It would seem, what is simpler - went to the flower shop and bought any indoor plant you like, and there is no need to engage in reproduction. However, only those who do not have motherly love for their “green pets,” or people who are not ready to experiment, argue this way. After all, what can be more entertaining than getting a culture on your own using seeds or parts of a mother plant for this?
A touchy or balsam from cuttings, pretty cyclamens or small cacti from seeds and Phalaenopsis offspring, already standing on their roots ... There is no greater pleasure for an amateur garden grower than to reproduce house plants yourself. Since plants have an extremely high regenerative capacity, there are many ways to get a young culture with your own hands.
This article describes in detail how to propagate indoor flowers, and how to care for sprouts.
Types of propagation of indoor plants: vegetative and generative
There are two main ways of propagation of indoor plants: asexual (vegetative) and sexual, or seed (generative).
In the vegetative method, the plant itself forms cuttings (for example, lateral shoots) or is reproduced as a result of our intervention with the help of its own parts, such as cuttings, leaves, parts of shoots. As a result, young plants develop, which are an absolute copy of the parent specimen. Since this does not require any flowering and pollination, nor the formation of a fetus or seed, vegetative reproduction is also called asexual.
The ideal time for vegetative propagation of indoor plants is spring and early summer. In this case, young plants receive the maximum light and develop best. In some plants, in spring pruning, in any case, there are apical cuttings that can be immediately used for reproduction. Plants that bloom in spring, multiply only after flowering. Cuttings of woody plants, such as camellia and hibiscus, can be cut in summer. Tubers are separated at the end of the dormant period. Some plants can simply be separated during transplantation. And in this case we are talking about vegetative reproduction.
The generative type of reproduction of indoor plants is more complicated, but when it is used, a genetically completely new plant individual develops, who inherited a mixture of the qualities of the paternal and maternal cultures.
Since the seed can develop only as a result of fertilization of the flower, in this case it is a question of sexual reproduction. Seed propagation requires a lot of time as compared to vegetative reproduction, but for experiment lovers it provides the opportunity to grow exotic species that are not commercially available.
Spring is the ideal time for propagation of potted seeds. In the presence of artificial lighting, seeding is possible all year round.
Attention! Some plants contain toxic substances that come out during cutting and can irritate the skin or mucous membranes. On the needles of cacti it is easy to get hurt. Therefore, it is better to work in gloves. While working, try not to rub your eyes with your hands; make sure that the sap of the plant does not fall into open wounds.
For the germination and development of roots, plants need a nutrient-poor substrate, which accumulates moisture well, passes air and does not contain harmful microorganisms. Ready mixes are available for sowing, disembarking and picking, as well as pots with poorly fertilized peat.
For cacti use a mixture of pumice sand, coarse quartz sand and earth for picking or for cacti. Succulents or cuttings of other species that require a very air-rich substrate can be planted in quartz sand or perlite (commercially available). Do not use construction sand! Orchids are planted in a special orchid substrate (commercially available).
Young hydroponic plants are grown on fine expanded clay (fraction 2-4 mm) or in synthetic cubes (commercially available).
For the reproduction of domestic flowers will need:
- Pots made of pressed peat, plastic or clay.
- Land for sowing or seedlings (or swelling peat pot).
- Box for seedlings with a cap or heated greenhouse, alternative: a small greenhouse or heating mat for plants that germinate or take root at high temperature.
- Waterproof pencil.
- Dive stick
- Sharp kitchen or shaving knife.
- Root growth stimulator.
- Powder or pieces of charcoal.
Next, you will learn how to multiply flowers such as orchids and cacti at home.
What methods can propagate indoor plants orchids and cacti
Orchids can be propagated by seeds or individual parts of plants. The first method is difficult, long and requires special knowledge. It is easier to propagate orchids in a vegetative way. The maternal plant at the age of several years should be large and strong. The time suitable for breeding is also in this case spring, and for flowering plants in spring - the period after flowering.
The way in which indoor plants such as orchids can be propagated depends on their growth.
Monopodial (single) orchids, such as Slipper or Pafiopedilum (Paphiopedilum), propagated by division. When transplanting, they themselves usually fall into two or more plants.
Sympodial (non-single) orchids, such as Cattleya, are separated with a sharp knife so that each new plant has from 3 to 5 resilient and green pseudobulbs.
У dendrobium The shoots are cut into cuttings with a length of 10-15 cm with at least three leaf nodes and spread on a moist orchid substrate.
У night butterflies, or Phalaenopsis (Phalaenopsis), and dendrobium lateral shoots may form. They are pruned under aerial roots and planted in an orchid substrate.
Most cacti breed easily. When propagated by seeds, the first sprouts of the day appear on 2-3 of the day. Through 2-3 weeks, the first thorns and hairs appear on the small plant. The most favorable time for sowing is from February to April. Ideal for sprouting temperature is 28 ° C. Xnumx
At reproduction by shoots of a well-flowering maternal plant, the offspring capable of flowering is most likely to get. The best time to prune shoots is from March to early September. To how to multiply such home flowersLike cacti, proceed as follows:
- Cut the shoot with a clean knife.
- Drain the cut in air and place the escape in a container so that air is cut to the cut.
- In the mornings and evenings, lightly spray a sprout. After a few weeks, the first root tips will appear on the cut.
- Escape to plant in a pot with a slightly moistened cactus substrate and gradually accustom to the sun.
Care after breeding indoor plants (with photos)
If you listen to the following tips for the care of indoor plants after reproduction, the seedlings will thank you for good flowering.
- Put the seedlings and cuttings in the most bright and warm places, but in no case in the sun.
- By removing the tops of the shoots, ensure their branching. This is important for plants such as akalifa (Acalipha), Periwinkle Pink (Catharanthus roseus), Crossander, Ixora, Jasmine and Pentas.
- Do not fertilize the first few weeks; the nutrients in the substrate are sufficient. Only one-year fast-growing plants like cineraria (Senecio cruentus) and exacum (Ehasit affine), you can feed for the first time in 4 weeks.
How to care for indoor plants after reproduction is shown in these photos:
The time when a hand-made plant first blooms depends on the species, variety and existing conditions. In general, the shorter the life span of a plant, the faster it ripens for flowering.
Seed Bred Plantstend to bloom through 8-12 weeks after sowing, if they are annuals. In perennial species, before the emergence of shoots, weeks and even months pass, as in Ardizii (Ardisia crenata),Stephanotis (Stephanotis flonbunda)and sometimes even years until the plant grows and is able to bloom.
Separated plants often bloom in the next period of flowering of their species. If the plants began to bloom badly, the separation can be a strong impetus for flowering. . The plants propagated by cuttings often bloom next year, if they are large enough and well-groomed. Plants from parts of leaves behave in the same way.
Seed propagated cacti sometimes bloom through 2-3 of the year. Onion crops must first form large enough bulbs, and only then will they bloom. Hippeastrum (Hippeastrum)For example, blooms through 1-3 of the year.
Bromelia before the first flowering need a different time depending on the type and variety. An offspring must first grow to the size of an adult specimen. It can last from 1 to 3 years. The same with orchids.
Methods of vegetative and seed propagation of indoor plants
For many plant species, vegetative propagation is the best option, with the help of which it is possible to obtain flowering capable specimens in a relatively short time. Reproduction is as follows.
Plant division. At the same time, the root ball is carefully but with effort divided into two parts. The lumpy clod is cut with a knife, the tangled roots are soaked in water. The old substrate is shaken out and both halves are planted in pots with fresh soil.
Layers. This method is practiced for plants with long shoots, such as columney or bush begonias. The young shoot is placed on the substrate in a small pot, incised below the leaf node and secured with a wire bracket. After rooting, cuttings are cut off from the parent plant.
By scraps. Siblings are formed in bromeliads, such as echmeia, gusmania and vriezii, and in other plants, such as clivia, near the maternal rosette. When flowers are propagated at home by this method, offsprings are separated and planted in separate pots when they reach half the size of the mother plant. The more roots in children, the better for their growth.
Leaf cuttings. A leaf stalk consists of a leaf plate with a petiole. The method of propagation of indoor plants with leaf cuttings is used for saintpaulia and begonias.
Apical and stem cuttings. They are cut off from annual shoots, if possible not blooming. Apical cuttings are the tops of the shoots, and stem cuttings are any sections of the stem with leaves without the tip of the shoot. Both types of cuttings for breeding home colors may be herbaceous, as well as completely or half lignified. Grassy cuttings are the most sensitive, but they take root better. Lignified cuttings do not rot so quickly, but they take root more slowly. Cut to 0,5 cm below the leaf node. The stalk must be from 5 to 10 cm long and have from 2 to 4 leaf pairs. Lower leaves must be removed, as contact with the ground contributes to rotting.
Sliced leaves. These are pieces of cut leaves, on the central veins of which roots are formed. Begonias cut the leaves across and stick the pieces into the ground in the direction of growth. In streptocarpus - the central vein can be removed and inserted into the substrate halves of a piece of leaf.
Children, or affiliated onions. They are formed, for example, in hippeastrum. They are separated when the diameter reaches 6 cm and is planted separately.
Sprouting in a substrate or in water. Cuttings can be germinated in the substrate or in water. Germination in the substrate is more efficient if:
- Before propagating a houseplant, a cutting of the cutting can be dipped into the root growth hormone,
- For germination use small pots,
- Provide limited air space and place a heating pad to warm the soil.
Germination in water is required, for example, for Uzambar violets (Saintpaulia ionantha) or Begonia. The leaf is cut with a petiole, water is poured into a glass with several pieces of charcoal (for disinfection), covered with a film in which holes are pierced.
In the holes are inserted the leaf stalks, the cut of which should always be in contact with water.
Seed reproduction. Many flowering plants can also be grown from seed. The fresher the seed, the more likely it is to germinate. Observe the growing recommendations contained on the seed package. It also indicates whether it is necessary to cover the seeds with earth or not, and what temperature is optimal for their germination. Large seeds should be sown one by one in peat pots or in trays.
Sowing in peat pots. Peat briquettes are placed in a mini-greenhouse tray and watered with warm water for swelling. Excess water is drained. One seed is pressed into each peat pot to a depth of 1 cm. Cover up the ground. Close the transparent cover. After germination, air more often to allow condensate to drain, and young plants do not rot.
As you grow seedlings seedlings!
Sowing in trays. First pour a drainage layer of clay granules, small stones or finger-thick sand. Top to fall asleep ground. Level the ground and make furrows for planting. Seeds fall asleep in the furrows. Seeds, germinating in the dark, sprinkle with earth and lightly press down. The layer of earth above the seeds must be twice as thick as them. Seeds that germinate in the light, do not sow too often and in no case sprinkle with substrate. Moisten the ground with warm, soft water. Cover tray with a transparent lid, film or glass. Before emergence, maintain moisture and heat. After the emergence of seedlings periodically air.
Some specimens grow thicker if they are smashed over 3-5 pieces into larger pots. The pick stimulates plant growth. Seedlings for further development require space, so they need to be planted (dive). Dive when the plants have two germ and two true leaves. The seedling is extracted from the ground with the thin end of the picking stick. The tip of the root is pinched with a little nails. With a thick end of the picking wand they make a hollow in the ground and plant a seedling in it along the leaves, the ground is pressed down slightly.