a three-lane with the exception of a wide white stripe along the edge of the leaves.
Seylanica sansevieria - This is the subject of long disputes between plant growers and botanists, as many consider it not a species, but a variety derived from a three-lane sansevieria. It has wide leaves up to 40 cm with pronounced silvery and green specks.
By the nature of the growth of all varieties of sansevierii can be divided into two groups. The first grow from a rounded outlet consisting of 6-10 sheets. The latter are a plant consisting of basal leaves, growing both together and separately.
Photos of such varietal varieties of sansevieria and their names are proposed below for general reference:
All varieties of the flower of Sansevieria are beautiful in their own way, they look great both in oblong pots and in a single planting. Most common varieties are derived from a three-lane plant species.
Sort "Laurentii» characterized by yellow edges on the edge of each of the sheets, which, as a rule, up to 6 pieces and they are assembled in a rounded outlet. Reaches a height of up to 1 m, leaves hard and fleshy with a pointed end at the top.
White Sanseviera ("Sensation Bantel", "Bantel's Sensation") - This is a varietal variety, derived from one of the oldest and most common varieties - “Laurentii”. The main feature is the pronounced white longitudinal stripes, alternating with dark green areas. The leaves are straight and hard with characteristic lateral dashes.
Nelson ("Nelsonii") - also a descendant of the "Laurentii" variety, bred in 1944 year. Dark green velvet leaves grow to 60 cm tall. Refers to slowly growing varieties.
"Compact" ("Compacta") - Another modern descendant of the "Laurentii" variety. This species is almost identical in appearance with its ancestor, but with the exception of a few nuances. The leaves are slightly shorter and thinner, may curl slightly inwards. On the edge of the sheet has a yellow border, in the center is painted in a dark shade of green.
Photo flowers varieties Sansevierii "Laurentii", "Compacta", "Nelsonii" и "Bantel's Sensation" are presented below for more information - pay attention to them:
Rosette fine varieties with wider leaves, such as Sansevieria trifasciata "Golden Hahnii" and "Silver Hahnii »:
Both are varietal varieties of the popular variety of sansevieria called “Hahnii”. Growing stunted and compact, which attracts breeders with a limited amount of free space in the house. The leaf structure is also identical to that which the “progenitor” has; leaves from 6 to 10 are assembled into neat round sockets. Their main difference is in color.
In the variety "Golden hahnii» they are yellow-green with golden stripes,
and "Silver Hahnii" color green-gray with silver patterns.
Images and names of varieties of sansevieri derived from a cylindrical view are presented below. These are the variety:
The first of this list is unique in that it has good flexibility of sheets and due to this it is amenable to formation in the bonsai technique. It grows up to 1 m, has dense leaves of dark green shades.
"Mikado" - This is a rather rare variety. Grows in height to 50 cm, fleshy dense leaves of a light green shade have dark green stripes placed across.
Spike - A variety that is interesting in that the leaves do not grow out of the socket, but from the base of the trunk, alternately.
"Spaghetti" It has dense rounded sheets up to 50 in height and a pointed tip. It grows, forming an outlet of 6-9 shoots.
Interesting and attractive varieties of Sansevieria with photos and official names are described below for more information:
The most original can be considered the following varieties:
- Silver Moon
- Twisted Sister
Silver Moon or as it is called Munshine (Moonshine), which in translation means "Moonlight" is a relatively recently bred variety that has dense monochromatic sheets of gray-green color with a silver sheen.
"Francisi" ("Sansevieria francisii") - a stunning variety with tightly planted short, rounded leaves with a pointed end and resembling thorns. The basis of the plant is a dense stem up to half a meter long, from which leaves grow no longer than 10, see.
"Pingvikula" ("Sansevieria pinguicula"), or simply "walking", has large thick sheets with a pointed tip, growing on a short trunk. The main feature of this variety is that it multiplies not by the root system, but by air stolons. They look like some "mustache", at the tips of which new flowers begin to grow.
Twisted Sister ("Twisted Sister", i.e. "Twisted sister") - a variety that is a low wide rosette with wide, dark-olive-colored leaves twisted under the bottom with yellow stripes along the edge.
How to properly care for sansevieriya at home
Care at home for sansevieria - is simple enough. This is not a capricious plant is sick quite rarely. The basic requirements for the successful cultivation of a healthy plant are the temperature and humidity of the soil. For other factors, the flower is indulgent. Fundamental nuances for the growth of sansevieri:
- Air humidity.
- Top dressing.
In principle, any place is suitable for growing a flower of sansevieria, but not under a bright sun. Direct sunlight (especially hot summer) can burn the leaves and cause color fading. But you should not overuse the shadow, it will cause blanching of the sheet plate and make the pattern inconspicuous or destroy it altogether. Window sills are best suited from the southern, eastern and western sides.
This is a very strong and stable plant and in nature it is not afraid of the air temperature drop. However, room representatives may not be so favorable to such changes, especially if it is low temperatures and extreme frosts. Therefore, in order to avoid illnesses and difficulties in cultivation, it is best to prevent the room temperature from falling below + 10 ° C. As for high temperatures, sansevieria is able to survive at 28-30 ° С.
In the proper care of the flower of sansevieria, the humidity of the air does not play a role. However, in the sultry heat, wipe each leaf of the plant with a damp rag or sponge. Thus, not only the layer of dust will be removed, but also the level of humidity around the green “pet” of the home greenhouse will increase. Spraying water from a sprayer to this plant is not required.
As for the soil, it is well suited standard flower soil mixture for ornamental deciduous plants. The main requirement for the filler is the ability to dry quickly and be well drained. Such a plant prefers a loose humus substrate, it is not heavy and allows the root system to develop freely without any difficulty.
In terms of watering, the care of the home flowers of sansevieria should be taken under close scrutiny. It is only necessary to maintain humidity and avoid stagnant waterlogging. By its nature, it is a succulent plant, i.e. a flower that has special tissues where fluid accumulates. Such a structure is characteristic of all plant specimens germinating in arid regions. Thanks to this sansevieria does not require frequent watering.
It easily tolerates hard water and a slight drought, but excessive watering is destructive for it. When excess moisture almost immediately rots the root system, and gray mold spreads to the leaves.
Fertilizing is necessary in the summer every 3 week. In winter, you can do without top dressing. It is best to use mineral oils, fertilizers for cacti and succulents to feed. The only thing you should pay attention to is the composition of the mixture. The fertilizer should not contain a fixed nitrogen content, since it stimulates the production of green pigment - chlorophyll, which will lead to discoloration of all the culture patterns.
Watch the video on how to properly care for sansevieriya at home and what you should pay attention to when growing:
Planting and transferring Sansevieria to a new pot at home (with video)
When taking care of the flowers of sansevieri at home, it is very important to choose a suitable pot. It should be spacious, as a lot of thick rhizomes are formed, which will tear up a small pot. For a young plant, the capacity for 2,5-3 L is suitable, and for an older plant - at least 5 L in volume. It is not necessary to plant in a very deep container, because the root system of a flower is superficial.
Transplant for Sansevieria at home it will be needed every year for young representatives, and an older plant (3,5-4 of the year) can change the pot once a year in 2 as the roots grow. A new pot should be on 1,5-2 cm larger in diameter than the previous one.
Planting plant Sansevierii can be carried out in the ground self-preparation. For this it is necessary to mix leaf soil, sand and peat. But note that sand must be at least 30% of the total soil mix. And be sure to heat the cooked soil in the oven or steamed to disinfect it from pathogens.
Watch the home care videos for transplanting sansevieria to make it easier to grow:
Rooting in the reproduction of sansevierii at home with leaves and cuttings
Since this plant multiplies it very easily, you just need to get a side shoot. At home, the plant is propagated by vegetative methods. Variants of reproduction flower sansevierii at home:
- Rhizome division.
- Side shoots.
- Leaf cuttings.
In the spring or during planned transplantation can be propagated by dividing the rhizomes. To do this, remove the plant from the pot and chill the remnants of the earth from the root system - carefully, without damaging the roots themselves. After a sharp knife or scissors, cut the bone with a part of the root system, disinfecting the cut place with crushed activated charcoal. It now remains to fill the pot with a nutrient substrate, make a hole and plant the cut off process. At the end do not forget to pour water well.
Rooting of the flower of sansevieria by the method of separation of lateral shoots is used only in spring and mainly for short growing varieties. To do this, the young process is cut off or neatly broken off along with a small part of the root system. Cut areas are treated with crushed coal, and then planted in a new pot and fresh soil. After that, you need to pour clean water.
Higher and monotonous varieties are most often propagated with the help of a leaf cutting. The main disadvantage of this method is that a descendant grown from a leaf will not retain its color and pattern, like that of the mother plant. But for varieties without a pronounced mural, this method is quite suitable.
How to propagate the Sansevieria leaf
When breeding sansevieria with a leaf, it is necessary to choose an adult healthy leaf, cut it with a clean knife into several strips of 4-5 width. See then put on a napkin or towel and dry for 20-26 hours. Then enough to land the fragments in the wet sand. For better rooting, you can cover the pot with a film or a plastic bottle. With this method of reproduction, watering after planting is carried out through the flower pallet.
The video below shows in detail and tells how to properly propagate sansevieria with a leaf for its good survival rate:
Look in the video to facilitate the process of reproduction and disembarkation.
Diseases and pests of sansevieri (with video)
Pests and diseases are rare, but of all possible there may be:
- Spider mite.
- The scarlet.
- Root rot.
Photos and descriptions of sansevieria infected with various ailments are presented below for review and study in order to prevent:
Since this is a strong and well-immune plant, most often at the first manifestations of infection, it is possible to eliminate it in time without much effort and complications.
Diseases of plants of Sansevieria are extremely rare, but with excessively abundant or frequent watering, the soil does not dry out, and a moist environment creates favorable conditions for the development of putrefactive bacteria. After that, the root system molds and gradually rots.
Pest insects of sansevieria also bring a lot of inconvenience and problems. When thin white spider web and sticky drops appear on the underside of the sheet, it is necessary to conduct a course of cleansing manually. Such signs indicate the presence of spider mites. To eliminate it, simply wipe with a damp cloth or cloth to remove all foci of infection and treat these areas with “Aktellik” or with a solution of soap.
But in general, care of the culture is not difficult, it is enough to follow several instructions, and the plant will be pleasing to the eye for many years. How to inspect for infection and how to treat diseases is described in detail in the video about Sansevieria presented below:
Why do sansevieri leaves turn yellow and brown spots appear?
Brown spots on the surface of Sansevieria may appear due to a disease called anthracnose. In the initial stages, the affected areas in the form of small dots and small spots are almost imperceptible. With the process of disease progression, the infection spreads, turning into white and yellow crusts, and then the leaf dries out and dies. For the treatment of flowers used fungicide treatment. Anthracnose may be the answer to the problem, why sansevieria gradually turns yellow. As a rule, the overwetting of an earthy coma can contribute to the infection.
This plant does not tolerate stagnant water and abundant watering. At the first sign of infection, you can try to cure the green pet with soap procedures. To do this, it is enough to wash each sheet with a solution of household soap, and then with clean water.
At the first signs that sansevieria stained leaves turn yellow, can tell about the presence of such pests as thrips. These small insects, affecting the plant, cause at the initial stage the appearance of small yellowed or just faded spots, and after they foci increase in size until the entire leaf dries. For treatment, it is necessary to treat the plant with insecticides like “Fitoverma” or “Aktellika”.
Mealybug or, as it is also called, shaggy louse shows its presence by the presence of white waxy deposits on the leaves of the plant. These insects are very mobile and visible to the naked eye. To eliminate them, it is necessary to clean them with a wet sponge, and treat the affected areas with Carbofos.
If sansevieriya gradually turns yellow, then, in addition to pests and diseases, this can be triggered by the banal overmoistening of the soil or the stagnation of water in the outlet. To avoid this problem, you must carefully monitor the abundance and frequency of watering.
Why do sansevieri gradually dry, curl and fall leaves?
Why the leaves of the Sansevieria gradually fall, will help to understand the room thermometer and the condition of the earthen coma in the pot of the plant. If the temperature is too low (below 12 ° C) and excessively wet soil, similar symptoms may occur. If time does not take health measures, it is possible the occurrence of rot and deterioration of the leaves. They will become watery and soft. Therefore, if the leaves of the Sansevieria gradually fall, first of all it is necessary to increase the air temperature in the room, reduce watering to a minimum and, if necessary, remove the spoiled sheets. Perhaps the processes fall to the ground under its own weight.
A similar situation is often found in large varieties, but the sheets retain their color, texture and color. In this case, it is sufficient to correctly choose a support for the height of the flower.
If at Sansevieria the leaves gradually curl, then, most likely, the plant lacks moisture. Just pour it a little and wipe the sheets with a damp sponge. During the germination of young shoots such a phenomenon can also be observed, but in such a situation it does not last long, and the leaves regain their shape.
Also, it is possible to understand why the leaves of the Sansevieria are massively curled, based on the last transplant of the plant. If this happened quite recently, then, most likely, the plant has simply not adapted. Or vice versa, the ground is too old, it does not have the nutrients needed for a growing body. In the first case, it is enough to create a partial shade and warmth for the plant - and already in 1-2 weeks it will get used. In the second case, simply transplant into a fresh nutrient substrate.
The appearance of various spots on the leaves of sansevierii may be a sign of improper care or fungal disease. Dark spots indicate that the plant lacks natural diffused light. Red-brown, yellow and brown local colors indicate that the flower is over-watered or that fungal spores have appeared.
The fading and discoloration of the leaf plate can be caused by insufficient lighting, because in the absence of sufficient amount of natural sunlight, the process of photosynthesis and the release of the green pigment of chlorophyll are difficult.
If the leaves of the sansevieria gradually dry, then it may have fallen under the action of scorching direct sunlight, which caused the burn and dryness of the leaf plate. It is possible that with too little or excessive watering this adverse process began. You should not hesitate to inspect the root system, because it is possible that the pot has become too tight, and the roots have nowhere to go. In this case, it is enough to transplant into the container several centimeters more in diameter. Dry leaves are best neatly cut immediately, so that they do not “pull” the forces from the diseased plant.